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Teaching Students Who Are Exceptional, Diverse, and at Risk in the General Education Classroom

by ; ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780205407736

ISBN10:
0205407730
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $134.66

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Summary

Based on the belief that even small accommodations make a difference in the success of students with disabilities, this text provides classroom teachers with the knowledge, tools, and practical strategies that will empower them to spark learning in every student. From students with disabilities, culturally diverse students, and students with limited English proficiency to economically disadvantaged students Vaughn/Bos/Schumm provides teachers with the tools they need in their diverse classrooms. Revised to reflect recent changes in the law (IDEA 2004 & No Child Left Behind) and current terminology, the strength of the book continues to be its numerous learning activities and sample lessons addressing both elementary and secondary classrooms. This edition continues its very popular multi- chapter unit on curriculum adaptations with specific strategies and activities for teaching reading, writing, mathematics, content areas, and study skills, which has been further strengthened by a new capstone chapter on teaching self-advocacy, study skills and strategies. The strong emphasis on professional planning and collaboration make it an excellent resource for all teachers. The newest edition features a new chapter on Autism; a new chapter on Developing Independence in Learning; an all new "Tech Tips" features that has received rave reviews; a revised chapter "Managing Student Behavior" that emphasizes school-wide behavior management and positive behavioral support; an expanded chapter on "Collaborating and Coordinating with Other Professionals and Family Members" with increased coverage of co-teaching; a revised chapter on "Planning and Grouping Strategies for Special Learners" that reflects an increased emphasis on grouping; and expanded coverage of secondary education via chapter-opening interviews, new photos, and new examples throughout the text.

Table of Contents

Features at a Glance xix
Preface xxiii
Special Education and Inclusive Schooling
1(33)
Chapter Outline
1(1)
Focus Questions
1(1)
Interview: Tiffany Royal
1(1)
Introduction
2(1)
Early Foundations of Special Education
2(2)
Recent Influences
3(1)
Idea and the Vocational Rehabilitation Act
4(12)
The Concept of Least Restrictive Environment
6(1)
Part-Time Placement in Special Education
7(1)
Full-Time Placement in Special Education
8(1)
Special School or Residential Settings
8(1)
Homebound Instruction
8(1)
The Individualized Education Program (Iep)
9(1)
Participants in Iep Meetings
9(5)
Determining Appropriate Accommodations and Modifications for the Student
14(1)
Student Involvement
15(1)
The Iep Process
16(1)
Responsibilities of Classroom Teachers
16(11)
Participating in the Referral and Planning Process
17(2)
The Prereferral Assistance Team
19(1)
Response to Instruction
19(1)
Consultation Models
20(1)
The Teacher Assistance Team
20(2)
Adapting Instruction
22(1)
No Child Left Behind Act
22(2)
Expanding the Impact of Idea
24(1)
Early Intervention and Transition from Early Childhood to School
24(1)
Transition from School to Work and Other Postschool Activities
25(2)
Inclusion
27(4)
Summary
31(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
31(1)
Think and Apply
31(1)
Read More about It
32(1)
Websites
33(1)
Collaborating and Coordinating with Other Professionals and Family
34(30)
Chapter Outline
35(1)
Focus Questions
35(1)
Interview: Angela and Todd Hammond
35(1)
Introduction
36(1)
Role of Collaboration in Meeting Students' Needs
36(2)
Cooperative Teaching
36(1)
Family Collaboration
37(1)
Working with Other Professionals
38(11)
Consultation
39(2)
