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TechOne: Automotive Electricity & Electronics,9781401813949
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TechOne: Automotive Electricity & Electronics

by
Edition:
Student
ISBN13:

9781401813949

ISBN10:
1401813941
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/14/2003
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning

Related Products


  • Automotive Electricity and Electronics
    Automotive Electricity and Electronics





Summary

How things work, why we test objects as we do, and what the test instruments tell us are all part of the foundation for this new book on automotive electricity and electronics. Completely up-to-date coverage emphasizes the fundamentals of electronics, setting the stage for smooth progression through more advanced topics such as batteries, starting and charging systems, ignitions, and electrical accessories. Testing is accomplished with common shop tools as well as highly technical equipment. Each chapter is written in a clear and concise fashion that is easy to follow, with current J1930 terminology incorporated throughout.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
About the Author xiii
Acknowledgments xiv
Features of the Text xvi
Section 1: Safety and Communication
1(14)
Safe Working Practices
3(5)
Introduction
3(1)
Work Clothes
3(1)
Eye Protection
4(1)
The Air We Breathe and Noises We Hear
4(1)
Fire Protection
5(1)
Material Safety Data Sheets
5(1)
Battery Safety
6(1)
Summary
7(1)
Review Questions
7(1)
Working As an Electricity/Electronics Technician
8(7)
Introduction
8(1)
Your Toolbox
8(2)
Access to Wiring Diagrams and Repair Information
10(1)
Communicating with the Customer
10(1)
Working Around Air Bags
10(2)
Static Electricity
12(1)
Summary
13(1)
Review Questions
13(2)
Section 2: Circuit Fundamentals and Basic Test Equipment
15(32)
Voltage, Current, and Resistance
17(9)
Introduction
17(1)
Electricity
17(1)
Voltage
18(1)
Current
19(1)
Wattage
20(1)
Resistance
20(2)
Insulators and Conductors
22(2)
Loads
24(1)
Summary
25(1)
Review Questions
25(1)
Circuits
26(8)
Introduction
26(1)
Circuit Components
26(2)
Series Circuits
28(1)
Parallel Circuits
29(2)
Series-Parallel Circuits
31(2)
Summary
33(1)
Review Questions
33(1)
Voltmeters
34(4)
Introduction
34(1)
Purpose of the Voltmeter
34(1)
Connecting the Voltmeter
35(1)
Measuring Voltage Drop
36(1)
Interpreting Voltage Readings
36(1)
Summary
37(1)
Review Questions
37(1)
Ammeters
38(4)
Introduction
38(1)
Types of Ammeters
38(2)
Current Probes
40(1)
Summary
41(1)
Review Questions
41(1)
Ohmmeters
42(5)
Introduction
42(1)
Reading and Interpreting Ohmmeter Readings
43(1)
Continuity Testing
44(1)
Summary
45(1)
Review Questions
45(2)
Section 3: Vehicle Circuits
47(48)
Circuits That Do Work
49(5)
Introduction
49(1)
Circuit Components
49(3)
Summary
52(1)
Review Questions
53(1)
Analyzing Series Circuits
54(7)
Introduction
54(1)
Wiring Up a Series Circuit
54(1)
Voltage Division in a Series Circuit
55(2)
Current Flow in a Series Circuit
57(2)
Summary
59(1)
Review Questions
59(2)
Analyzing Parallel Circuits
61(5)
Introduction
61(1)
Current Flow in a Parallel Circuit
61(1)
Resistance in a Parallel Circuit
62(2)
Voltage in a Parallel Circuit
64(1)
Summary
64(1)
Review Questions
64(2)
Series-Parallel Circuits
66(6)
Introduction
66(1)
Series-Parallel Circuits
66(3)
