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Out of the prestigious Missouri School of Journalism, the world's first journalism school, and from the Missouri Group comes the fourth edition ofTelling the Story. Praised for its concise, straightforward approach, the book teaches students the bedrocks of good journalism from beat reporting, conducting interviews, and strong writing to the unchanging goals of fairness, accuracy and ethics acrossallmedia, print, broadcast, and online. At the same time,Telling the Storyprepares students for the ongoing changes in today's converged newsrooms with the most up-to-date information and guidelines on new trends and technologies from blogging to podcasting to syndicated newsfeeds.
BRIAN S. BROOKS is associate dean for undergraduate studies and administration at the University of Missouri School of Journalism. In addition to coauthoring Telling the Story for Bedford/St. Martin’s, he is coauthor of News Reporting and Writing, Ninth Edition (2008), Working with Words, Seventh Edition (2010), and The Art of Editing, Seventh Edition (2001).
GEORGE KENNEDY, professor emeritus at the University of Missouri School of Journalism, is also a coauthor of News Reporting and Writing, Ninth Edition (2008) and Beyond the Inverted Pyramid (1993), as well as a former managing editor of the Columbia Missourian and a former bureau chief for the Miami Herald.
DARYL R. MOEN is professor of journalism at the University of Missouri School of Journalism and former editor of three daily newspapers. Moen is also coauthor of News Reporting and Writing, Ninth Edition (2008) and Beyond the Inverted Pyramid (1993), and author of Newspaper Layout and Design, Fourth Edition (2000).
DON RANLY is professor emeritus of journalism at the University of Missouri School of Journalism and was formerly director of the magazine sequence at the school. He too is coauthor of News Reporting and Writing, Ninth Edition (2008) and Beyond the Inverted Pyramid (1993), author of Publication Editing (1999), and editor of Principles of American Journalism (1997). He has also produced "Ranly on Writing" audiocassettes and "Ranly on Grammar" and "Refrigerator Journalism" videocassettes.
Table of Contents
PART I. JOURNALISM AND JOURNALISTS Chapter 1 The Nature of News CONVERGENCE IN JOURNALISM WHAT NEWS IS News Emphasis in Different Media Citizen Journalism THE ROLE OF JOURNALISM AND THE CHALLENGES IT FACESThe Public’s View of the News Media Principles of Journalism Today ACCURACY, FAIRNESS AND THE PROBLEM OF OBJECTIVITY "Just the Facts" On the Job: A Career Crosses Media Lines Accuracy Fairness Bias Objectivity Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Exercises 2 Redefining News: Citizen Journalism and Convergence THE CHANGING FACE OF JOURNALISM CITIZEN JOURNALISM The Public Drives Change How Important Is Verification? Citizen Journalism: Here to Stay The Coming of Web 2.0 Forms of Citizen Journalism Managing the Change CONVERGENCE Different News Rooms, Different Skills Why Convergence? On the Job: Persistence Pays Off Traditional Media: Where Are They Headed? On the Job: Editing Online News JOURNALISM JOBS Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Exercises PART II. REPORTING TOOLS 3 Interviewing BUILDING TRUST PREPARING FOR THE INTERVIEW The News Story On the Job: Getting the Interview The Profile The Investigative Piece Gathering Information Requesting an Interview BROADCAST INTERVIEWS TELEPHONE AND E-MAIL INTERVIEWS SETTING UP THE INTERVIEW PREPARING QUESTIONS Researching Questions Phrasing Questions Open-Ended Questions Closed-Ended Questions INTERVIEW APPROACHES ENSURING ACCURACY Taking Notes Observing Understanding What You Hear Asking Follow-Up Questions PACING THE INTERVIEW ENDING THE INTERVIEW WHAT TO QUOTE DIRECTLY Unique Material The Memorable Expression Important Quotes by Important People QUOTING ACCURATELY Verification Correcting Grammar in Quotations Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Exercises 4 Gathering and Verifying Information ACCCURATE INFORMATION: THE BASIS OF A GOOD STORY The Discipline of Multiple Sources The Discipline of Verification COMPUTERIZED SOURCES OF INFORMATION Your News Library: The Place to Start On the Job: News Is