Collaboration
41(1)
Resources Needed for Collaboration
42(1)
Co-teaching
42(1)
Co-planning
42(1)
Co-teaching
43(2)
Grading
45(2)
Collaboration Issues and Dilemmas
47(1)
Concerns about Cooperative Teaching
48(1)
Student Ownership
48(1)
Individual versus Class Focus
49(1)
Content versus Accommodation
49(1)
Real World versus Student's World
49(1)
Critical Communication Skills
49(3)
Acceptance
50(1)
Listening
50(1)
Questioning
50(1)
Staying Focused
51(1)
Working with Parents
52(8)
Family Adjustment
52(1)
Homework
53(1)
Establishing a Homework Policy
54(2)
Planned and Unplanned Parent Conferences
56(2)
Forms of School-to-Home Communication
58(2)
Summary
60(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
61(1)
Think and Apply
61(1)
Read More about It
62(1)
Websites
62(2)
Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
64(30)
Chapter Outline
65(1)
Focus Questions
65(1)
Interview: Tammy Gregory
65(1)
Introduction
66(1)
Learning Disabilities
66(14)
Definitions and Types of Learning Disabilities
67(2)
Characteristics of Students with Learning Disabilities
69(2)
Prevalence of Learning Disabilities
71(1)
Identification and Assessment of Students with Learning Disabilities
72(1)
Instructional Techniques and Accommodations for Students with Learning Disabilities
72(2)
Providing a Framework for Learning
74(1)
Modeling Processes and Strategies Using Thinking Aloud and Instructional Conversations
74(2)
Teaching Self-Regulation and Self-Monitoring
76(1)
Providing Opportunities for Extended Practice and Application
76(1)
Using Learning Tools and Aids
77(1)
Adjusting Workload and Time
77(1)
Presenting Information and Demonstrating Learning in Multipl Ways
78(1)
Teaching Students to Use Memory Strategies
79(1)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
80(11)
Definitions and Types of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
81(1)
Characteristics of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
82(2)
Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
84(1)
Identification and Assessment of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
84(1)
Instructional Guidelines and Accommodations for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
85(1)
Educational Interventions
86(3)
Medication as One Aspect of Treatment for Adhd
89(2)
Summary
91(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
91(1)
Think and Apply
91(1)
Read More about It
92(1)
Websites
93(1)
Teaching Students with Communication Disorders
94(26)
Chapter Outline
95(1)
Focus Questions
95(1)
Interview: Lorri Johnson
95(1)
Introduction
96(1)
Communication Disorders
96(10)
Speech Disorders
97(1)
Articulation Disorders
97(1)
Fluency Disorders
98(1)
Voice Disorders
99(1)
School-Age Language Disorders
99(1)
Language Content
99(1)
Vocabulary
99(1)
Word Categories and Word Relationships
100(1)
Multiple Meanings
100(1)
Figurative Language
101(1)
Language Form
101(1)
Phonology
101(1)
Morphology
102(1)
Syntax
103(1)
Language Use
104(1)
Metalinguistics
105(1)
Prevalence of Communication Disorders
106(1)
Identification and Assessment of Students with Communication Disorders
107(2)
Working with the Speech and Language Pathologist
108(1)
Instructional Guidelines and Accommodations for Students with Communication Disorders
109(7)
Facilitating Speech Development
109(1)
Facilitating Language Development
110(1)
Teaching Language in Purposive Contexts
110(1)
Teaching Comprehension and Production
110(1)
Presenting New Concepts
111(1)
Demonstrating Connections between Concepts
111(2)
Using Conversation
113(1)
Using Wait Time
113(1)
Adjusting the Pace
114(1)
Using Self-Talk and Parallel Talk
114(1)
Using Modeling
114(1)
Promoting Language through Expansion and Elaboration
115(1)
Using Language as an Intrinsic Motivator
115(1)
Spotlight on Cultural and Linguistic Diversity
115(1)
Working with Parents to Extend Language Concepts
116(1)
Summary
117(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