Dashboard Dimmer Circuit
69(1)
Summary
70(1)
Review Questions
70(2)
Control Circuits
72(7)
Introduction
72(1)
The Switch As a Control Device
72(1)
Relays As Control Devices
73(3)
Electronic Relay As a Control Device
76(1)
Summary
77(1)
Review Questions
77(2)
Diagnosing Open Circuits
79(7)
Introduction
79(1)
Using a 12-Volt Test Light
79(1)
Open-Circuit Diagnosis Using a 12-Volt Test Light
80(3)
Diagnosing Open Circuits with a Voltmeter
83(2)
Summary
85(1)
Review Questions
85(1)
Diagnosing Short Circuits
86(5)
Introduction
86(1)
Short Circuits and Resistance
86(1)
Diagnosing a Short Circuit with a Short Detector
86(3)
Diagnosing Short Circuits with Electronic Control
89(1)
Summary
89(1)
Review Questions
90(1)
Servicing Open and Short Circuits
91(4)
Introduction
91(1)
Replacing a Component
91(1)
Replacing a Wire
91(1)
Repair Considerations
92(2)
Summary
94(1)
Review Questions
94(1)
Section 4: Digital Storage Oscilloscope (DSO) Use
95(38)
Digital Storage Oscilloscopes
97(6)
Introduction
97(1)
Voltage Settings
97(2)
Time Settings
99(2)
Using Signal Finder
101(1)
Setting for AC or DC Voltage
101(1)
Input Leads
101(1)
Summary
101(1)
Review Questions
102(1)
DSO Trigger and Slope
103(6)
Introduction
103(1)
Advantage of Using Trigger and Slope
103(1)
Setting Trigger and Slope
104(1)
Using an External Trigger
104(1)
Examples
105(3)
Summary
108(1)
Review Questions
108(1)
Reading and Interpreting a DSO Pattern
109(8)
Introduction
109(1)
AC Signal
109(1)
DC Signal
110(1)
Variable Frequency
110(2)
Duty Cycle Patterns
112(3)
Pulse Width
115(1)
Summary
115(1)
Review Questions
115(2)
Using a Current Probe with a DSO
117(7)
Introduction
117(1)
Why Use a Current Probe?
117(1)
Setting and Calibrating the Probe
117(1)
Setting Up the DSO
118(2)
Connecting the Probe into the Circuit
120(1)
Measuring a Nonpulsing Load
120(1)
Measuring a Pulsing Load
120(2)
Summary
122(1)
Review Questions
122(2)
Using the DSO's Multiple-Trace Capability
124(9)
Introduction
124(1)
Why Use Multiple-Trace Capability?
124(1)
How to Set and Adjust Multiple Traces
124(2)
Setting a Trigger
126(1)
Examples
126(4)
Summary
130(1)
Review Questions
131(2)
Section 5: Electronic Fundamentals
133(48)
Solid-State Devices
135(7)
Introduction
135(1)
Conductors and Insulators
135(1)
The Diode
136(2)
Transistors
138(1)
Transistors As Amplifiers
139(1)
Transistors As Switches
139(1)
Precautions Necessary When Working on Electronics
140(1)
Summary
140(1)
Review Questions
140(2)
Electronic-Control Input Devices
142(5)
Introduction
142(1)
Thermistors
142(2)
Position Sensors
144(1)
The Switch As an Input Device
145(1)
Summary
145(1)
Review Questions
145(2)
Diagnosing and Servicing Electronic-Control Input Devices
147(8)
Introduction
147(1)
Using a DMM to Test Inputs
147(2)
Using a DSO to Test Inputs
149(1)
Introduction to a Scanner
150(3)
Using the Scanner to Test Inputs
153(1)
Summary
153(1)
Review Questions
153(2)
Integrated Circuits As Input Devices
155(5)
Introduction
155(1)
IC Protection
155(1)
Hall Effect Sensors
155(1)
Variable-Frequency Generators
156(2)
Photo Diode Sensors
158(1)
Summary
159(1)
Review Questions
159(1)
Diagnosing and Servicing ICs
160(8)
Introduction
160(1)
Using a DSO to Test Input Sensors
160(5)
Using a DMM to Test Input Sensors
165(2)
Summary
167(1)
Review Questions
167(1)
Oxygen Sensors
168(5)
Introduction
168(1)
How Does an O2 Sensor Function?
