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Teaching Students With Severe Disabilities,9780136743347
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Teaching Students With Severe Disabilities

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780136743347

ISBN10:
013674334X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $85.00
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Summary

This text is appropriate for Severe or Multiple Disabilities Methods courses. This text provides comprehensive coverage of all the issues pertinent to teaching students with severe disabilities. Covering both methodology and curricular areas, topics are presented in the chronological order in which a teacher would approach them: Prior considerations, planning and assessment, general instructional procedures, and finally, procedures specific to teaching specific skills.

Table of Contents

PART 1 Important Considerations Prior to Teaching Persons With Severe Disabilities 1(72)
1 Persons With Severe Disabilities: Definitions, Descriptions, Characteristics, and Potential
2(25)
Defining Severe Disabilities
3(1)
Traditional Categories of Severe Disabilities
4(6)
Mental Disabilities
4(2)
Syndromes Associated with Mental Disabilities
6(2)
Dual Diagnosis (Mental Retardation and Mental Illness)
8(1)
Autism
8(1)
Dual Sensory Impairments
9(1)
Characteristics of Persons with Severe Disabilities
10(6)
Learning Characteristics
10(2)
Personal-Social Characteristics
12(1)
Physical Characteristics
13(3)
Learning Potential of Persons with Severe Disabilities
16(4)
Language and Communication Skills
17(1)
Social Skills
18(1)
Domestic and Daily Living Skills
18(1)
Recreational and Leisure Skills
19(1)
Community Skills
19(1)
Vocational Skills
20(1)
Conclusion
20(7)
2 Philosophy and Best Practices for Educating Persons with Severe Disabilities
27(25)
A Philosophy of Services
28(2)
A Philosophy for Providing Services to Students with Severe Disabilities
28(1)
The Evolution of Philosophies and Practices for Teaching Students with Severe Disabilities
28(2)
Contemporary Best Practices for Students with Severe Disabilities
30(11)
The Inclusion and Functional Instruction Philosophy
30(4)
Self-Determination as an Educational Outcome
34(4)
Other Best Practices
38(3)
The Bases of Best Practices
41(5)
Social Values
41(1)
Legal Mandates
42(2)
Consensus
44(1)
Empirical Research
45(1)
The Meaning of Special Education
46(6)
Definition of Special Education
46(6)
3 Collaboration Among Parents, Professionals, and Paraprofessionals
52(21)
The Meaning of Collaboration
53(17)
Working Collaboratively with Parents and Families
54(3)
Multicultural Considerations
57(2)
Providing Support to Parents
59(1)
The Role of Teachers When Collaborating With Parents
60(2)
Collaborating with Other Professionals
62(3)
Collaborating with Paraprofessionals
65(2)
Structuring Transdisciplinary Collaborative Teams
67(2)
Collaborating Effectively as a Transdisciplinary Team
69(1)
Conclusion
70(3)
PART 2 Preparing to Teach: Planning and Assessment Procedures 73(48)
4 Planning Instructional Programs for Students with Severe Disabilities
74(22)
Planning for Students with Severe Disabilities
75(17)
Planning and Quality of Life
75(1)
Individual Educational Programs
76(6)
Transition Plans
82(2)
Individual Family Service Plans
84(2)
Concerns About Plans and Alternative Approaches to Planning
86(1)
Person-Centered Plans
87(5)
Conclusion
92(4)
5 Conducting Assessments to Determine Instructional Needs
96(25)
Approaches to Assessment
97(21)
Collecting Information from Existing Records
97(1)
Interviewing Parents to Determine Educational Goals
98(1)
Using Adaptive Behavior Scales
99(4)
Using Curriculum Activity Guides
103(6)