117(1)
Think and Apply
117(1)
Read More about It
118(1)
Websites
119(1)
Teaching Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
120(22)
Chapter Outline
121(1)
Focus Questions
121(1)
Interview: Juline Truesdell
121(1)
Introduction
122(1)
Definitions of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
122(1)
Prevalence of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
123(1)
Types and Characteristics of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
124(4)
Conduct Disorders and Aggression
126(1)
Hyperactivity
126(1)
Socialized Aggression
126(1)
Immaturity
127(1)
Depression
127(1)
Anxiety-Withdrawal
128(1)
Causes of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
128(1)
Identification and Assessment of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
129(1)
Teaching Guidelines and Accommodations for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
130(10)
Maintaining an Organized Physical Environment
131(1)
Establishing Positive Relationships
131(1)
Changing Behavior
132(2)
Resolving Conflicts and Promoting Self-Control
134(2)
School-Based Wraparound
136(1)
Using the Life-Space Crisis Intervention
136(1)
Adapting Instruction
137(1)
Providing Instruction That Allows All Students to Succeed
137(1)
Providing Opportunities for Students to Learn Academically and Socially
137(1)
Using a Variety of Commercial and Individually Created Materials
138(1)
Teaching Self-Monitoring Skills to Increase Engagement and Academic Performance
138(2)
Summary
140(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
140(1)
Think and Apply
140(1)
Read More about It
141(1)
Websites
141(1)
Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders/Pervasive Developmental Disorders
142(18)
Mark F. O'Reilly
Jeff Sigafoos
Giulio Laneioni
Chapter Outline
143(1)
Focus Questions
143(1)
Interview: Michael Bernard
143(1)
Introduction
144(1)
Definitions of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Pervasive Developmental Disorders
144(3)
Autism
145(1)
Rett Syndrome
146(1)
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
146(1)
Asperger Syndrome
147(1)
Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified
147(1)
Characteristics of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
147(1)
Social Skills
147(1)
Communication Skills
147(1)
Repetitive Behaviors and Routines
148(1)
Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders
148(1)
Identification and Assessment of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
148(1)
Curricular and Instructional Guidelines for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
149(7)
Assess Preferences
149(1)
Establish a Classroom Routine
149(1)
Teach Communication Skills
150(2)
Teach Social Skills
152(2)
Social Problem Solving
154(1)
Social Story Interventions
154(1)
Selecting Social Skills for Intervention
155(1)
Addressing Challenging Behaviors
156(2)
Summary
158(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
158(1)
Think and Apply
158(1)
Read More about It
159(1)
Websites
159(1)
Teaching Students with Developmental Disabilities
160(24)
Chapter Outline
161(1)
Focus Questions
161(1)
Interview: Susie Speelman, Mary Robinson, and Steve Canty
161(1)
Introduction
162(1)
Definitions and Types of Developmental Disabilities
162(3)
Mental Retardation
163(1)
Severe Disabilities
164(1)
Multiple Disabilities
165(1)
Dual Sensory Impairments
165(1)
Prevention of Developmental Disabilities
165(1)
Prevalence of Developmental Disabilities
166(1)
Characteristics of Students with Developmental Disabilities
166(3)
Intellectual Functioning
167(1)
Social Skills
168(1)
Motor Skills
168(1)
Communication Skills
168(1)
Identification and Assessment of Students with Developmental Disabilities
169(3)
Instructional Guidelines and Accommodations for Teaching Students with Developmental Disabilities
172(10)
Role of the General Education Teacher
172(1)
Planning Systems
173(1)
Functional Assessment, Discrepancy Analysis, and Task Analysis