169(1)
Common Problems
170(1)
Summary
171(1)
Review Questions
172(1)
Diagnosing and Servicing Oxygen Sensors
173(8)
Introduction
173(1)
Using Propane and a DSO
173(2)
Determining the ``Rich'' Voltage
175(1)
Determining the ``Lean'' Voltage
175(1)
Determining the Speed of the O2 Sensor
176(1)
Determining If the Vehicle Is in Fuel Control
176(3)
Summary
179(1)
Review Questions
179(2)
Section 6: Wiring Diagrams
181(18)
Wiring Diagram Symbols
183(11)
Introduction
183(1)
Grounds
184(2)
Protection Devices
186(1)
Switches
187(2)
Solenoids
189(1)
Relays
190(1)
Resistors
190(1)
Motors
191(1)
Location Codes
192(1)
Summary
193(1)
Review Questions
193(1)
Using the Wiring Diagram As a Service Tool
194(5)
Introduction
194(1)
Common-Point Diagnostics
194(1)
Using the Wiring Diagram to Find an Open Circuit
194(2)
Using the Wiring Diagram to Find a Short Circuit
196(1)
Printed Circuits
197(1)
Summary
197(1)
Review Questions
198(1)
Section 7: Batteries
199(26)
Automotive Batteries
201(8)
Introduction
201(1)
Types of Cells
201(1)
Connecting Cells
201(2)
Automotive Battery Cells
203(1)
Sizes and Ratings
203(2)
Maintenance-free Batteries
205(1)
Oxygen-Recombination Batteries
206(1)
Battery Safety
207(1)
Summary
207(1)
Review Questions
208(1)
Diagnosing Batteries
209(10)
Introduction
209(1)
Why Should We Test Batteries?
209(1)
A Review of General Battery Safety
210(1)
Testing the Battery State of Charge with a Hydrometer
211(3)
Testing the Battery State of Charge with an Optical Refractometer
214(1)
Testing the Battery State of Charge Using Open-Circuit Voltage
214(1)
Load Testing
214(2)
Three-Minute Battery Test
216(1)
Battery CCA Testing
217(1)
Summary
217(1)
Review Questions
218(1)
Servicing Batteries
219(6)
Introduction
219(1)
Battery Maintenance
219(3)
Charging a Dead Battery
222(1)
Jump-Starting a Battery
222(1)
Summary
223(1)
Review Questions
223(2)
Section 8: Starting Systems
225(64)
Starting Systems
227(7)
Introduction
227(1)
A Typical Starting Circuit
227(1)
Magnetism
227(1)
Electromagnetism
228(2)
Motor Principles
230(2)
Summary
232(1)
Review Questions
233(1)
Solenoid Shift Starters
234(4)
Introduction
234(1)
Solenoids
234(1)
Armature
235(1)
Starter Drive Mechanism or Overrunning Clutch
236(1)
Current Flow Through the Starter
236(1)
Summary
237(1)
Review Questions
237(1)
Diagnosing and Servicing Solenoid Shift Starting Systems
238(9)
Introduction
238(1)
Review of the Volts-Amps Tester
238(2)
Cranking Current
240(1)
Cranking Speed
241(1)
Measuring Voltage Drops
242(1)
Procedure for Determining Open Circuit in No-Crank Condition
243(1)
Diagnosing Unusual Starting Noise
244(2)
Summary
246(1)
Review Questions
246(1)
Positive Engagement Starters
247(4)
Introduction
247(1)
Armature
247(1)
The Shorting Switch
247(2)
Current Flow Through the Starting System
249(1)
Summary
250(1)
Review Questions
250(1)
Diagnosing and Servicing Positive Engagement Starting Systems
251(6)
Introduction
251(1)
Measuring Cranking Speed
251(1)
Measuring Voltage Drops
252(3)
Diagnosing Unusual Starter Noise
255(1)
Diagnosing Excessive Current or Reduced Cranking Speed
