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Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary Schools,9780131172449
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Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary Schools

by ; ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780131172449

ISBN10:
0131172441
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

This readable, accessible book offers prospective teachers a comprehensive introduction to teaching social studies to middle and secondary school students.With the purpose of social studies being the development of reflective, competent, concerned citizens, the book first examines the origins and evolution of social studies and citizenship education across the United States. Following this, targeted chapters address the art, science, and craft of social studies teaching as a means for engaging learners in knowledge construction. In the final section, the authors look at ways to improve social studies instruction through the incorporation of emerging technology into the social studies curriculum.For middle and secondary school social studies teachers.

Table of Contents

Part I The State of Social Studies and Citizenship Education
1(94)
Alternative Perspectives on the Social Studies
2(20)
The Contemporary Social Studies Teacher
7(4)
Certification of Social Studies Teachers
9(1)
Teaching Portfolios
10(1)
Teacher Performance Assessment Centers
11(1)
Lateral Entry Teachers
11(1)
The Origins and Evolution of the Social Studies
11(6)
The 1916 Report of the Committee on the Social Studies
12(1)
The New Social Studies
13(3)
Social Studies Past, Present, and Future
16(1)
Alternative Definitions of the Social Studies
17(2)
A Working Definition of the Social Studies
19(1)
Summary
19(1)
Activities
20(1)
Web Resources
20(1)
References
20(2)
Contemporary Social Studies
22(14)
Citizenship Education as the Purpose of the Social Studies
24(1)
The Context of Citizenship Education
24(1)
Alternative Perspectives on a Curriculum for Effective Citizenship Education
25(4)
Examination and Reflection of the Closed Areas of Society
26(1)
Respect for Individual Human Dignity
26(1)
Socialization and Countersocialization
27(1)
Acquiring Basic Competencies
28(1)
Classifying Alternative Perspectives on Citizenship Education
29(1)
The Enduring Goal of the Social Studies Curriculum: Reflective, Competent, and Concerned Citizens
29(4)
The Nature of the Effective Citizen
30(1)
Social Studies as a Matter of Head, Hand, and Heart
31(2)
Summary
33(1)
Activities
34(1)
Web Resources
34(1)
References
34(2)
Teaching and Learning Social Studies
36(38)
Engaging Students in Constructing Knowledge
38(8)
Schemata and Prior Knowledge in Social Studies Instruction
39(1)
Sources of Subject Matter for the Social Studies
40(6)
The Social Sciences as Sources of Subject Matter for the Social Studies
46(5)
Geography
47(1)
History
48(1)
Economics
48(1)
Political Science
49(1)
Anthropology
49(1)
Sociology
50(1)
Psychology
50(1)
Other Sources of Subject Matter for the Social Studies
51(3)
Multidisciplinary, Thematic and Interdisciplinary, and Area Studies Approaches
51(3)
The School and Community Help Students Establish Their Own Sense of Place
54(1)
The School and Community as Sources of Social Data
54(13)
Using Community Resource Persons Effectively
57(2)
Newspaper Articles and Editorials
59(1)
Field Work in the Community
59(3)
Collecting Oral Histories
62(2)
Collecting Social Science Information Through Surveys and Interviews
64(1)
Communicating with the Community About the Social Studies Program
65(1)
Alerting the Community to School Activities
66(1)
Identifying Professional Resources
67(2)
Organizational Resources
67(1)
Professional Journals
68(1)
Effective Citizenship as Professional Development
68(1)
Professional Development Through the Internet
69(1)
Summary
69(1)
Activities
70(1)
Web Resources
71(1)
References
71(3)
Alternative Perspectives on the Social Studies Curriculum
74(21)
Existing Social Studies Scope and Sequence Patterns
76(2)
The Curriculum Pattern in the Elementary Grades
76(1)
The Curriculum Pattern in the Middle and Secondary Grades
77(1)
The Dominance of Traditional Scope and Sequence Patterns
77(1)
National Standards
78(10)
History Standards
78(1)
Geography Standards
78(2)
Economics Standards
80(4)
Civics and Government Standards
84(2)
Social Studies Standards
86(1)
Technology Standards
86(1)
State Standards
86(1)
Professional Standards for Teachers
86(2)
Basal Textbooks and the Social Studies Curriculum
88(4)
Use of Basal Texts in the Social Studies
90(1)
Selection and Adoption of Basal Textbooks
90(1)
Criticisms of Basal Textbooks
91(1)
Implications of State Adoption Policies
92(1)
Summary
92(1)
Activities
93(1)
Web Resources
93(1)
References
93(2)
Part II Developing Reflective, Competent, and Concerned Citizens
95(178)
Organizing and Planning for Teaching Social Studies
96(46)
Basic Issues in Planning Social Studies Instruction
99(5)
Identifying a Purpose for Citizenship Education
99(1)
Beginning the Planning Process
100(4)
Social Studies Goals for Instruction
104(1)
Identifying and Stating Goals
104(1)