174(1)
Authentic Assessment
175(1)
Partial Participation
175(1)
Curriculum Adaptations
176(1)
Peer Support and Peer Tutoring
176(1)
Strategies to Support Students in the General Education Classroom
177(1)
Increasing a Student's Sense of Belonging
177(1)
Accepting Varied Learning Goals
178(2)
Making Environmental Accommodations
180(1)
Team Teaching
180(1)
Cooperative Learning
180(1)
Accommodating Personal Learning Styles
180(1)
Providing Hands-On Instruction
181(1)
Providing Opportunities for Functional Practice
181(1)
Encouraging Parental Involvement
181(1)
Summary
182(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
182(1)
Think and Apply
182(1)
Read More about It
182(1)
Websites
183(1)
Teaching Students with Visual Impairments, Hearing Loss, Physical Disabilities, Health Impairments, or Traumatic Brain Injury
184(26)
Chapter Outline
185(1)
Focus Questions
185(1)
Interview: Peggy Kirkland
185(1)
Introduction
186(1)
Students with Visual Impairments
186(7)
Definitions and Types of Visual Impairments
186(1)
Legal Definitions
186(1)
Educational Definitions
187(1)
Causes of Visual Impairment
187(1)
Characteristics of Students with Visual Impairments
187(1)
Prevalence of Visual Impairments
188(1)
Identification and Assessment of Students with Visual Impairments
188(1)
Instructional Guidelines and Accommodations for Students with Visual Impairments
189(1)
General Accommodations
189(1)
Using Braille and Braille Devices
189(1)
Using Orientation and Mobility Skills
190(1)
Using Optical, Nonoptical, and Instructional Aids
190(2)
Testing Accommodations
192(1)
Students with Hearing Loss
193(4)
Definitions and Types of Hearing Loss
193(1)
Characteristics of Students with Hearing Loss
194(1)
Prevalence of Hearing Loss
195(1)
Identification and Assessment of Students with Hearing Loss
195(1)
Instructional Guidelines and Accommodations for Students with Hearing Loss
196(1)
Using Amplification
196(1)
Making Classroom Accommodations
196(1)
Using Interpreters and Note Takers
197(1)
Students with Physical Disabilities, Health Impairments, and Traumatic Brain Injury
197(9)
Definitions and Types of Physical Disabilities, Health Impairments, and Traumatic Brain Injury
198(1)
Characteristics of Students with Physical Disabilities, Health Impairments, and Traumatic Brain Injury
199(1)
Asthma
199(1)
Cerebral Palsy
199(1)
Spina Bifida
199(1)
Epilepsy
199(1)
Muscular Dystrophy
200(1)
Hiv and Aids
200(1)
Traumatic Brain Injury
201(1)
Prevalence of Physical Disabilities, Health Impairments, and Traumatic Brain Injury
201(1)
Identification and Assessment of Students with Physical Disabilities, Health Impairments, and Traumatic Brain Injury
202(1)
Instructional Guidelines and Accommodations for Students with Physical Disabilities, Health Impairments, and Traumatic Brain Injury
202(1)
Transdisciplinary Teaming and Support Providers
202(1)
Using Assistive Technology
203(1)
Making Environmental Modifications
203(1)
Providing Instruction for Motor Skills
203(1)
Promoting Literacy Development
203(1)
Educating Classmates
204(1)
Dealing with Death
205(1)
Summary
206(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
206(1)
Think and Apply
207(1)
Read More about It
207(1)
Websites
208(2)
Planning and Grouping Strategies for Special Learners
210(24)
Chapter Outline
211(1)
Focus Questions
211(1)
Interview: Lisa Geller
211(1)
Introduction
212(1)
Model of the Planning Process
212(2)
Types of Planning
212(1)
Preplanning
213(1)
Interactive Planning
213(1)
Postplanning
214(1)
Long-Term Planning
214(1)
Procedure for the Course Planning Routine
214(1)
Unit Planning
215(2)
Procedure for the Unit Planning Pyramid
216(1)
Degrees of Learning
216(1)
Cautions and Comments
216(1)
Deciding What Concepts to Teach
217(1)
An Example of the Unit Planning Pyramid
217(1)
Lesson Planning
217(3)
Procedure for the Lesson Planning Pyramid
217(1)
An Example of the Lesson Planning Pyramid
218(1)
