Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation, Seventh Edition

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 9/25/2003
  • Publisher: CRC Press
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This latest edition of Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation examines concepts, field-tested techniques and procedures, and technical information concerning crime scene investigation. It has been widely adopted by police academies, community colleges, and universities and is recommended for preparation for certification exams. Written in an easy-to-read style, this comprehensive text offers up-to-date technical expertise that the author has developed over many years in law enforcement. Includes check-off lists, case studies, and 16 pages of full-color illustrated photos. Also included is an appendix on equipment for crime scene investigations.

Author Biography

Barry A. J. Fisher is a past president of the American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors, a past chairman of the American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors/Laboratory Accreditation Board, and is a Distinguished Fellow and past president of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. vii
Prefacep. ix
Acknowledgmentsp. xi
The Authorp. xiii
Prologuep. xvii
Introductionp. 1
Identification and Individualization of Physical Evidencep. 5
Collection and Preservation of Physical Evidencep. 10
Important Considerations in Crime Scene Investigationsp. 14
Guidelines for Forensic Laboratory Management Practicesp. 15
Expert Witness Tipsp. 20
Before Going to Courtp. 20
Giving Expert Testimonyp. 20
Cross Examinationp. 21
Other Pointsp. 21
Teamworkp. 22
Professional Developmentp. 22
First Officer at the Crime Scenep. 25
The First Officer at the Scenep. 28
Recording the Timep. 31
Entering the Scene Properp. 32
Protecting the Integrity of the Scenep. 33
Injured Person on the Scenep. 34
Dead Person on the Scenep. 35
Summoning the Coronerp. 35
Firearms and Ammunition on the Scenep. 36
When a Suspect Is Found at the Scenep. 38
What to Do Until Investigating Personnel Arrivep. 39
Continued Protection of the Scenep. 40
The Crime Scene Investigatorp. 43
Actual Examination of the Scenep. 52
Specialized Personnel at the Crime Scenep. 57
Health and Safety Issues at Crime Scenesp. 65
Chemical or Biological Terrorist Crime Scenesp. 65
Indicators of a Possible Biological Terrorist Threatp. 67
Indicators of a Possible Chemical Terrorist Threatp. 68
Health and Safety Considerations for Crime Scene Personnelp. 69
Conclusionp. 73
Processing the Crime Scenep. 75
Plan of Actionp. 75
Note Takingp. 75
Crime Scene Searchp. 77
Crime Scene Photographyp. 79
Types of Camerasp. 79
Admissibility of Photographsp. 85
Videotapep. 86
Sketching the Crime Scenep. 86
Information Included in Crime Scene Sketchesp. 87
Equipmentp. 87
Types of Sketchesp. 87
Locating Objects in the Sketchp. 88
Computer Programsp. 88
Admissibility of Sketchesp. 88
Collection of Evidencep. 89
Establishing Identityp. 93
Fingerprints and Palm Printsp. 93
How Do Fingerprints Occur?p. 93
Where to Look for Fingerprintsp. 94
Different Types of Fingerprintsp. 97
Fingerprint Developing Techniquesp. 98
Development with Powdersp. 98
Lasers and Alternative Light Sourcesp. 104
Image Processingp. 105
Automated Fingerprint Identification Systemsp. 106
Preservation of Fingerprintsp. 108
How Long Does a Fingerprint Remain on an Object?p. 109