255(1)
Summary
255(1)
Review Questions
255(2)
Gear-Reduction Starters
257(6)
Introduction
257(1)
Armature
257(1)
Starter Drive
258(1)
Transmission
259(1)
Use of the Solenoid
260(1)
Current Flow Through the Starter
260(1)
Summary
261(1)
Review Questions
261(2)
Diagnosing Gear-Reduction Starters
263(6)
Introduction
263(1)
Cranking Current
263(1)
Diagnosing Excessive Cranking Current
264(2)
Diagnosing Reduced Cranking Speed
266(1)
Diagnosing Unusual Starting Noise
267(1)
Summary
267(1)
Review Questions
267(2)
Starter Controls
269(10)
Introduction
269(1)
Starting Relay
269(4)
Use of a Transmission Range Switch
273(1)
Theft-Control Starter Circuits
273(5)
Summary
278(1)
Review Questions
278(1)
Diagnosing Starting Controls
279(6)
Introduction
279(1)
Using a 12-Volt Test Light
279(1)
No-Start Testing
280(4)
Summary
284(1)
Review Questions
284(1)
Starting System Servicing
285(4)
Introduction
285(1)
Checking Cranking Speed
285(2)
Removing and Replacing a Starter
287(1)
Checking and Adjusting Pinion Depth
287(1)
Summary
288(1)
Review Questions
288(1)
Section 9: Charging Systems
289(42)
Charging System Overview
291(10)
Introduction
291(1)
The Alternator
292(5)
Regulators
297(2)
Summary
299(1)
Review Questions
300(1)
Field Circuits
301(11)
Introduction
301(1)
The A Circuit
301(1)
The B Circuit
302(1)
Isolated Field Circuit
302(1)
Electronic Regulators
303(1)
External Regulators
304(1)
Internal Electronic Regulators
305(1)
Computer Regulation
305(2)
Charging Indicators
307(4)
Summary
311(1)
Review Questions
311(1)
Diagnosing and Servicing the Charging System
312(19)
Introduction
312(1)
The State of Charge
312(2)
Charging System Testing
314(1)
Testing Alternator Maximum Output
314(1)
Full Fielding the Alternator
315(3)
Testing the Charging System Voltage Regulation
318(3)
Charging Voltage Drops
321(1)
Review of Alternator/Regulator Testing
322(1)
Charging Light Diagnosis
323(2)
Testing for Excessive AC Using a DMM and a DSO
325(3)
Summary
328(1)
Review Questions
328(3)
Section 10: Ignition Systems
331(98)
Secondary Ignition Systems
333(10)
Introduction
333(1)
Overview of Ignition Systems
333(2)
Resistor and Nonresistor Plugs
335(1)
Gap
335(1)
Thread and Sealing
336(1)
Aluminum Heads and Heli-coiling
336(1)
Reading a Used Plug
337(1)
Wires
337(2)
Magnetic Suppression
339(1)
Cap and Rotor
340(1)
Summary
341(1)
Review Questions
342(1)
Servicing the Secondary Ignition System
343(14)
Introduction
343(1)
Removing and Replacing Spark Plugs
343(1)
Setting the Spark Plug Air Gap
344(1)
Replacing Ignition Wires
345(1)
Replacing Ignition Caps and Rotors
345(1)
Using a DSO to Check Secondary Firing Voltage
346(4)
Using the DSO to Check the Cause of Excessive Secondary Voltage
350(5)
Measuring How Long the Spark Lasts
355(1)
Using the DSO to Check for Insulation Breakdown
355(1)
Summary
356(1)
Review Questions
356(1)
Primary Ignition Systems
357(15)
Introduction
357(1)
Ignition Coils
357(2)
Primary Resistance
359(1)
Primary Control Devices
360(2)
Input Sensors (Piston Position Sensors)
362(1)
Hall Effect Sensors