Monitoring Student Learning during the Lesson
219(1)
An Overview of Instructional Grouping
220(4)
Traditional Instructional Grouping
220(2)
Current Issues in Instructional Grouping
222(1)
Same-Ability Groups
222(1)
Considering the Diverse Needs of Students
222(1)
Flexible Groups
222(2)
Teaching Students How to Work Together
224(1)
Planning for Multiple Grouping Structures
224(1)
Grouping Patterns
224(7)
Whole Class
224(1)
Small Groups
225(1)
Same-Ability Small Groups
225(1)
Mixed-Ability Small Groups
225(2)
Cooperative Learning Groups
227(1)
Cooperative Learning and Students with Disabilities
228(1)
Learning Partners in Pairs
229(1)
One-on-One Instruction
230(1)
Progress Monitoring
230(1)
Summary
231(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
231(1)
Think and Apply
231(1)
Read More about It
232(1)
Websites
232(2)
Managing Student Behavior and Promoting Social Acceptance
234(30)
Chapter Outline
235(1)
Focus Questions
235(1)
Interview: Nina Zaragoza
235(1)
Introduction
236(1)
Basic Principles of Managing Student Behavior
236(9)
Looking for the Positive
236(1)
Using Reinforcers to Encourage Positive Behavior
237(3)
Establishing a Few Clear Rules with Known Consequences
240(1)
Helping Students to Change Inappropriate Behavior
241(1)
Ignoring on Purpose
241(1)
Time Out
241(1)
Punishment
241(1)
Recognizing Students' Mistaken Goals
242(3)
Establishing the Classroom Climate
245(4)
Creating a Learning Community
245(1)
Using Class Meetings
246(2)
Increasing Social Acceptance of Students with Disabilities and Exceptional Learners
248(1)
Practices for Providing Positive Behavioral Support
249(3)
Positive Behavioral Support as Prevention
249(2)
Developing a Functional Behavioral Assessment
251(1)
Preventing Violence
252(1)
Enhancing Students' Self-Concepts
252(3)
Teaching Social and Self-Management Skills
255(5)
Principles for Conducting Social Skills Training
255(2)
Example of a Social Skills Program for Adolescents
257(1)
Teaching Self-Management Skills
258(2)
Summary
260(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
261(1)
Think and Apply
261(1)
Read More about It
261(1)
Websites
262(2)
Teaching Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students
264(28)
Chapter Outline
265(1)
Focus Questions
265(1)
Interview: Kristina Zayas-Bazan
265(1)
Introduction
266(1)
Diversity in Classroom and Schools
266(5)
Understanding Diverse Cultures
267(2)
Cultural Characteristics
269(1)
Cultural Boundaries
269(1)
Assessment of Students with Cultural and Linguistic Differences
270(1)
Multicultural Education
271(3)
Dimensions of Multicultural Education
271(1)
Desired Student Outcomes
272(1)
Multicultural Curricula
273(1)
Contributions Approach
273(1)
Additive Approach
273(1)
Transformation Approach
273(1)
Social Action Approach
273(1)
Linguistic Diversity and Second Language Acquisition
274(7)
Framework for Second Language Acquisition
277(1)
Situational Factors
277(1)
Linguistic Input
278(1)
Learner Characteristics
278(1)
The Learning and Developmental Process
279(1)
Secondary Language Output
279(1)
Language Variation and Dialect
280(1)
Historical Perspective on Esl Instruction and Bilingual Education
281(1)
Instructional Guidelines and Accommodations for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students
281(7)
Programs for Promoting Second Language Acquisition
283(1)
Instruction in English as a Second Language
284(1)
Bilingual Education
284(3)
Promoting Language Learning during Content Instruction
287(1)
Summary
288(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
288(1)
Think and Apply
289(1)
Read More about It
289(1)
Websites
290(2)
Promoting Success for All Learners: Teaching Students Who Are at Risk and Students Who Are Gifted and Talented
292(38)
Chapter Outline
293(1)
Focus Questions
293(1)
Interview: Mary Ellsworth
293(1)
Introduction
294(1)
Defining Students at Risk
294(2)
Remediation
296(1)
Retention
296(1)
Dropping Out
296(1)
