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Teaching Science for All Children,9780205325337
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Teaching Science for All Children

by ; ;
ISBN13:

9780205325337

ISBN10:
0205325335
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

The Third Edition continues its emphasis on best practices, constructivism, and learning science through inquiry.The authors have taken their popular 4E Learning Cycle teaching method from Part III in the second edition and applied it throughout this edition. The chapters are now organized around these four key areas of the learning cycle: Exploration, Explanation, Expansion, and Evaluation. Continuing to integrate the National Science Education Standards throughout, the authors provide ways for future teachers to foster an awareness among their students of the nature of science; implement skills in the classroom using science inquiry processes; and develop in their students an understanding of the interactions among science, technology, and society.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
PART I The Exploration: Methods and Best Practices for Effective Science Teaching 1(74)
How Can We Help Learners to Inquire and Construct Scientific Meaning?
3(44)
Introduction
3(1)
Complications, Problems, and Current Directions
4(5)
A Scenario
4(3)
The Importance of Scientific Inquiry
7(2)
Methods That Use Inquiry to Promote Student Concept Formation and Discovery
9(29)
A Scenario
9(1)
Processing the Scenario
10(1)
The 4-E Science Learning Cycle
11(8)
Scientific Method: How Can You Use Principles of Scientific Experimentation While Teaching?
19(1)
The Principles of Scientific Inquiry as a Teaching Method
20(2)
What Research Says: The Science Learning Cycle
22(1)
Limitations and Benefits
23(1)
Suchman's Inquiry: How Can You Get Students to Think and Question?
23(3)
Can Children Learn Science Through Play?
26(6)
Problem-Based Learning
32(2)
How Can You Turn Students' Questions into an Inquiry Teaching Method?
34(4)
Techniques for Promoting Student Cooperation
38(4)
Cooperative Learning in Science
38(1)
Cooperative Inquiry Groups
39(3)
Recommendations for Enhancing Students' Learning of Science
42(1)
Chapter Summary
43(1)
Discussion Questions
44(1)
Build a Portfolio
44(3)
How Can You Use Demonstrations, Direct Instruction, and Textbooks Effectively?
47(28)
Introduction
48(2)
Avoiding Authoritarianism and the Exclusive Use of Textbooks
48(1)
Why Is an Interactive Classroom Important?
49(1)
How Can You Use Teacher Demonstrations to Foster Constructed Learning?
50(5)
Tips for Effective Demonstrations
52(2)
When Should You Use a Demonstration?
54(1)
When Should the Students Do a Demonstration?
54(1)
How Can You Use Exposition Effectively?
55(7)
Problems and Uses
55(2)
Using Deduction
57(2)
Teaching Explicit Material
59(3)
How Can You Use Science Textbooks Effectively?
62(11)
Be Aware of Shortcomings and Differences
62(1)
Enhancing the Textbook
63(2)
What Research Says: How Are Scientists Portrayed in Children's Literature?
65(1)
Changing the Sequence
66(1)
Selecting the Best Textbook
67(5)
Using Trade Books
72(1)
Chapter Summary
73(1)
Discussion Questions
73(1)
Build a Portfolio
74(1)
PART II The Explanation: Modern Science Teaching Benefits from Inquiry-Based, Interactive Approaches to Learning 75(134)
What Is Science?
77(28)
Introduction
78(1)
How Do Children Perceive Science?
79(3)
Science Is...
79(2)
Scientists Are...
81(1)
What Is the Status of Elementary Science?
82(2)
Achievement
83(1)
Science Teaching
83(1)
Goals
84(1)
Time
84(1)
Diversity
84(1)
The Nature of Science
84(5)
Three Parts of Science
89(12)
Science Attitudes
89(1)
Science Process Skills
90(2)
What Research Says: Attitudes and Science Teaching
92(5)
Science Knowledge
97(4)
The Aims of Modern Science Education
101(1)
Chapter Summary
102(1)
Discussion Questions
102(1)
Build a Portfolio
103(2)
How Do Children Learn Science?
105(34)
Introduction
107(1)
What Role Does Brain Development and Processing Play in Learning?
108(6)
Simplified Brain Anatomy
108(1)
Simplified Brain Development and Function
109(1)
Signal Processing
110(1)
Making Connections Makes Learning
111(3)
Where Do Children's Ideas Come From and How Do They Influence Learning?
114(5)
Preconceptions
115(1)
Misconceptions
115(3)
What Do We Know About Children's Ideas?
118(1)
What Do Children Need to Help Them Learn?
119(2)
Thinking