Social Studies Objectives for Instruction
105(2)
Identifying and Stating Objectives
105(1)
Objectives and Student Learning Outcomes
105(1)
Objectives in the Cognitive and Affective Domains
106(1)
Organizing Subject Matter into Units
107(15)
Planning and Creating Units
107(2)
Sources of Units
109(2)
Resource Units and Teaching Units
111(1)
Building Units Around Key Social Problems, Questions, and Themes
111(5)
Incorporating Multiple Perspectives into Units
116(1)
Using Concept Maps to Plan Units
117(1)
Planning Units Using Interdisciplinary Teams
117(2)
Formats for Unit Planning
119(3)
Organizing Subject Matter into Lessons
122(6)
Lesson Plans
122(1)
Formats and Procedures for Lesson Planning
122(4)
The Fundamental Elements of Lesson Planning
126(2)
Classrooms as Environments for Learning
128(2)
The Uses of Space in Planning Social Studies Instruction
128(1)
Allocation of Time in Lesson Plans
128(2)
Creating and Managing the Classroom Environment
130(4)
Student Behavior in the Classroom
130(1)
Teacher Expectations Concerning Student Behavior
131(1)
Characteristics of Well-Managed Classrooms
132(1)
Supportive Teacher Behaviors
133(1)
Balancing Goals and Objectives in the Curriculum: Linking the Head, the Hand, and the Heart
134(1)
Guidelines for Social Studies Program Development
135(2)
Variety in Instructional Planning
137(1)
Summary
138(1)
Activities
139(1)
Web Resources
139(1)
References
139(3)
Engaging Students in Learning Through Small Groups, Questions, Role Playing, and Simulations
142(36)
Grouping Students for Learning
145(10)
Planning for Small-Group Work
145(1)
Small-Group Techniques
146(2)
Cooperative Learning Group Techniques
148(2)
The Jigsaw Technique
150(3)
The Group Investigation Technique
153(2)
Curriculum Integration Approach to Teaching and Learning
155(1)
Using Structured Questions to Aid Learning
155(10)
Patterns of Effective Questioning
156(1)
Effective Use of Time
157(1)
Effective Selection and Sequencing of Questions
158(3)
The Taba Questioning Strategies
161(4)
Engaging Students in Role Playing and Simulations
165(8)
Managing Role-Playing Enactments
165(6)
Managing Simulations
171(1)
Sources of Simulations
171(2)
Summary
173(1)
Activities
174(1)
Web Resources
174(1)
References
174(4)
Promoting Reflective Inquiry: Developing and Applying Concepts, Generalizations, and Hypotheses
178(32)
Learning and Teaching Concepts
180(9)
The Nature of Concepts
180(1)
The Science of Learning
181(1)
Misconceptions and Stereotypes
182(1)
Concepts in Social Studies Programs
182(1)
The Process of Learning a Concept
182(1)
Concept Analyses
182(2)
Assessing Concept Learning
184(2)
Instructional Strategies That Promote Concept Learning
186(3)
Graphic Organizers
189(1)
Learning and Teaching Facts and Generalizations
189(10)
The Nature of Facts
189(2)
The Nature of Generalizations
191(1)
The Value of Generalizations
192(1)
Generalizations, Facts, and Hypotheses
193(1)
Instructional Strategies That Promote the Learning of Generalizations
194(4)
Using Data-Retrieval Charts in Developing Generalizations
198(1)
The Reflective Citizen and Problem Solving
199(7)
Uses of the Term Problem in Instruction
199(1)
Instructional Strategies for Problem Solving
200(6)
Summary
206(1)
Activities
207(1)
Web Resources
207(1)
References
207(3)
Fostering Citizenship Competency
210(30)
The Nature of Citizenship Skills
212(1)
Social Skills
212(2)
Conflict Resolution Skills
213(1)
Research and Analysis Skills
214(11)
Interpreting and Comparing Data
215(5)
Analyzing Arguments
220(4)
Processing Information from Pictures
224(1)
Chronology Skills
225(3)
Comparative Conceptions of Time
226(1)
Recording Events on Time Lines
227(1)
Spatial Skills
228(3)
The Impact of Spatial Perspectives
228(1)
Using and Creating Maps in Instruction
229(1)
Integrating Maps and Globes into All Social Studies Instruction
230(1)
Identifying and Using Reference Sources in Developing Skills
231(4)
Sample Reference Works for Social Studies
234(1)
Activities for Introducing Reference Materials
235(1)
Summary
236(1)
Activities
236(1)
Web Resources
237(1)
References
237(3)
Nurturing Social Concern and Ethical Growth
240(33)
Social Concern and Citizenship Education
242(1)
The Morally Mature Citizen
243(1)
The Dimensions of Concern
243(4)
The Nature of Beliefs
243(2)
The Nature of Attitudes
245(1)
The Nature of Values
246(1)
The Nature of Value Judgments
246(1)
Instructional Strategies for Examining Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values
247(8)
Self-Concept Activities
247(3)
Challenging Beliefs and Attitudes
250(2)
Value Analysis
252(3)
Promoting Ethical Growth
255(7)
The Moral Development Theories of Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg
255(2)
Alternative Strategies for Moral Education in Public Schools
257(5)
Social Issues as a Curricular Focus
262(4)
Curricular Framework for Analyzing Social Issues in the Classroom
262(1)
Freedom of Speech and Social Concern
263(1)
Social Issues and Controversy
264(2)
Teacher Positions on Controversial Issues
266(1)
Academic Freedom in the Classroom
266(3)
Challenges to Academic Freedom
266(1)
Handling Complaints Concerning Social Studies Materials
267(2)
Summary
269(1)
Activities
269(1)