Substandard Basic Skills
296(1)
Conditions That Place Students at Risk
296(5)
Family Conditions
297(1)
Family Poverty
297(2)
Family Instability
299(1)
Risks to Health and Safety
299(1)
At-Risk Schools
300(1)
Prevalence of Students at Risk
301(1)
Identifying Students at Risk
301(1)
Programs for Students at Risk
302(3)
Compensatory Education
302(1)
Add-On Programs
302(1)
Tracking
303(1)
Early Intervention Programs
303(1)
Reading Recovery
303(1)
Success for All
304(1)
Full-Service Schools
305(1)
Defining Giftedness
305(2)
Federal Definitions of Gifted and Talented
305(2)
Alternative Definitions of Gifted and Talented
307(1)
Multiple Intelligence
307(1)
Characteristics of Students Who Are Gifted and Talented
307(4)
Intellectually Gifted
309(1)
Creatively Gifted or Talented
309(2)
The Invisible Gifted
311(1)
Prevalence of Giftedness
311(1)
Identifying Students Who Are Gifted and Talented
311(3)
Programs for Students Who Are Gifted and Talented
314(3)
Approaches to Content of Instruction
314(1)
Acceleration
314(1)
Enrichment
315(1)
Administrative Arrangements
315(1)
Resource Programs
316(1)
Self-Contained Programs
316(1)
Inclusion Programs
316(1)
Instructional Guidelines and Accommodations
317(9)
Communicating High Expectations
317(1)
Creating a Positive Classroom Climate
318(1)
Pull-Out Models
319(1)
In-Class Programs
319(1)
Differentiating Instruction
319(1)
Enhancing Motivation
320(1)
Using Authentic Learning Tasks
321(1)
Higher-Order Thinking
322(1)
Depth of Knowledge
322(1)
Connectedness to the World beyond the Classroom
322(1)
Promoting Inquiry and Independent Learning
322(2)
Involving Other Adults
324(1)
Parent Involvement
325(1)
Volunteer Programs
325(1)
Business-School Partnerships
326(1)
Summary
326(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
327(1)
Think and Apply
327(1)
Read More about It
328(1)
Websites
329(1)
Facilitating Reading
330(34)
Chapter Outline
331(1)
Focus Questions
331(1)
Interview: Ines Lezcano
331(1)
Introduction
332(1)
Current Trends in Reading and Reading Instruction
333(3)
Learning Difficulties in the Process of Reading
334(1)
Components of Reading Instruction
334(2)
Effective Reading Instruction for Struggling Readers
336(5)
Establishing an Environment to Promote Reading
336(1)
Using Assessment and Progress Monitoring
336(4)
Providing Intensive Instruction
340(1)
Obtaining Early Intervention
341(1)
Strategies for Teaching Phonological Awareness, Letter-Sound Correspondence, and the Alphabetic Principle
341(3)
Teaching Phonological Awareness
342(1)
Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondence and the Alphabetic Principle
343(1)
Strategies for Teaching Word Identification
344(6)
Teaching Sight Words
344(1)
Teaching Decoding Strategies for Identifying Words
345(1)
Phonic Analysis
346(1)
Onset-Rime
346(1)
Structural Analysis and Syllabication
346(2)
Syntax and Semantics
348(1)
Techniques for Teaching Decoding and Sight Words
348(1)
Making Words, Word Sorting, and Using Word Walls
348(1)
Using the Dissect Strategy
348(1)
The Sight Word Association Procedure
349(1)
Strategies for Helping Students Develop Fluency
350(1)
Reading Aloud
350(1)
Repeated Reading
350(1)
Peer Tutoring
351(1)
Strategies for Improving Reading Comprehension
351(8)
K-W-L Strategy
353(1)
Question-Answer Relationships Strategy
353(1)
Story Retelling
354(1)
Collaborative Strategic Reading
355(1)
Previewing
355(1)
Click and Clunk
355(1)
Getting the Gist
355(1)
Wrap-Up
356(1)
Cooperative Learning Groups
356(1)
Putting It All Together
357(2)
Summary
359(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
360(1)
Think and Apply
360(1)
Read More about It
361(1)
Websites
362(2)
Facilitating Writing
364(32)
Chapter Outline
365(1)
Focus Questions
365(1)
Interview: Rozetta Jones
365(1)
Introduction
366(1)
Current Trends in Writing Curriculum and Instruction
366(2)
Movement toward Standards-Based Writing Instruction and Research-Based Practices
367(1)