Information Search Engines News Sites, Portals and Content Aggregators Other Sites on the World Wide Web Commercial Database Services Government Databases Special-Interest Databases CD-ROMs and DVDs Self-Constructed Databases TRADITIONAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION The Newspaper Library Other Traditional Sources Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Exercises 5 Reporting with Numbers PROPORTION Percentages and Percentage Change Averages and Medians Rates INTEREST AND COMPOUNDING INFLATION TAXES Sales Taxes Income Taxes Property Taxes BUDGETS On the Job: Working with Numbers Budget Basics Finding Stories in Budget Changes, Trends and Comparisons FINANCIAL REPORTS MAKING SENSE OF NUMBERS FROM POLLS MIXING NUMBERS AND WORDS CURRENCY EXCHANGE Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Exercises PART III. STORYTELLING 6 The Inverted Pyramid IMPORTANCE OF THE INVERTED PYRAMID STORY FINDING THE LEAD Writing the Inverted Pyramid Lead Emphasizing Different News Values What? So What? and What’s Next? VARIATIONS ON THE INVERTED PYRAMID LEAD The "You" Lead The Immediate-Identification Lead The Delayed-Identification Lead On the Job: Inverted Pyramid—A Basic Tool The Summary Lead The Multiple-Element Leads with Flair STORY ORGANIZATION The One-Subject Story The Multiple-Element Story CHECKING ACCURACY AND ATTRIBUTIONS Ensuring Accuracy How and When to Attribute Primary Sources Witnesses Opinions Transparency Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Exercises 7 Beyond the Inverted Pyramid THE TECHNIQUES OF NARRATION Vivid Scenes Dialogue Foreshadowing Anecdotes THE NEWS NARRATIVE STRUCTURE THE FOCUS STRUCTURE Writing the Lead On the Job: Tips for Writing Finishing the Set-up Add the Transition and the Nut Paragraph Add Foreshadowing Add the "So What" Add the "To Be Sure" Writing the Body Writing the Ending WRITING FOR BLOGS SERVICE JOURNALISM Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Exercises PART IV. COVERING AND WRITING NEWS 8 Speeches, News Conferences and Meetings YOUR PREPARATION Preparing for the Speech Story Preparing for the News Conference Story Preparing for the Meeting Story COVERING THE STORY Be Thorough and Accurate Be Thoughtful and Observant WRITING THE STORY Writing the Speech Story Writing the News Conference Story On the Job: Speeches, News Conferences and Meetings Writing the Meeting Story Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Exercises 9 Other Types of Basic Stories THE VALUE OF EXPERIENCE YOUR PREPARATION Preparing for an Obituary or Life Story Preparing for a Crime Story Preparing for Accident and Fire Stories Preparing for a Court Story WRITING AN OBITUARY OR LIFE STORY Creating a Lead Building the Story On the Job: Focus on a Dream Choosing Your Words Giving Cause of Death Handling Embarrassing Information WRITING A CRIME STORY The Chronologically Ordered Story On the Job: Lessons of the Police Beat The Sidebar Story The Inverted Pyramid Account WRITING ACCIDENT AND FIRE STORIES The Scene of an Accident The First Story The Follow-up Story The Scene of a Fire Getting Information Doing Follow-up Interviews WRITING A COURT STORY Avoiding Libelous Statements Continuing Coverage of the Prosecution A Typical First Story Follow-up Story: First Court Appearance Follow-up Story: Preliminary Hearing Follow-up Story: Arraignment Follow-up Story: First Day of the Trial Follow-up Story: Trial Testimony Follow-up Story: Verdict The Free-Press/Fair-Trial Controversy Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Exercises 10 Beat Reporting BEAT REPORTING IN THE 21ST CENTURY PRINCIPLES FOR REPORTERS ON A BEAT Be Prepared Reading for Background Identifying Sources Establishing Relationships with Sources Be Alert Be Persistent Insisting on a Responsive Answer Following Up Slow Developments Be There Maintaining Your Connections with Sources Ensuring Accuracy On the Job: Newer, Faster, Better Be Wary CONVERGED COVERAGE COVERING THE MOST IMPORTANT LOCAL BEATS Information Is Power The Budget Is the Blueprint Distributing Power and Money Is Politics CITY AND COUNTY GOVERNMENT Subordinate Administrators Council Members Pressure Groups Public Citizens Opponents EDUCATION The Schools Colleges and Universities