362(1)
Optical Crankshaft Position Sensors
363(1)
Ignition Module Functions
363(2)
Advancing Systems
365(1)
Mechanical Advance
366(1)
Vacuum Advance
366(2)
Computerized Advancing Systems
368(2)
Summary
370(1)
Review Questions
370(2)
Diagnosing and Servicing Distributed Primary Ignition Systems
372(16)
Introduction
372(1)
Setting Base Timing
372(3)
Checking the Advancing System
375(2)
Using a DSO for Primary Circuit Testing
377(5)
Using a Current Probe to Diagnose Primary Circuits
382(1)
Checking Input Sensors with a DSO
383(2)
No-Spark Testing
385(1)
Summary
386(1)
Review Questions
387(1)
Distributorless Ignition Secondary Circuits
388(7)
Introduction
388(1)
Waste Spark Systems
388(2)
Coil-Near-Plug Systems
390(1)
Coil-on-Plug Systems
391(1)
Spark Plug Use
392(1)
Ignition Wires
392(1)
Ignition Coils
392(1)
Summary
393(1)
Review Questions
394(1)
Diagnosing and Servicing the Secondary Ignition System on a Distributorless Vehicle
395(11)
Introduction
395(1)
Using an Ignition Scope for Secondary Testing
395(6)
Coil-Near-Plug Systems
401(2)
Coil-on-Plug Systems
403(1)
Summary
404(1)
Review Questions
404(2)
Distributorless Ignition Primary Circuits
406(11)
Introduction
406(1)
Primary Current Flow
406(2)
Position Sensors: Crankshaft
408(4)
CMP Sensors
412(2)
Computerized Timing
414(1)
Computerized Timing Retard
414(1)
Summary
415(1)
Review Questions
415(2)
Diagnosing and Servicing the Primary Circuit on a Distributorless Ignition System
417(12)
Introduction
417(1)
Waste Spark Systems
417(5)
Coil-on-Plug Systems
422(1)
Coil-Near-Plug Systems
423(2)
Input Sensors
425(2)
Summary
427(1)
Review Questions
428(1)
Section 11: Accessories
429(44)
Lighting Circuits
431(9)
Introduction
431(1)
Fog Lights
431(1)
Taillights
431(3)
Turn Signals
434(1)
Daytime Running Lights
435(1)
Automatic Headlights
435(4)
Summary
439(1)
Review Questions
439(1)
Diagnosing Lighting Circuits
440(8)
Introduction
440(1)
Fog Lights
440(1)
Taillights
441(1)
Turn Signals
442(2)
Brake Lights
444(1)
Automatic Headlights
444(3)
Summary
447(1)
Review Questions
447(1)
Defogger, Horn, and Windshield Wiper Circuits
448(5)
Introduction
448(1)
Horn Circuits
448(1)
Windshield Wipers and Washers
449(1)
Defogger Circuits
450(2)
Summary
452(1)
Review Questions
452(1)
Diagnosing Defogger, Horn, and Windshield Wiper Circuits
453(6)
Introduction
453(1)
Horn Circuit Diagnosis
453(1)
Windshield Wiper and Washer Circuit Diagnosis
454(2)
Defogger Circuit Diagnosis
456(2)
Summary
458(1)
Review Questions
458(1)
Motor-Driven Accessories
459(7)
Introduction
459(1)
Power Windows
459(2)
Power Seats
461(1)
Power Mirrors
462(1)
Engine Cooling Fans
463(2)
Summary
465(1)
Review Questions
465(1)
Diagnosing Motor-Driven Accessories
466(7)
Introduction
466(1)
Diagnosing an Open Power Source
466(2)
Diagnosing an Open Ground
468(1)
Diagnosing a Faulty Switch
469(1)
Diagnosing a Faulty Motor
469(3)
Summary
472(1)
Review Questions
472(1)
Appendix: ASE Practice Exam for Electrical Systems 473(3)
Bilingual Glossary 476(7)
Index 483


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