Conducting Ecological Inventories and Directly Observing Students in Natural Settings
109(4)
Assessing Related Skills
113(5)
Conclusion
118(3)
PART 3 General Instructional Procedures 121(104)
6 Teaching Students to Acquire New Skills
122(25)
Elements of Effective Instruction
123(2)
Types of Objectives to Teach
123(1)
Function over Form
124(1)
Extending the Objective
124(1)
Partial Participation
124(1)
Good General Teaching Practices
125(1)
How Behaviors and Skills Are Learned
126(1)
Instructional Tactics for Teaching New Skills to Students With Severe Disabilities
127(17)
Instructional Prompts
128(2)
Applying Prompts During Skill Acquisition Training
130(6)
Nondirect Instruction of Skills
136(1)
Modifying Stimulus Materials
137(2)
Use of Natural Cues
139(1)
Reinforcing Correct Responses
139(1)
Delivery of Reinforcement
140(1)
Correcting Errors
141(1)
Increasing Compliance
142(1)
Writing an Instruction Program
143(1)
Conclusion
144(3)
7 Teaching Skills for Generalization and Maintenance
147(21)
The Importance of Generalization and Maintenance
148(1)
Strategies That Have Been Used to Achieve Skill Generalization
148(7)
Train and Hope
149(1)
Arranging Consequences During Initial Training to Improve Generalization
149(2)
Arranging Antecedents During Initial Training to Improve Generalization
151(1)
Using Peers to Improve Generalizations
152(1)
Mediation During Generalization Training
153(1)
Summary of the Effectiveness of Generalization Strategies
154(1)
Applying Generalization Strategies Tactics of Generalization Programming
155(6)
Incorporating Peers into Generalization
156(1)
Using Self-Instruction to Promote Generalization
156(1)
Applying Decision Rules About Generalization Strategies
157(1)
Using the General Case Method
158(3)
Teaching Skill Maintenance
161(2)
Skill Overlearning
162(1)
Learning Through Distributed Practice
162(1)
Intermittent Reinforcement
162(1)
Building on Learned Skills
163(1)
Using a Maintenance Schedule
163(1)
Using the Skill at Home and Elsewhere
163(1)
Writing Instructional Programs to Include Generalization Training to Promote Maintenance
163(1)
Conclusion
164(4)
8 Monitoring and Evaluating Student Progress and Educational Outcomes
168(23)
The Importance of Evaluating Student Progress
169(1)
Outcomes-Based Education
169(1)
Continuous Direct Assessment
170(14)
Types of Behavior and Units of Measure
171(1)
Defining the Behavior
171(1)
Observation of the Behavior
171(1)
Recording the Data
172(7)
Data Collection During Baseline
179(1)
Data Collection During Instruction
179(1)
Data Collection During Probe Sessions
180(1)
Data Collection During Generalization
180(1)
Graphing Direct Measurement Data
180(2)
Interpreting the Graphs
182(2)
Portfolio Assessment of Student Performance
184(5)
Portfolio Development and Content
184(2)
Evaluating Portfolio Contents
186(2)
Use of Portfolios as Alternate Outcomes-Based Education Assessments
188(1)
Conclusion
189(2)
9 Creating Inclusive Educational Environments
191(34)
The Importance of School Inclusion
192(2)
Legal Rationale
192(1)
Philosophical Rationale
193(1)
Educational Rationale
193(1)
Benefits of Inclusion
194(2)
Instructional Benefits
194(1)
Social Interaction Benefits
194(1)
Impact on Nondisabled Peers
194(2)
The Inclusive Educational Model
196(1)
Facilitating School Acceptance: Structures for Successful Inclusion
197(3)
Classroom Placement
197(1)
Awareness Training
198(1)
Teacher Modeling
198(1)
Collaborative Teaming
199(1)
Community and Family Involvement
199(1)
Peer Programs
199(1)
Making Inclusion Work: Essential Supports
200(4)
Facilitating Peer Acceptance
200(2)
Peer Interaction Programs
202(1)
Peer Support Networks
203(1)
Collaborative Teaming
204(6)
The Role of the Collaborative Team
204(1)
Providing Supports in General Education
