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Teaching Young Children : An Introduction,9780131135291
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Teaching Young Children : An Introduction

by
ISBN13:

9780131135291

ISBN10:
0131135295
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $77.33
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Summary

For Introduction to Early Childhood Education courses. Covers ages 0-8. This text offers students a practical foundation in how to deliver quality early education and care through its focus on curriculum. This edition's features include more concrete applications in the text and on the website. Easy-to-read and engagingly interactive, the text is now full-color throughout. The author weaves five essential elements of effective early childhood education throughout the book: understanding development, play, guidance, working with families, and diversity. The book provides a rigorous overview of the planning, preparation, and delivery of a curriculum for young children, one that's built around six specific curriculum areas, each explored in its own chapter. The author stresses the importance of play and the need to nurture each child's natural affinity for learning through experimentation and exploration.

Table of Contents

1 INTRODUCTION TO THE FIELD
1 Overview of the Profession
Essentials of Early Childhood Education
4(4)
Understand Children and Their Development
4(1)
Provide Opportunities to Play
5(1)
Guide Social and Emotional Development
6(1)
Work with Parents, Families, and the Community
6(1)
Understand and Respect Diversity
7(1)
The Scope of Early Childhood Education
8(5)
Infant/Toddler Programs
8(1)
Preschool Programs
8(1)
Child Care Programs
9(1)
Programs for Children with Special Needs
9(2)
Kindergartens
11(1)
Primary Education
12(1)
Funding: Who Pays for Early Education?
13(4)
For-Profit Programs
13(1)
Cooperative Programs
13(1)
Federally Funded Programs
14(1)
State and Locally Funded Programs
15(1)
Corporate Child Care
16(1)
College- and University-Supported Programs
17(1)
Teaching Young Children
17(7)
The Power of Teaching
17(1)
Roles of the Early Childhood Educator
18(1)
Responsibilities of the Early Childhood Educator
18(2)
Skills Needed to Teach Young Children
20(3)
Should I Teach?
23(1)
Professional Preparation of Early Childhood Caregivers
24(2)
The CDA Credential
24(1)
Two Year, or Associate Degree, Programs
25(1)
Four-Year Programs
26(1)
Coordinating Efforts
26(1)
Advanced Degrees
26(1)
Resources for Professional Development
26(4)
Professional Organizations
27(1)
Journals
27(1)
Reference Materials
28(2)
Summary
30(4)
2 Historical Contexts
Historical Figures Influencing Early Childhood Education
34(14)
European Contributors
34(10)
American Influences
44(4)
Historical Events Influencing Early Childhood Education
48(6)
Child Study Movement
48(1)
The Great Depression
49(1)
World War II
50(1)
The Launching of Sputnik
50(2)
The War on Poverty
52(1)
No Child Left Behind Act
52(2)
Summary
54(2)
3 Types of Programs
56(26)
The Montessori Program
58(6)
Montessori's Work Experiences
59(1)
Montessori Materials
60(1)
Classroom Organization
61(2)
Role of the Teacher
63(1)
The High/Scope Curriculum
64(5)
Theoretical Basis
64(1)
The Plan-Do-Review Sequence
65(1)
The Curriculum
65(1)
Structure of the Class Day
66(1)
The Teacher's Role
67(2)
Research on the High/Scope Model
67(2)
The Behaviorist Approach
69(1)
Theoretical Perspectives
69(1)
Implications for Teaching
69(1)
Relationship to Developmentally Appropriate Practice
70(1)
The Bank Street Model
70(4)
Theoretical Underpinnings
71(1)
Program Goals
71(1)
Governing Principles
72(1)
Curriculum and Materials
72(2)
The Reggio Emilia Program
74(6)
The Environment
74(1)
Children, Parents, and Teachers
74(1)
Cooperation, Collaboration, and Organization
75(1)
The Atelierista
76(1)
The Importance of Documentation
76(1)
Projects
77(3)
Summary
80(2)
II FOUNDATIONS
4 Understanding How a Child Develops and Learns
82(34)
The Developmentally Appropriate Classroom
84(1)
Key Perspectives on Learning and Development
85(12)
John Bowlby
86(2)
Abraham Maslow