Increased Emphasis on Assessment
368(1)
Emphasis on Balanced and Effective Writing Instruction for All Students
368(1)
Teaching Writing as a Process
368(4)
Writing as an Interactive Process
369(1)
Writing as a Strategic Process
369(1)
Writing as a Process of Constructing Meaning
370(2)
Writing as a Student-Centered Process
372(1)
Writing as a Socially Mediated Language-Learning Activity
372(1)
Strategies for Establishing an Environment That Promotes Writing
372(1)
Physical Environment
372(1)
Social Environment
373(1)
Strategies for Conducting a Writing Workshop
373(7)
Prewriting: Getting Started
376(1)
Selecting Topics
376(1)
Problems in Topic Selection
377(1)
Planning
377(1)
Composing
378(1)
Revising and Editing
378(1)
Peer Editing
378(1)
Publishing
378(1)
Sharing
378(1)
Conferencing
379(1)
Teaching Writing Skills
379(1)
Strategies for Teaching Narrative Writing
380(1)
Using Story Webs to Plan
380(1)
Instruction in Story Development
380(1)
Strategies for Teaching Expository Writing
381(1)
Paragraph Writing
381(1)
Essay Writing
381(1)
Research Paper Writing
382(1)
Strategies for Teaching Persuasive Writing
382(1)
Assessing Student Writing
382(1)
Writing Rubrics
382(1)
Writing Portfolio
383(1)
Strategies for Helping All Students Acquire Spelling Skills
383(6)
Traditional Spelling Instruction
385(1)
Spelling Instruction for Students with Difficulties in Learning How to Spell
385(1)
Selecting Words
386(1)
Providing Instruction and Practice
387(1)
Monitoring Student Progress
388(1)
Principles of Effective Spelling Instruction
388(1)
Teaching Spelling Patterns
388(1)
Teaching in Small Units
389(1)
Providing Sufficient Practice and Feedback
389(1)
Selecting Appropriate Words
389(1)
Maintaining Previously Learned Words
389(1)
Teaching for Transfer of Learning
389(1)
Motivating Students to Spell Correctly
389(1)
Including Dictionary Training
389(1)
Strategies for Helping All Students Develop Handwriting and Keyboarding Skills
389(4)
Traditional Handwriting Instruction
389(1)
Students with Difficulty in Handwriting
390(1)
Principles for Effective Handwriting Instruction
390(1)
Monitoring Student Progress
391(1)
Legibility
391(1)
Fluency
392(1)
Principles of Effective Keyboarding Instruction
393(1)
Summary
393(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
393(1)
Think and Apply
394(1)
Read More about It
394(1)
Websites
395(1)
Helping All Students Succeed in Mathematics
396(30)
Chapter Outline
397(1)
Focus Questions
397(1)
Interview: One Student's Experience
397(1)
Introduction
398(1)
Current Trends in Mathematics Curriculum and Instruction
398(2)
Difficulties in Learning Mathematics
400(2)
Influences on Mathematics Ability
400(1)
Developmental Arithmetic Disorder
401(1)
Nonverbal Math Difficulties
401(1)
Effective Math Instruction for All Learners
402(9)
Evaluating Mathematics Curricula
402(2)
Adapting Basal Materials for Students with Special Needs
404(1)
Using Curricular Programs for Students with Math Difficulties
404(1)
Establishing Appropriate Goals.
405(1)
Student Goal Setting and Self-Monitoring
405(1)
Cooperative Instructional Practices
405(1)
Assessment and Progress Monitoring
406(1)
Being a Model in Math
406(1)
Diagnosing Students' Learning Needs in Mathematics
406(2)
Number Sense
408(1)
Providing Appropriate Instruction
408(1)
Math Manipulatives
409(1)
Teaching for Comprehension
410(1)
Checking for Comprehension: The Case ofTrinette
410(1)
Constant Time Delay Procedure
410(1)
Correction and Feedback
411(1)
Providing Practice
411(1)
Counting by Numbers
411(1)
Games
411(1)
Strategies for Helping All Students Acquire Basic Math Skills
411(4)
Prenumber Skills
412(1)
One-to-One Correspondence
412(1)
Classification
412(1)
Seriation
412(1)
Working with Numeration
412(1)
Estimating
413(1)
Understanding Regrouping
413(1)
Understanding Zero
413(1)
Understanding Place Value
413(1)
Grouping by Ones and Tens
414(1)
Naming Tens
414(1)
Place Value beyond Two Digits
414(1)