120(1)
Physical Activity
120(1)
Language
120(1)
Socialization
120(1)
Self Esteem
120(1)
Time
121(1)
What Is the Dominant Perspective About How Children Learn Science?
121(11)
Jessica: A Constructivist Attempt
121(1)
What Research Says: Brain-Based Learning
122(2)
Constructivism
124(3)
Jean Piaget
127(3)
Jessica: The Novelty Wore Off
130(2)
What Techniques and Roles Support Constructivist Learning?
132(4)
A Constructivist Learning and Teaching Model
132(1)
Constructivist Teaching Roles
132(3)
Jessica's Knowledge Construction
135(1)
Chapter Summary
136(1)
Discussion Questions
137(1)
Build a Portfolio
137(2)
How Can You Teach Science for All Children?
139(44)
Introduction
141(1)
Science for All
142(18)
Celebrating Diversity
143(3)
How Can You Help Non-English-Speaking Students?
146(4)
Is Gender Equality a Special Need?
150(5)
Similarities in Learning
155(5)
Science for Exceptional Children
160(16)
Teaching Children Who Have Learning Disabilities
161(5)
Teaching Children Who Have Intellectual Disabilities
166(1)
Teaching Children Who Have Physical Disabilities
167(4)
Teaching Learners Who Are Gifted and Talented
171(3)
What Research Says: Teaching Exceptional Students
174(2)
How Can Parents Meet Children's Special Needs?
176(3)
How Can Parents Help Their Children Study and Prepare for Science?
177(1)
What Are Some Extra Science Activities Parents Can Do to Help Their Children?
177(2)
Chapter Summary
179(1)
Discussion Questions
179(1)
Build a Portfolio
180(3)
What Goals Promote Scientific Literacy?
183(26)
Introduction
185(1)
What Is Scientific Literacy?
186(3)
What Reform Efforts Have Sought to Provide Goals for Scientific Literacy?
189(7)
Project Synthesis
189(2)
Scope, Sequence, and Coordination of Secondary School Science (SS&C)
191(2)
Project 2061
193(1)
National Science Education Standards
194(2)
Goals Promoting Scientific Literacy
196(11)
Science as Inquiry
201(4)
Science and Technology
205(1)
Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
205(1)
What Research Says: What Are Teachers' Attitudes Toward Reform?
206(1)
History and Nature of Science
206(1)
Chapter Summary
207(1)
Discussion Questions
207(1)
Build a Portfolio
208(1)
PART III The Expansion: Continuing Our Learning, Developing Skills and Using the Tools of Science 209(214)
How Can You Plan Constructivist Science Lessons and Assess Student Performance?
211(52)
Introduction
213(1)
Concept Mapping
214(10)
Necessary Definitions
214(3)
What Are Concept Maps?
217(1)
Why Should Concept Maps Be Developed?
218(3)
Steps for Developing a Concept Map
221(3)
Planning Constructive Inquiry Science Lessons
224(11)
Selecting Performance Outcomes and Developing Curriculum
224(1)
Developing Objectives
225(1)
Planning the Lesson--4Es
226(9)
How Can You Evaluate Student Learning?
235(22)
Limits and Purposes of Tests
235(1)
Selecting the Tool for the Task
236(6)
What Research Says: Assessment: What to Emphasize?
242(15)
Chapter Summary
257(1)
Discussion Questions
257(4)
Build a Portfolio
261(2)
How Can You Use Questions to Promote Science Inquiry?
263(36)
Introduction
264(1)
Questions on Questions
265(11)
What Kinds of Questions Do Teachers Ask and What Kinds of Answers Do They Require?
265(2)
Why Do Teachers Use Questions?
267(1)
How Do Questions Affect Students?
268(2)
How Are Teacher Questions and Student Answers Related?
270(1)
How Do Teachers Use Questions to Involve All Students?
270(1)
What Is Wait-Time and Why Is It Important?
271(3)
What Types of Questions Are Used Most in Elementary Science Books and Tests?
274(2)
What Research Says: Using Questions in Science Classrooms
276(1)
What Are the Different Types of Questions?
276(6)
What Are the Keys to Effective Questioning?
282(4)
How Can You Improve Your Questioning?
286(2)
Why Use Students' Questions?
288(7)
Why Bother with Students' Questions?
288(1)
How Can You Stimulate Students' Questions?
289(5)
How Can You Use Students' Questions Productively?
294(1)
Chapter Summary
295(1)
Discussion Questions
295(1)
Build a Portfolio
295(4)
How Can You Create a Safe, Efficient, Inquiry-Based Science Classroom?
299(48)
Introduction
302(1)
Documented Need for Science Safety
302(4)
Why All the Concern over Safety?
306(1)
What Are Your Legal Responsibilities?
307(10)
Tort
308(1)
Reasonable and Prudent Judgment
308(1)
Foreseeability
308(1)
Negligence
309(1)
Due Care
309(6)
Federal and State Legislation
315(2)
Safety Equipment
317(4)
Electrical Equipment