204(2)
Developing Curriculum Adaptations
206(2)
Scheduling Support Personnel
208(2)
Meaningful Instructional Arrangements
210(7)
Basic Principles of Instructional Arrangements
210(2)
Providing Individualized Instruction
212(1)
Peer Interaction During Instruction
213(3)
Implementing Inclusive Instruction
216(1)
The Changing Role of the Special Educator
217(3)
Conclusion
220(5)
PART 4 Specific Instructional and Management Procedures 225(218)
10 Teaching Communication Skills
226(30)
Communication Skill Development
227(3)
Early Communication Development
228(1)
Intentionality
228(1)
Communicative Means and Functions
229(1)
Assessment Issues
230(3)
Communication Skill Assessment
230(2)
Ecological Assessment
232(1)
Selecting a Communication Mode
233(1)
Augmentive and Alternative Communication
233(7)
Gestural Communication
233(1)
Aided Systems
234(1)
Communicating with Symbols
235(2)
Selecting an Alternative or Augmentive Communication Mode
237(2)
Initiating an Augmentative System
239(1)
Expanding the Communication System
239(1)
Facilitated Communication
240(1)
Instructional Strategies
240(8)
Interaction Style
241(1)
Social Exchanges
241(1)
Interacting with Learners Who Are Nonsymbolic
242(1)
Designing Instructional Strategies
243(1)
Naturalistic Teaching Procedures
244(2)
Interrupted Chains
246(1)
Conversational Skills Training
247(1)
Van Dijk Method
247(1)
Generalization Issues
248(3)
Social Skills Instruction
250(1)
Conclusion
251(5)
11 Providing Behavioral Supports to Improve Challenging Behavior
256(22)
Defining Problem Behavior
257(1)
Stereotypic Behaviors
257(1)
Self-Injurious Behaviors
258(1)
Aggressive Behaviors
258(1)
Inappropriate Social Behaviors
258(1)
A Functional Approach
258(2)
Eliminative Approach
258(1)
Positive Behavioral Support
259(1)
Conducting a Functional Assessment
260(6)
Lifestyle Understanding
260(1)
Indirect Assessment Methods
261(1)
Direct Observation Assessment Methods
262(2)
Setting Events
264(1)
Hypotheses Development
264(2)
Experimental Analysis
266(1)
Behavior Support Plan Development
266(7)
Teaching Functionally Equivalent Communication Skills
268(1)
Developing Support Plans
269(1)
Support Plan Components
269(1)
Reinforcement Strategies
270(2)
Other Consequence Strategies
272(1)
Support Plan Evaluation
272(1)
Comprehensive Interventions
273(1)
Conclusion
273(5)
12 Managing Sensory and Motor Disabilities
278(25)
The Sensory Systems
279(2)
Atypical Sensorimotor Responses
280(1)
The Motor System
281(2)
Muscle Tone
281(1)
Primitive Reflexes
281(1)
Posture and Movement
281(2)
Positioning and Handling
283(3)
Body Mechanics
283(1)
Posture and Movement
283(1)
Positioning
284(2)
Instructional Programming
286(4)
Sensory Integration
286(1)
Neurodevelopmental Treatment
286(1)
Behavioral Programming Intervention
286(2)
Integrated Programming
288(1)
Classroom Support Strategies
289(1)
Sensory Impairments
290(10)
Hearing Impairments
290(1)
Adaptive Devices
291(1)
Support Strategies
292(1)
Vision Impairments
292(1)
Vision Assessment
293(1)
Vision Correction
293(6)
Dual Sensory Impairments
299(1)
Conclusion
300(3)
13 Providing Support for Health and Medical Needs
303(25)
Therapeutic Management
304(10)
Universal Precautions
305(1)
Hand Washing
305(1)
Incontinence and Toileting
305(1)
Dental Care
306(1)
Seizure Management
307(3)
Skin Conditions
310(1)
Postural Drainage
310(1)
Passive Range of Motion
310(1)
Medication
311(3)
Nutrition and Feeding
314(5)
Nutrition
314(1)
Eating Skills
315(2)
Tube Feeding
317(2)
Special Concerns
319(4)
Tracheostomy
319(3)
Ileostomy and Colostomy
322(1)
Catheterization
322(1)
Infectious Disease
323(2)
HIV/AIDS
323(2)
Cytomegalovirus
325(1)
Conclusion
325(3)
14 Teaching Self-Care Skills
328(31)
The Importance of Self-Care
329(1)