88(1)
Howard Gardner
89(1)
Arnold Gesell
90(1)
Maria Montessori
90(1)
Lev Vygotsky
91(1)
Erik Erikson
92(2)
Jean Piaget
94(1)
Jerome Bruner
95(1)
Urie Bronfenbrenner
96(1)
Children: Developmental Similarities and Differences
97(13)
Infants and Toddlers
99(2)
Children Age 3 to 5: The Preschool Years
101(3)
Children Age 6 Through 8: The Primary School Years
104(2)
Children with Special Needs
106(4)
Learning About Children
110(2)
Studying Development and Learning
110(1)
Observation: Tool for Understanding
110(1)
Developmental and Health Assessments
110(2)
Communicating with Parents
112(1)
Summary
112(4)
5 Play in Childhood
Defining Play
116(3)
Characteristics of Childhood Play
116(2)
Definitions of Play
118(1)
Why Children Play: Theories
119(3)
Classical Theories
119(1)
Contemporary Theories
120(2)
Cognitive Play Types
122(1)
Social Play Types
123(2)
Benefits of Play
125(7)
Intellectual Growth Through Play
126(1)
Building Social Skills
127(1)
Language and Literacy Development
128(1)
Physical Development
129(1)
Emotional Development
130(1)
Play and Creativity
130(2)
Facilitating Childhood Play
132(6)
Preparing the Play Environments
132(1)
Creating a Climate for Play
133(1)
Promote the Importance of Play
133(1)
Adult Involvement in Play
134(4)
Summary
138(2)
6 Guiding Young Children
140(28)
What Is Guidance?
142(2)
Building Self-Esteem
142(1)
Dealing with Social/Emotional Issues
142(1)
Growing Toward Independence and Self-Control
143(1)
Principles of Guidance
144(10)
Initial Considerations
144(1)
Indirect Guidance
145(1)
Building Relationships
146(2)
Physically Guiding Children
148(1)
Verbal Guidance Strategies
148(1)
Discipline Strategies
149(5)
Guiding Routines
154(2)
Arrival and Departure
154(1)
Transitions
154(1)
Snack/Meal Time
154(1)
Toileting
155(1)
Rest Times
155(1)
Dealing with Feelings and Emotions
156(3)
Accept Feelings as Valid
156(1)
Be Calm and Direct
156(1)
Help Child Verbalize Emotions
157(1)
Suggest Alternatives
157(2)
Guiding Social Interactions
159(3)
Be a Careful Observer
159(1)
Can Children Solve Their Own Problems?
160(1)
Define the Limits of Acceptable Behavior
161(1)
Help Children Become More Prosocial
161(1)
Group Guidance
162(2)
Consider the Physical Setting
162(1)
Careful Planning and Organization
162(1)
Mixing Active and Quiet Times
163(1)
Guidance for Children with Special Needs
164(2)
Summary
166(2)
7 Working with Parents, Families, and Communities
168(26)
Family Life Today
170(4)
The Missing Extended Family
170(1)
Divorce and Single-Parent Families
170(1)
Blended Families
170(1)
Two-Career Families
171(1)
Older and Younger Parents
172(1)
Ethnic/Cultural Diversity
173(1)
Family Mobility
173(1)
Homeless Families
174(1)
Is Involvement Worth the Effort?
174(3)
Benefits to Teachers
174(1)
Benefits to Parents and Families
175(1)
Benefits to Children
175(2)
Building Strong Two-Way Relationships
177(2)
Providing Mutual Support
177(1)
Communication: The Key
177(1)
Family-Friendly Schools
178(1)
Effective Communication Methods
179(8)
Telephone Calls
179(1)
Written Communications
180(1)
Communicating Through Technology
181(1)
Visual Communication Tools
182(1)
Home Visits
182(2)
Parent Meetings
184(1)
Parent-Teacher Conferences
185(2)
Factors Influencing Quality Involvement
187(1)
Parent-Teacher Conflicts
187(1)
Families of Children with Special Needs
188(1)
Connecting with the Community
189(1)
Involving the Community in the School
189(1)
Involving the School in the Community
189(1)
Summary
190(4)
8 Diversity and Young Children
194(24)
Diversity as an Essential Element
196(1)
Attitudes Toward Diversity
196(5)
Racial/Cultural Attitudes
196(1)
Attitudes About Gender
197(1)
Children with Special Needs
198(3)
Encouraging an Acceptance of Diversity
201(2)
Begin with Self-Analysis
202(1)
Talk About Differences
202(1)
Talk About Similarities
202(1)
Expose Children to Diversity
203(1)
Inappropriate Responses to Diversity
203(2)
Ignore Diversity
203(1)
The Tourist Approach
203(2)
Integrating Diversity Throughout the Curriculum
205(5)
The Antibias Curriculum
205(1)
Using Toys That Promote Diversity
205(2)
Diversity Through Games
207(1)
Quality Children's Literature