Web Resources
269(1)
References
270(3)
Part III Analyzing and Improving Social Studies Teaching and Learning
273(138)
Preparing Students to Live in a Globally and Culturally Diverse World
274(28)
Balancing National and Global Concerns
276(3)
Global Education in an Interconnected World
277(1)
Peace Education
278(1)
Multicultural Education
279(9)
Issues in Multicultural Education
281(3)
Designing Strategies for Multicultural Education
284(1)
Guidelines for Selecting Appropriate Curriculum Materials for Multicultural Education
285(1)
Resources for Multicultural Education
286(2)
Gender Issues in Multicultural Education
288(6)
Women's Perspectives in History
289(2)
Social Service Projects
291(3)
Current Affairs
294(4)
Strategies for Analyzing Current Affairs
294(1)
Using Newspapers and Print Materials
295(2)
Using Technology in Teaching About Current Affairs
297(1)
Guidelines for Developing Current Affairs Activities
297(1)
Summary
298(1)
Activities
298(1)
Web Resources
299(1)
References
299(3)
Comprehending, Communicating, and Remembering Subject Matter
302(28)
Comprehending Social Studies Subject Matter
304(7)
Building on Existing Knowledge in Reading
304(1)
Strategies for Improving Reading Comprehension
305(1)
Specific Strategies
305(6)
Reading and Social Studies Text Materials
311(5)
Using Adolescent Literature in Social Studies Instruction
312(1)
Reading Newspapers and Periodicals
313(2)
Visual Literacy
315(1)
Communicating Social Studies Subject Matter
316(4)
Listening and Speaking
317(1)
Integrating Writing into the Social Studies Curriculum
317(2)
Technology Tools in Writing
319(1)
Remembering Social Studies Subject Matter
320(3)
Imagery and Memory
320(1)
Structured Mnemonic Techniques
321(1)
Notetaking Techniques
322(1)
English as a Second Language (ESL)
323(1)
Summary
324(1)
Activities
324(3)
Web Resources
327(1)
References
327(3)
Using Technology to Enhance Social Studies Instruction
330(18)
Integrating Technology into Today's Classrooms
332(2)
Internet Applications for Social Studies Instruction
334(5)
Media Literacy
334(1)
Web-Based Resources for Teachers and Students
334(2)
Telecollaboration
336(3)
Software Applications for the Social Studies Classroom
339(3)
Simulation Software
339(1)
Database and Spreadsheet Software
340(1)
Multimedia Editing Software
340(2)
GIS Software
342(1)
Personal Digital Assistants in the Social Studies Classroom
342(1)
Technology Challenges
343(1)
Internet Safety
343(1)
Copyright
343(1)
Digital Divide
344(1)
Emerging Technologies: Challenges of the Future
344(1)
Summary
345(1)
Activities
345(1)
Web Resources
346(1)
References
346(2)
Adapting Social Studies Instruction to Individual Needs
348(34)
Matching Social Studies Instruction to Students' Developing Capabilities
350(2)
Enactive, Iconic, and Symbolic Social Studies Activities
351(1)
Social Discourse in the Classroom
351(1)
Social Studies for the Middle Years
352(2)
Exemplary Middle-Grades Schools
352(1)
Exemplary Social Studies Programs and Teachers
353(1)
Individualized Instruction and Individual Differences
354(1)
Individual Differences Among Students
354(1)
Organizing the Classroom for Individualized Instruction
355(1)
Computers
355(1)
Multilevel Reading Materials
355(1)
Learning Contracts
356(1)
Using Jackdaws®, Artifact Kits, and Teacher-Made Materials for Individualizing Instruction
356(5)
Instructional Resources for Individualizing Instruction
359(2)
Individual Styles of Thinking and Learning
361(5)
Thinking and Learning Styles
361(1)
Matching Thinking Styles to Instruction
361(1)
Matching Learning Styles to Instruction
362(4)
Individualization and Cultural Diversity
366(1)
Equity for Those with Disabilities
367(6)
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
367(2)
Mainstreaming
369(2)
Strategies for Mainstreaming Students for Social Studies Instruction
371(2)
Equity for the Gifted
373(5)
Societal Perspectives on the Gifted
374(1)
Identifying the Gifted
374(1)
Approaches to Gifted Education
374(1)
Gifted Students in Social Studies Classes
375(3)
Summary
378(1)
Activities
378(1)
Web Resources
379(1)
References
379(3)
Evaluating and Assessing Student Learning
382(29)
The Dimensions of Evaluation
384(1)
Grades, Assessments, and Standards
385(1)
The Use and Misuse of Tests
385(6)
Norm-Referenced Tests
387(1)
Criterion-Referenced Tests
388(1)
The National Assessment of Educational Progress
389(1)
National Standards and National Testing
389(2)
Performance Assessments
391(3)
Social Studies Performance Assessments and Portfolios
392(2)
Teacher-Made Paper-and-Pencil Tests
394(5)
Posttests and Pretests
394(1)
Constructing Essay Test Items
395(2)
Constructing Objective Test Items
397(2)
Test Software
399(1)
Evaluating Reflection, Competence, and Concern
399(7)
Assessing Reflection
400(1)
Assessing Competence
401(2)
Assessing Concern
403(3)
A Framework for Evaluating the Outcomes of Social Studies Instruction
406(2)
Matching Evaluation and Instructional Goals and Objectives
407(1)
Summary
408(1)
Activities
408(1)
Web Resources
409(1)
References
409(2)
Appendix A NCSS Standards and Performance Expectations 411(10)
Appendix B Sample of a Social Studies Textbook Evaluation Form 421(6)
Index 427