General Considerations
329(5)
Ethical Instructional Practices
329(1)
The Role of Parents
329(1)
When and Where to Teach Self-Care Skills
330(1)
The Relation Between Self-Care and Self-Determination
330(1)
The Need for Collaboration
331(1)
Tactics for Self-Care Skill Acquisition
331(1)
Skill Generalization
332(1)
Self-Management of Self-Care Skills
333(1)
Eating, Self-Feeding, and Other Mealtime Skills
334(5)
Finger-Feeding
335(1)
Drinking from a Cup
335(1)
Learning to Eat With a Spoon
335(2)
Learning to Use Other Utensils
337(1)
Decreasing Inappropriate Mealtime Behaviors
338(1)
Teaching Other Appropriate Mealtime Behaviors
338(1)
Other Suggestions for Improving Eating
339(1)
Learning to Use the Toilet
339(5)
Determining Readiness for Toileting
340(1)
Teaching Independent Toilet Use
340(3)
Teachings Skills Associated with Toileting
343(1)
Using the Toilet Independently
343(1)
Teaching to Use the Toilet in Different Settings
344(1)
Other Suggestions for Improving Toileting
344(1)
Learning to Dress
344(6)
Selecting Skills to Teach
344(3)
Assessing Dressing Ability
347(1)
Instructional Strategies for Teaching Dressing
347(1)
Dressing and Students with More Severe Disabilities
348(1)
Teaching Skills Related to Dressing
349(1)
Other Suggestions for Improving Dressing
350(1)
Learning Personal Hygiene and Grooming Skills
350(4)
Personal Dental Care
350(1)
Menstrual Care
351(2)
Other Suggestions for Improving Hygiene and Personal Grooming
353(1)
Conclusion
354(5)
15 Teaching Leisure and Recreation Skills
359(22)
The Importance of Recreation Skills
360(1)
Recreation Skill Instruction
360(14)
Selecting Recreation Activities
361(1)
Assessing Student Preference
362(3)
Leisure Activity Goal Areas
365(2)
Choice-Making Issues
367(1)
Social Interaction
368(1)
Instructional Methods
369(3)
Partial Participation
372(1)
Adapting Activities
373(1)
Community Recreation Opportunities
374(2)
Strategies for Families
375(1)
Developing Friendships
376(2)
Friendship Skills
377(1)
Friendships with Disabled Peers
377(1)
Conclusion
378(3)
16 Teaching Appropriate Academic Skills
381(37)
Issues Related to Academic Instruction
382(2)
Who Can Learn Academic Skills?
382(1)
Levels of Academic Curricula
382(1)
Defining Functional Academic Instruction
383(1)
Beyond Functional Instruction
383(1)
Location of Academic Instruction
384(1)
Summary of Issues Related to Teaching Academic Skills
384(1)
Teaching Literacy Skills
384(20)
What Students Should Learn to Read
384(2)
Teaching Individual Sight Words
386(2)
Teaching Word Analysis (Phonics) Skills
388(3)
Teaching Oral Reading from Books
391(2)
Using Commercial Programs to Teach Reading
393(2)
Teaching Comprehension Skills and Reading in Applied Settings
395(1)
Teaching Writing
396(3)
Teaching Spelling
399(1)
Whole Language Instruction
399(3)
The Use of Technology to Teach Communication and Literacy Skills
402(1)
Summary of Approaches to Teaching Literacy Skills
402(2)
Teaching Arithmetic
404(7)
Acquiring Basic Concepts and Skills
404(3)
Applying Skills to Handling Money
407(2)
Applying Skills to Time Management
409(2)
Summary of Strategies for Teaching Arithmetic
411(1)
Teaching Academics in the Regular Classroom
411(2)
Cooperative Learning
411(1)
Incidental Learning and Observational Learning
412(1)
Parallel Learning Activities
412(1)
Multilevel Curriculum
412(1)
Curriculum Overlapping
412(1)
Adaptive Instruction
412(1)
Individual Tutoring
412(1)
Considerations for Delivering Instruction in the Regular Classroom
412(1)
Conclusion
413(5)
17 Teaching Community and Domestic Skills
418(25)
Why Teach Community and Domestic Skills?
419(1)
General Procedures Related to Teaching Community and Domestic Skills
419(7)
Who Should Participate in Community and Domestic Instruction?