The Effect of Temperature Conditions on the Possibility of Developing Fingerprintsp. 109
Examination of Developed Fingerprintsp. 110
Palm Printsp. 110
Packing Objects on which Prints are Foundp. 110
Taking Fingerprints for Eliminationp. 111
Prints of Other Coveringsp. 114
Handwriting Examinationp. 116
Identification of Human Remainsp. 121
Taking Fingerprintsp. 124
Photographingp. 128
Marks of Trades or Occupationsp. 131
Making a Descriptionp. 133
The Deceased's Clothingp. 135
Laundry Marksp. 135
Watchmaker's Marksp. 136
Jewelryp. 136
Eyeglassesp. 136
Teethp. 137
Facial Reconstructionp. 138
Determination of Genderp. 138
Determination of Agep. 140
Length of Bodyp. 141
Hair Colorp. 141
Blood Typep. 141
Identification in Mass Disastersp. 142
Trace Evidence and Miscellaneous Materialp. 149
Sources of Trace Evidencep. 149
Clothingp. 149
Footwearp. 151
Evidence from the Bodyp. 151
Trace Metal Detectionp. 151
Other Objects as Sources of Trace Evidencep. 152
Collection and Preservation of Trace Evidencep. 155
Examples of Trace Evidencep. 157
Building Materialsp. 157
Asbestosp. 158
Safe Insulationp. 158
Paintp. 158
Rustp. 160
Metalsp. 160
Textiles and Fibersp. 161
Buttonsp. 165
Cordage and Ropep. 165
Cigarettes and Tobaccop. 167
Matchesp. 172
Burned Paperp. 172
Ashp. 173
Soilp. 173
Woodp. 174
Plant Materialp. 175
Glassp. 176
Objects Left at the Crime Scenep. 182
Paperp. 182
Articles of Clothingp. 182
Product Markingsp. 183
Foodstuffsp. 183
Cosmeticsp. 184
Hairp. 185
Feathersp. 189
Electrical Wirep. 189
Broken Toolsp. 189
Tapep. 190
Headlampsp. 192
Computer Seizurep. 192
Collecting Videotape Evidencep. 194
Determine if There Is a Videotapep. 194
Stop the Recorderp. 194
Confiscate the Tapes Immediately, Taking the Usual Chain-of-Evidence Stepsp. 194
Document the Video System's Physical Relationship to the Crime Scenep. 195
Seek Technical Assistance if Problems Occurp. 195
Other Trace Evidencep. 197
Blood and Other Biological Evidencep. 199
A Word of Caution!p. 199
Universal Precautionsp. 199
Bloodstain Pattern Recognitionp. 200
Presumptive Tests for Bloodp. 206
Searching for Bloodstainsp. 206
Description and Recording of Bloodstainsp. 208
Collection and Preservation of Bloodstainsp. 208
Removal of Bloodstainsp. 209
Bloodstained Objectsp. 209
Blood Typingp. 210
Collection of Known Specimensp. 210
Forensic DNA Typingp. 211
RFLP-Based Technologyp. 212
PCR-Based Technologyp. 213
Mitochondrial DNAp. 214
CODISp. 215
Forensic DNA and Unsolved Casesp. 216
SWGDAMp. 216
The Futurep. 219
Impression Evidencep. 221
Footprintsp. 225
The Value of Footprintsp. 226
Preservation of Footwear and Tire Impressionsp. 231
Footprints on Floorsp. 232
Preservation of Footwear Evidencep. 232
Photographing Footwear Impressionsp. 232
Casting with Dental Stonep. 233
Casting Water-Filled Impressionsp. 233
Casting Impressions in Snowp. 234
Preservation of Footprints (Dust Prints)p. 234
Taking Comparison Footprints from a Suspectp. 236
Comparison of Footprintsp. 238
Marks on Clothes and Parts of the Bodyp. 238
Fabric Marksp. 238
Tooth Marksp. 240
The Preservation of Bite Marksp. 241
Casting Material for Bite Mark Evidencep. 242
Human Skinp. 243
Foodsp. 243
Tool Marksp. 243
Preservation of Tool Marksp. 244
Casting Tool Marksp. 244
Trace Evidence on Toolsp. 246
Preserving a Toolp. 251
Fragments of Toolsp. 251
Typed Documentsp. 252
Firearms Examinationp. 257
Characteristics of Firearmsp. 257
Ammunitionp. 260
Firearms Evidencep. 260
Gunshot Residue Analysisp. 262
Collecting Firearms Evidencep. 264
Handling of Firearmsp. 270