318(1)
Heating Equipment
318(1)
Flammable Liquid Storage
318(1)
Loose Clothing and Long Hair
318(1)
Fire Blankets
319(1)
Fire Extinguishers
319(1)
Eyewash and Showers
320(1)
Performing Safety Assessments
321(1)
What Materials Are Necessary for the Activities?
321(7)
Items Purchased Through a Scientific Supplier
322(4)
Items Purchased Locally
326(1)
Items Made from Recycled Materials
326(1)
Live Items
327(1)
Safety/First Aid Kits
328(1)
Storage
328(7)
Central or Classroom Storage Access
328(4)
Storing and Dispensing Materials
332(3)
Room Arrangement
335(8)
Large-Group Science Activities
335(2)
What Research Says: Class Size and Science Achievement
337(1)
Science Learning Centers
337(2)
Bulletin Boards and Other Displays
339(4)
Chapter Summary
343(1)
Discussion Questions
344(1)
Build a Portfolio
344(3)
Science Materials, Programs, and Resources: What Are the Best Practices?
347(46)
Introduction
348(1)
Dominant Beliefs in Science Education
349(1)
Changes over Time: Legacy of the Past
349(1)
Major Elementary Science Program Models: Looking Back for the Source of Wisdom
350(19)
The Alphabet Soup
351(2)
Science--A Process Approach (SAPA)
353(7)
Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS)
360(3)
The Elementary Science Study (ESS)
363(6)
What Works?
369(8)
What Research Says: Emphasis on Excellence
374(1)
Supported Assumptions About Effective Elementary Science Programs
375(2)
The Next Generation of Science Programs
377(5)
Supplemental Resources
382(2)
What Resources Are Available?
384(6)
Human Resources
384(3)
Print Resources
387(2)
Microcomputer Applications
389(1)
Chapter Summary
390(1)
Discussion Questions
390(1)
Build a Portfolio
391(2)
How Can You Use Educational Technology to Enrich Your Classroom?
393(30)
Introduction
396(2)
Why Use Educational Technology?
398(7)
National Technology Standards
399(1)
Levels of Use
400(2)
The Networked Classroom--Removing the Walls
402(3)
How Can Educational Technology Be Applied in the Context of Science Teaching?
405(15)
Chapter Summary
420(1)
Discussion Questions
420(1)
Build a Portfolio
420(3)
PART IV Lessons, Activities, and Teaching Materials to Meet the Goals of Elementary and Middle School Science 423(214)
Life Science Activities
424(66)
Plant Parts and Needs (K-4)
425(3)
Osmosis and Capillary Action (5-8)
428(4)
Plant Photosynthesis (5-8)
432(3)
Starch Exploration (5-8)
435(3)
Colors of Wildlife (K-4)
438(2)
Bird Life (K-2)
440(4)
Wildlife and Domesticated Animals (K-4)
444(3)
A Bug's Life? (3-4)
447(3)
Crickets: Basic Needs of an Organism (5-8)
450(4)
Animal Adaptations (5-8)
454(3)
Owl Pellets (5-8)
457(3)
Humans and Trash (K-4)
460(3)
Useful Waste (5-8)
463(3)
Litter in Our Waterways (4-8)
466(3)
Sense of Taste (K-4)
469(3)
Skeleton (1-4)
472(5)
Temperature Receptors on Skin (3-6)
477(3)
Building Microscope Skills (5-8)
480(3)
Sex-Linked Genes (5-6)
483(4)
Passing of Traits (7-8)
487(3)
Physical Science Lessons
490(69)
Sound Versus Noise (K-4)
491(2)
Sounds Are Different (2-4)
493(3)
Vibrations Causing Sound (2-4)
496(3)
Loudness and Pitch (2-4)
499(4)
Sound Movement as Waves (2-4)
503(3)
Sound Waves (4-6)
506(4)
Sound Production (5-8)
510(4)
Characteristics of Matter (3-4)
514(6)
Physical Properties of Matter (K-6)
520(5)
Changing Matter (5-8)
525(4)
Identification of an Unknown (5-8)
529(6)
Using the Scientific Method to Solve Problems (5-8)
535(4)
Heat Energy (1-4)
539(2)
Structure Strength (2-6)
541(4)
Mirrors and Reflection (2-6)
545(2)
The Slinky Potential (7-8)
547(4)
Toys in Space (4-8)
551(3)
Simple Machines: The Lever (4-8)
554(5)
Earth and Space Science Activities
559(78)
The Solar System and the Universe (K-2)
560(3)
The Expanding Universe (3-8)
563(4)
Constellations (4-8)
567(3)
Earth Layers (K-4)
570(3)
Fossils (2-6)
573(4)
Soil Formation (3-6)
577(4)
Rock Types (5-8)
581(3)
Cooling Crystals (5-8)
584(3)
Weathering (5-8)
587(4)
Crystal Plate Movement (5-8)
591(3)
Aging Human/Aging Earth (7-8)
594(5)
Rain Formation (K-4)
599(3)
Dew Formation (2-4)
602(3)
Radiant Energy (2-4)
605(2)
Weather Forecasting (4-8)
607(5)
Air Mass Movement (5-8)
612(5)
Air Pressure (5-8)
617(5)
Solar Heating (5-8)
622(3)
Air Movement and Surface Temperature (5-8)
625(5)
Uneven Heating of the Earth (5-8)
630(7)
Appendix A: National Science Education Standards: Contents Standards for K--4 and 5--8 637(5)
References 642(8)
Index 650


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