419(1)
Partial Participation
420(1)
Where to Teach Community and Domestic Skills
420(1)
Determining Target Sites and Skills
421(1)
Determining Operational Skills to Be Taught
421(1)
Determining Associated Skills to Be Taught
422(1)
Developing Instructional Plans
422(1)
Planning for Skill Generalization
422(1)
Implementing Instruction in Community Settings
423(1)
Using Simulated Community Settings in Schools
424(1)
Providing Concurrent Instruction in School
425(1)
Evaluating Community Skills
425(1)
Securing Adequate Funds for Community Instruction
425(1)
Teaching Community and Domestic Skills in the Most Meaningful Way
426(1)
Community Settings and Activities
426(6)
Grocery Stores
427(1)
Restaurants
428(1)
Vending Machines
429(1)
Pedestrian Skills/Public Transportation
430(2)
Domestic Activities
432(5)
Preparing Meals and Snacks
432(2)
Performing Household Chores
434(1)
Using a Telephone
435(2)
Issues Related to Community-Based Instruction
437(2)
School Administrative Policies
438(1)
Separating Students With and Without Disabilities
438(1)
Relation of Other Instruction to Community Instruction
439(1)
Conclusion
439(4)
PART 5 Instructional Considerations for Younger and Older Students 443(48)
18 Meeting the Needs of Young Children
444(28)
Special Education Programs and the Law
445(3)
Historical Development
445(1)
Efficacy Research
446(1)
Goals of Early Childhood Special Education Programs
446(2)
Teaching Young Children
448(1)
Transactional Approach
448(1)
Instructional Activities
448(1)
Instructional Content
448(1)
Family Support
448(1)
Family-Centered Approach
449(4)
Individualized Family Service Plan
449(4)
The Intervention Context
453(3)
Interagency Collaboration and Teaming
455(1)
Assessment in Early Intervention
456(2)
Curriculum-Based Assessment
456(1)
Judgment-Based Assessment
457(1)
Interactive Assessment
457(1)
Norm-Based Assessment
457(1)
Systematic Observation
458(1)
Instructional Programs for Young Children
458(7)
Developmentally Appropriate Practice
458(1)
Activity-Based Instruction
459(1)
Naturalistic Teaching Procedures
459(3)
Environmental Arrangements
462(3)
Infant Intervention
465(1)
Inclusion and Young Children
465(1)
Transition Issues
466(3)
Preparation for Transition
467(1)
Transition from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
467(1)
Transition from the Early Intervention Program to Preschool
467(1)
Transition to Kindergarten
468(1)
Conclusion
469(3)
19 Transition Planning and Adult Issues
472(19)
The Importance of Transition Planning
473(1)
Self-Determination
473(1)
Promoting Student Self-Competence
473(1)
Natural Supports
474(1)
Postschool Outcomes
475(2)
Supported Employment
475(1)
Supported Living
476(1)
Community Participation
476(1)
Recreation and Leisure
476(1)
Postsecondary Education/Training
477(1)
Social/Relationships
477(1)
Transition Services
477(2)
Families as Partners in the Transition Process
478(1)
Person-Centered Planning
479(1)
Developing the Transition Individualized Education Plan
479(2)
Postschool Outcomes
480(1)
Annual Goals and Objectives
480(1)
Teaching the Secondary Student
481(8)
Vocational Instruction
482(1)
Community Work Experience
483(1)
Instructional Strategies
484(5)
Conclusion
489(2)
PART 6 Trends and Issues 491(24)
20 Trends and Issues in the Education of Students with Severe Disabilities
492(23)
Societal Issues
493(1)
Educational Reform
494(13)
Effective Schools
498(2)
Educational Reform, Effective Schools, and Inclusion of Students with Disabilities
500(7)
Critical Life Conditions for Persons with Severe Disabilities
507(3)
Self-Determination
507(1)
Self-Advocacy
508(1)
Quality of Life
508(2)
Implications for Teachers
510(2)
Societal Changes and Individual Differences
510(1)
Educational Change and Special Education
510(1)
Self-Determination
510(1)
Self-Management
511(1)
Self-Advocacy Movements
511(1)
Quality of Life Issues
511(1)
Conclusion
512(3)
Appendix A: Individualized Education Plan 515(6)
Appendix B: Individualized Family Service Plan 521(11)
Appendix C: Personal Futures Plan 532(10)
Name Index 542(11)
Subject Index 553


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