Cartridge Casesp. 273
Bulletsp. 277
Marking Bulletsp. 278
Small Shotp. 281
Test Firingp. 283
Powder Pattern Examinationp. 283
National Integrated Ballistic Information Network (NIBIN)p. 284
Arson and Explosivesp. 287
Physical Evidencep. 289
Explosivesp. 295
Low Explosivesp. 296
High Explosivesp. 297
Blasting Agentsp. 301
Military Explosivesp. 301
Homemade Explosivesp. 302
Bomb Scene Investigationp. 304
Illicit Drugs and Toxicologyp. 311
Psychoactive Drugsp. 311
Central Nervous System Depressantsp. 311
Central Nervous System Stimulantsp. 313
Hallucinogensp. 313
Crime Scene Searchp. 317
Searching a Suspectp. 317
Searching a Dwellingp. 317
Searching a Vehiclep. 319
Clandestine Drug Laboratoriesp. 319
Collection and Preservation of Evidencep. 322
Toxicologyp. 323
U.S. DEA Drug Schedule Classificationp. 325
p. 325
p. 325
p. 326
p. 326
p. 326
Investigating Sexual Assault and Domestic Abuse Crimesp. 327
Rapep. 327
Preliminary Interviewp. 327
Medical Examinationp. 328
Collection of Physical Evidencep. 330
Date-Rape Drugsp. 332
Other Sexual and Abusive Assaultsp. 334
Sexual Child Molestation and Incestp. 334
Homosexual Assaultp. 335
Elder Abusep. 335
Conclusionp. 339
Burglary Investigationp. 341
Points of Entryp. 341
Entry through Windowsp. 342
Entry through Doorsp. 343
Entry through Basement Windows and Skylightsp. 345
Entry through Roofsp. 345
Entry through Wallsp. 346
Entry through Floorsp. 346
Simulated Burglariesp. 347
Detailed Examination of the Scenep. 348
Safe Burglariesp. 351
Safe Burglaries Using Explosivesp. 353
Motor Vehicle Investigationp. 357
Vehicle Theftp. 359
Abandoned Vehiclesp. 361
Homicide in a Vehiclep. 369
Hit-and-Run Investigationp. 372
Marks from Vehiclesp. 377
Wheel Marksp. 377
Skid Marksp. 377
Homicide Investigationp. 379
Murder, Suicide, or Accident?p. 380
Cause of Deathp. 380
Suicidep. 380
Signs of Strugglep. 383
Location of Weaponp. 390
Examination of a Dead Body at the Crime Scenep. 390
Murderp. 392
Detailed Examination of the Scene of the Crimep. 394
Outdoor Crime Scenesp. 398
Discovering a Body Hidden at Another Locationp. 401
Investigation of a Greatly Altered Body or Skeletonp. 402
The Scene of Discoveryp. 403
Outdoorsp. 403
Indoorsp. 406
Packing and Transportingp. 406
Determining the Number of Individualsp. 407
Examining Remains of Clothing and Other Objectsp. 407
Clothingp. 407
Boots and Shoesp. 408
Other Objectsp. 408
Estimating the Time of Deathp. 408
Postmortem Signs of Deathp. 409
Decomposition of the Bodyp. 410
Action of Insects and Other Animals on a Dead Bodyp. 412
Other Indications of Time of Deathp. 414
The Autopsyp. 416
Injuries from External Mechanical Violencep. 417
Injuries from Sharp External Violencep. 418
Marks or Damage on Clothingp. 422
Defense Injuriesp. 423
Firearm Injuriesp. 423
Bullet Injuriesp. 424
Close and Distant Shotsp. 426
Damage to Clothes from Shootingp. 431
Modes of Death from Shootingp. 431
Explosion Injuriesp. 433
Death by Suffocationp. 434
Death from Electric Currentsp. 442
Violent Death in Firesp. 442
Death by Freezingp. 443
Death by Poisoningp. 443
Rape-Homicide and Sexual Assault-Related Murdersp. 447
Infanticide and Child Abusep. 447
Trunk Murder, Dismemberment of the Bodyp. 449
Serial Murdersp. 451
Equipment for Crime Scene Investigationsp. 459
Forensic Science-Related Websitesp. 463
Terrorism and Domestic Preparedness Websitesp. 469
Bibliographyp. 475
Indexp. 499
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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