Learning Fractions
414(1)
Strategies for Helping All Learners Acquire and Use Computation Skills
415(3)
Patterns of Common Computation Errors
415(2)
Spatial Organization
417(1)
Visual Detail
417(1)
Procedural Error
417(1)
failure to Shift Operations
417(1)
Motoric Problems
417(1)
Memory Problems
417(1)
Difficulty with Zero
417(1)
Computation and Calculators
417(1)
Strategies for Helping All Students Develop Problem-Solving Skills
418(5)
Problem-Solving Strategies
418(1)
Integrating Math Problem Solving into the Curriculum
419(4)
Summary
423(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
423(1)
Think and Apply
423(1)
Read More about It
424(1)
Websites
424(2)
Teaching in the Content Areas
426(30)
Chapter Outline
427(1)
Focus Questions
427(1)
Interview: Jerry Schumm
427(1)
Critical Issues in Content-Area Instruction
428(3)
Balancing Content and Process
429(1)
Balancing Depth and Breadth of Content Instruction
429(1)
Balancing Text-Driven and Activities-Driven Instruction
430(1)
Integrating the Curriculum
431(1)
Learning Difficulties in the Content Areas
431(1)
Effective Content-Area Instruction for All Learners
432(8)
Utilizing Prelearning Activities
432(1)
Prelearning Activities
432(1)
Purpose Setting
433(1)
Preteaching Vocabulary
433(1)
Using Graphic Organizers
434(1)
Semantic Maps
434(1)
Concept Diagrams
434(2)
Timelines
436(1)
Creating Listener-Friendly Lectures
436(1)
Giving Demonstrations
437(1)
Facilitating Student Participation
438(1)
Questioning
438(1)
Classroom Discussions
438(2)
Effective Content-Area Reading Instruction for All Learners
440(6)
Familiarizing Yourself with the Textbook
440(1)
Subject Matter Content
441(1)
Social Content
441(1)
Instructional Design
441(1)
Readability Level
441(1)
Friendliness Level
441(1)
Understanding How Students Interact with and Respond to Text
442(1)
Making Textbook Adaptations
442(1)
Study Guides
442(1)
Text Highlighting
442(2)
Using Alternative Reading Materials
444(1)
Recording Text Content
445(1)
Effective Content-Area Assignments, Homework, and Tests for All Learners
446(5)
Making and Adapting Class Assignments and Homework
448(1)
Progress Monitoring
449(1)
Teacher-Made Tests
449(1)
High-Stakes Tests
449(1)
Alternative Assessments
450(1)
Planning Interdisciplinary Thematic Units
451(2)
Summary
453(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
453(1)
Think and Apply
453(1)
Read More about It
454(1)
Websites
454(2)
Developing Independence in Learning: Teaching Self-Advocacy, Study Skills, and Strategies
456(28)
Chapter Outline
457(1)
Focus Questions
457(1)
Interview: Rita Hernandez Turner
457(1)
Introduction
458(1)
Effective Study Skills Instruction: The Teaching-Learning Connection
458(1)
Difficulties in Developing Independence in Learning
459(1)
Developing Independence: Personal Responsibility
460(8)
Goal Setting and Self-Monitoring
462(2)
Organizational Systems
464(1)
Time Management
464(2)
Time Analysis
466(1)
Planning and Monitoring a Schedule
466(1)
Self-Advocacy
467(1)
Developing Independence: Active Learning in the Classroom
468(5)
Participating in Class
468(1)
Listening and Taking Notes in Class
469(1)
Guidelines for Effective Note Taking
469(1)
Teaching Note Taking
470(3)
Developing Independence: Active Learning Making Home-School Connections
473(9)
Completing Assignments
473(2)
Remembering Information
475(1)
Mnemonics
475(1)
Developing Test-Taking Strategies
476(2)
Guidelines for Studying for Tests
478(1)
Preparing for Tests Using Grading Rubrics
478(1)
Guidelines for Taking Tests
479(1)
Preparing for and Taking High-Stakes Tests
479(2)
Test Approach Skills
481(1)
Test-Taking Skills
481(1)
Test Preparedness Skills
481(1)
Summary
482(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
482(1)
Think and Apply
482(1)
Read More about It
483(1)
Websites
483(1)
appendix
Cec and Intasc Standards 484(15)
Glossary 499(12)
References 511(40)
Index 551


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