207(1)
The Visual-Aesthetic Environment
208(1)
Meaningful Diversity Experiences
209(1)
Individuals with Special Needs
210(2)
Develop Inclusive Environments
210(1)
Strengthen Social Interactions
210(1)
Collaborate with Other Professionals
211(1)
Issues of Gender Equity
212(2)
Language
212(1)
Accessibility Issues
212(1)
Attitudes
213(1)
Working with Families and the Community
214(2)
Family Involvement and Diversity
214(1)
Changing Attitudes
214(2)
Summary
216(2)
III ORGANIZING FOR INSTRUCTION
9 Planning the Physical Environment: Indoors
218(30)
Planning Guidelines
220(4)
Basic Considerations
220(1)
Incompatible Centers
220(1)
Spaces for Varying Group Sizes
221(1)
Personal Spaces
222(1)
Assessing the Physical Space
222(2)
The Centers-Based Classroom
224(9)
Art Center
224(1)
Manipulative Center
225(1)
Book/Quiet Center
226(1)
Block Center
227(1)
Housekeeping Center
227(1)
Dramatic Play Center
228(1)
The Music Center
229(1)
Discovery/Science Center
230(1)
Other Creative Centers
231(2)
Age-Related Considerations
233(5)
Infant/Toddler Classrooms
233(1)
Children 3 Through 5
233(3)
Primary-Age Children
236(2)
Selecting Equipment and Materials
238(3)
Criteria for Selection
238(1)
Commercial Materials
239(1)
Teacher-Made Equipment
240(1)
Children with Special Needs
241(1)
Changing the Physical Environment
242(1)
Balancing Consistency and Change
242(1)
Rotating Materials Through Centers
242(1)
Observe and Listen to Children
243(1)
Health and Safety Issues
243(1)
Planning a Healthy Environment
243(1)
Safety Concerns
244(1)
Summary
244(4)
10 Planning the Physical Environment: Outdoors
248(28)
Importance of Outdoor Play
250(1)
Planning Guidelines
250(4)
Basic Guidelines
251(1)
Fixed Equipment
251(1)
Movable Equipment
252(2)
Variety of Play Options
253(1)
Outdoor Play Areas
254(3)
Transition Area
254(1)
Manipulative/Construction Area
254(1)
Dramatic Play Area
254(1)
Physical Area
255(1)
Sand/Water Play Area
255(1)
Natural Areas
256(1)
Developmental Considerations
257(7)
Infant/Toddler Play Spaces
257(2)
Children 3 Through 5
259(3)
Primary Children
262(1)
Children with Special Needs
262(2)
Selecting Equipment and Materials
264(2)
Commercial Equipment
264(1)
Donated Materials
265(1)
Adult-Made Equipment
265(1)
Planning for Change in the Outdoor Environment
266(3)
Outdoor Prop Boxes
266(2)
Teacher-Movable Equipment
268(1)
Child-Movable Equipment
268(1)
Heath and Safety on the Playground
269(2)
Playground Injuries
269(1)
Safety Guidelines
269(1)
Health Considerations
270(1)
The Teacher's Role
270(1)
Parent and Community Involvement
271(1)
Committing to the Outdoor Environment
272(2)
Summary
274(2)
11 Activity Planning and Assessment
276(28)
Creating a Developmentally Appropriate Curriculum
278(9)
Guidelines for the Developmentally Appropriate Curriculum
278(2)
Developmental Considerations
280(1)
Observation as a Curriculum Tool
280(1)
Curriculum Goals
281(1)
Planning Activities and Lessons
282(1)
Activity Planning
283(2)
Lesson Planning
285(2)
The Integrated Curriculum
287(4)
Why Implement an Integrated Curriculum?
287(1)
Planning and Preparation
288(3)
The Project Approach
291(1)
Scheduling Issues
292(1)
Assessment
293(9)
Using Standardized Tests
294(1)
The Role of Observation in Assessment
295(2)
The Portfolio and Its Use
297(5)
Involving Parents
302(1)
Summary
302(2)
IV THE CURRICULUM
12 Enhancing Physical Development
304(26)
The Importance of Motor Skills
306(1)
Social Skills and Physical Development
306(1)
Motor Activities and Emotions
306(1)
Connections to Cognitive Development
306(1)
Foundation for Physical Fitness
307(1)
The Components of Physical Development
308(4)
Physical Growth
309(1)
Gross Motor Development
310(1)
Fine Motor Skills
311(1)
Phases of Motor Development
312(1)
Perceptual-Motor Development
312(1)
Teaching Physical Development
312(4)
Basic Considerations
313(1)
Instructional Strategies for Physical Education
314(1)
Physical Development and Play
314(1)
Organized Physical Activities
315(1)
Enhancing Physical Development Indoors
316(2)
Organized Games and Activities: Indoors
316(2)
Enhancing Physical Development Outdoors
318(3)
Rough-and-Tumble Play