THE POLICE BEAT THE COURTS Court Records Human Sources Lawyers Judges Other Court Functionaries THE ENVIRONMENT, SCIENCE AND MEDICINE Learning the Beat Finding Stories Dealing with Special Issues SPORTS Looking Beyond the Clichés Developing Contacts Digging for the Real Story The Negative Influence of Celebrity The Problem with Financial Incentives Allegiance to the Reader Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Exercises PART V. MEDIA WRITING 11 Writing News for Radio and Television CRITERIA FOR SELECTING RADIO AND TELEVISION NEWS Timeliness Information Audio or Visual Impact People WRITING RADIO AND TELEVISION NEWS Characteristics of Radio and Television News writing Immediacy Conversational Style Tight Phrasing On the Job: Writing News for Radio and Television Clarity Story Structure Writing the Radio and Television Lead Writing Lead-Ins and Wrap-Ups Writing to the Video PREPARING RADIO AND TELEVISION COPY Format Names and Titles Pronunciation Abbreviations Symbols and Numbers Quotations and Attributions Punctuation Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Exercises 12 Writing for Public Relations PUBLIC-RELATIONS WRITING: A DIFFERENT APPROACH A Range of Interests Objectivity and Public-Relations Writing PUBLIC-RELATIONS WRITING: A DIVERSITY OF TASKS The Message The Audience The Media Television, Radio and Newsstand Publications The Internet—An All-in-One Medium Social-Networking Media Internal Publications, Brochures and Billboards THE MEDIA CAMPAIGN PUBLIC-RELATIONS WRITING: A MATTER OF PERSUASION Your Attitude Credibility and Trust WRITING NEWS RELEASES THAT GET ATTENTION Know What News Is and How to Write It Know the Structure and Operations of News Rooms Know the People in the News Media and the Jobs They Hold Know the Style of Writing That Fits the Medium Know How to Distribute Information Online APPROACHES TO WRITING NEWS RELEASES The Inverted Pyramid Getting Beyond the Inverted Pyramid On the Job: News Releases Suggested Reading Suggested Web Sites Exercises 13 Writing Online THE LESSON OF KATRINA THE WEB AS ITS OWN MEDIA FORM HOW TO WRITE FOR THE WEB The Reader Rules The Writing Is Nonlinear Structure Is Everything GUIDELINES FOR WRITING ONLINE Think Immediacy Save Readers’ Time Provide Information That’s Quick and Easy to Get On the Job: An Online Career Think Both Verbally and Visually Cut Copy in Half Use Lots of Lists and Bullets Write in Chunks Use Hyperlinks Internal Connections External Connections Give Readers a Chance to Talk Back Don’t Forget the Human Touch WRITING WITH SEARCH ENGINES IN MIND LEGAL AND ETHICAL CONCERNS Privacy Advertising Manipulating Photos Concealing Your Identity Corrections Hyperlinks to External Sites TOMORROW’S READERS Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Exercises 14 Law LIBEL Libel Suit Defenses Truth On the Job: The Keys to Avoiding Libel Privilege Fair Comment and Criticism The Actual Malice Test Standards Applicable to Public Figures Standards Applicable to Private Citizens The Continuing Danger Libel and the Internet INVASION OF PRIVACY Trespassing Portraying in a "False Light" Causing Unwanted Publicity Offensive to a Person of Ordinary Sensibilities PROTECTION OF SOURCES AND NOTES ACCESS TO COURTS COPYRIGHT AND FAIR USE Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Exercises 15 Ethics THREE ETHICAL PHILOSOPHIES Deontological Ethics Teleological Ethics On the Job: Ethics in Reporting Situation Ethics Antinomianism Love of Neighbor Utilitarianism John Rawls’ Veil of Ignorance Aristotle’s Golden Mean RESOLVING ETHICAL ISSUES ETHICAL PROBLEMS Deceit Conflicts of Interest Friendship Payola Freebies Checkbook Journalism Participation in the News Advertising Pressure The Influence of Advertisers Conflicts and Policies in Print Media Conflicts and Policies in Other Media Invasion of Privacy Crime Victims and Suspects Juvenile Offenders Public Figures Photos and Video Withholding Information PLAGIARISM Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Exercises Appendix 1: Copy Editing and Proofreading Symbols Appendix 2: Wire Service Style Summary Appendix 3: Twenty Common Errors of Grammar and Punctuation Appendix 4: Crisis Coverage: An Interactive CD-ROM Journalism Simulation Glossary Index