Excerpts

Peter Martorella made many exemplary contributions to the field of social studies education. We are honored to take up the social studies mantle that he left to the field through the revision of this text. We were both colleagues of Peter and share many of the same beliefs that he held regarding the teaching and learning of social studies. For those of you who didn't have a chance to work with Peter, we hope that you will get to know him through his work which lives on in this textbook and in the many books and articles he authored. His work demonstrates what a gifted and forward-thinking educator he was and is a testament to the enormous impact Peter had in the field of social studies education. He was a visionary who, among other things, predicted years before its time that technology would play an influential role in how we teach and learn in social studies. For those who knew Peter and have faithfully used this textbook because you share his philosophy about teaching the social studies, rest assured that the things you value about this book, the foundational beliefs about how to teach and develop outstanding social studies educators, remain intact. We have crafted this edition to rest heavily on Peter's previous work and added sections and features that enhance and illustrate his words and examples. We believe that he would be proud to know that both the colleagues who use his book and the new authors are carrying out the work he felt was so important. Peter wrote his books by tapping three wellsprings of information: teacher craft wisdom, research findings relative to instruction, and well-grounded theories. He felt that when blended, these streams gave new and experienced educators insight into how effective social studies instruction could be nurtured and sustained. Research and theory, in turn, offer complementary insights into how teachers might most effectively teach social studies. These represent the accumulations of scholars' tested conclusions under controlled conditions and in varied settings over time. They also include scholars' hypotheses and reflective deductions supported by logic and evidence. Research and theory help to explain craft wisdom. They can also suggest other practical applications for instruction and identify areas that require attention in our social studies classes. Work done by researchers and theorists can aid us in designing and selecting materials and texts that engage students and stimulate reflection. In addition, they can provide us with models for analyzing our teaching behaviors and generating new instructional strategies. It was Peter's belief that a well-balanced social studies program consists of matters of the head, the hand, and the heart. He used this metaphor to illustrate that the fundamental purpose of social studies should be the development o# reflective, competent, and concerned citizens. He believed that theory, research, and craft wisdom were the beacons for effective social studies teaching. His approach was constructivist, and he urged teachers to build and implement meaningful activities to engage students. We share Peter's philosophy and draw on our research, theory, and university work as well as the craft wisdom honed through 40 years of teaching experience. We hope those who did not know Peter will learn from the foundation he laid. Those who knew him should rediscover vintage Martorella. Features of This Text This book was designed to assist preservice and inservice middle and secondary teachers in becoming more effective teachers of social studies. Toward this end, several steps have been taken to make it readable and understandable to audiences with different levels and needs. Each chapter has a detailed outline on the opening page to serve as an advance organizer. Also, throughout the text, key terms appear inboldfaceto alert the reader to their importance. At the end of each chapter are suggested activities tha


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