318(1)
Organized Games and Activities: Outdoors
318(3)
Teaching Children to Care for Their Bodies
321(3)
Health Education
321(2)
Safety Issues
323(1)
Working with Parents and Families
324(1)
Understanding Physical Growth
324(1)
Importance of Active Play
324(1)
Nutrition Information
324(1)
Summary
324(6)
13 Supporting Social and Emotional Development
Toward Social Competence
330(5)
Building a Sense of Self
330(2)
Teacher-Student Relationships
332(1)
Peer Interactions
333(2)
The Social Development Curriculum
335(3)
The Environment and Materials
335(1)
Activities and Themes
336(2)
Helping Children with Emotional Development
338(2)
What Are Emotions?
339(1)
Dealing with Feelings
339(1)
Materials and Activities for Emotional Development
340(2)
Stress as a Factor in Social and Emotional Development
342(4)
Stress Factors
342(1)
Helping Children Cope
343(3)
Teachers' Personal Development
346(1)
Summary
346(4)
14 Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies Learning
350(26)
Goals of the Cognitive Curriculum
352(2)
Learning Facts
352(1)
Critical Thinking
352(1)
Problem Solving
353(1)
Lifelong Learning
353(1)
The Constructivist Approach
354(1)
Mathematics and Young Children
355(5)
Classification
356(1)
Seriation
357(1)
Patterning
357(1)
Number Concepts
357(1)
Measurement
358(1)
Geometry
359(1)
The Language of Mathematics
359(1)
Science Learning
360(5)
Scientific Content
360(3)
The Scientific Process
363(1)
Developing Scientific Attitudes
363(2)
Young Children and Social Studies
365(2)
Understanding Self
365(1)
Understanding Others
366(1)
Integrating Cognitive Learning Throughout the Curriculum
367(3)
Infant/Toddler Materials and Activities
368(1)
Children 3 Through 5
368(1)
The Primary Grades
369(1)
Parental Roles in Cognitive Development
370(2)
Supporting the Importance of Cognitive Development
370(1)
Assisting with Classroom Learning
371(1)
Home Learning Tasks
372(1)
Summary
372(4)
15 Language and Literacy Learning
376(24)
Language Learning
378(7)
Theoretical Perspectives
378(1)
Language Development
378(2)
Linguistic Systems
380(1)
Facilitating Language Learning
380(4)
Language Learning Materials
384(1)
Literacy Learning
385(10)
Literacy Development
385(1)
Assisting with Emergent Literacy
386(4)
Children's Books
390(3)
Writing Tools
393(1)
Writing Instruction
394(1)
Formal Reading Instruction
394(1)
Encouraging Parent Involvement
395(3)
Taking Advantage of Daily Living
395(1)
Simple Home Learning Tasks
396(2)
Summary
398(2)
16 Using the Creative Arts to Support Development and Learning
400(26)
What Is Creativity?
402(4)
Defining Creativity
402(1)
Characteristics of Creative Individuals
403(1)
Assisting with the Creative Process
403(1)
Creativity and Play
404(2)
The Young Artist
406(7)
Why Include Art?
406(1)
Misconceptions About Art
407(1)
Developmental Trends in Art
408(1)
The Early Childhood Art Curriculum
409(1)
The Teacher's Role in Art Experiences
410(2)
The Art of Reggio Emilia
412(1)
Music and the Young Child
413(5)
The Importance of Music in Early Childhood
413(1)
Musical Development
414(2)
The Music Curriculum for Young Children
416(1)
Facilitating Musical Experiences
417(1)
Activities in Art and Music
418(6)
Activities for Infants/Toddlers 4l
l8
Art and Music for Preschoolers
419(2)
The Primary Years
421(3)
Summary
424(2)
17 Using Technology to Support Development and Learning
426
Television and Young Children
428(3)
Time Spent Viewing
428(1)
Sex, Violence, and Advertising
429(1)
Redeeming Aspects?
430(1)
Guidelines for Parents
430(1)
The Video Game Dilemma
431(1)
The Debate over Value
431(1)
Parental Roles
431(1)
Can Computers Be Used in Developmentally Appropriate Ways?
432(6)
Computers and Play
432(3)
Social Interactions
435(1)
Developmental Abilities
435(1)
The Child with Special Needs
436(1)
Computers in the Classroom
436(1)
Interacting with Children Using Computers
437(1)
Selecting Computers and Software Programs
438(6)
Hardware Options
438(2)
Selecting Computer Software
440(2)
Helping Parents to Select Software
442(2)
Summary
444
References R-1
Author Index I-1
Subject Index I-5


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