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Textiles

by ;
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780130254436

ISBN10:
0130254436
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $106.20
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Summary

This popular book, now in its&10th edition, considers textiles as the materials used to create apparel, furnishings, and industrial products. It approaches textiles from a product analysis approach, using professional terminology, and provides examples to illustrate key concepts. Flow charts on identifying fabric structure and naming fancy woven fabrics; other fabrication methods; and knits have been added. Also included are tables summarizing components such as fibers, yarns, fabric structure, and finishes. An expanded glossary makes it easier for readers to find pertinent information. For designers, technical designers, apparel engineers, and others in the fashion/apparel business.

Table of Contents

Preface viii
SECTION ONE Introduction to Textiles 1(14)
Introduction
3(4)
Product Development from a Textile Perspective
7(8)
Serviceability and the Consumer
9(1)
Performance
10(2)
Information Sources
12(3)
SECTION TWO Fibers 15(122)
Textile Fibers and Their Properties
17(15)
Fiber Properties
18(3)
Physical Structure
Chemical Composition and Molecular Arrangement
Serviceability
21(7)
Aesthetic Properties
Durability Properties
Comfort Properties
Appearance-Retention Properties
Resistance to Chemicals
Resistance to Light
Environmental Impact
Care Properties
Cost
Fiber Property Charts
Fiber Identification
28(4)
Visual Inspection
Burn Test
Microscopy
Solubility Tests
Natural Cellulosic Fibers
32(17)
Seed Fibers
33(9)
Cotton
Production of Cotton
Physical Structure of Cotton
Classification of Cotton
Chemical Composition and Molecular Arrangement of Cotton
Chemical Nature of Cellulose
Properties of Cotton
Environmental Impact of Cotton
Identification of Cotton
Uses of Cotton
Coir
Kapok
Bast Fibers
42(5)
Flax
Structure of Flax
Properties of Flax
Environmental Impact of Flax
Identification Tests
Uses of Linen
Ramie
Properties of Ramie
Hemp
Jute
Kenaf
Leaf Fibers
47(2)
Pina
Abaca
Sisal and Henequen
Other Cellulosic Materials
47(2)
Natural Protein Fibers
49(18)
Wool
50(8)
Production of Wool
Types and Kinds of Wool
Physical Structure of Wool
Chemical Composition and Molecular Arrangement of Wool
Properties of Wool
Environmental Impact of Wool
Uses of Wool
Specialty Wools
58(3)
Mohair
Qiviut
Angora
Camel's Hair
Cashmere
Llama and Alpaca
Vicuna and Guanaco
Yak
Silk
61(4)
Production of Silk
Physical Structure of Silk
Chemical Composition and Molecular Structure of Silk
Properties of Silk
Environmental Impact of Silk
Uses of Silk
Identification of Natural Protein Fibers
65(2)
The Fiber Manufacturing Process
67(12)
Fiber Spinning
69(2)
Spinning Methods
Fiber Modifications
71(5)
Spinneret Modifications
Molecular Structure and Crystallinity Modifications
Additives to the Polymer or Spinning Solution
Modifications in Fiber Spinning
Complex Modifications
Environmental Impact of Manufactured Fibers
76(1)
Manufactured Fiber Consumption
77(1)
Manufactured versus Natural Fibers
77(2)
Manufactured Regenerated Fibers
79(12)
Identification of Manufactured Fibers
80(1)
Rayon
80(4)
Production of Rayon
Physical Structure of Rayon
Chemical Composition and Molecular Arrangement of Rayon
Properties of Rayon
Environmental Impact of Rayon
Uses of Rayon
Types and Kinds of Rayon
Lyocell
84(2)
Production of Lyocell
Physical Structure of Lyocell
Chemical Composition and Molecular Arrangement of Lyocell
Properties of Lyocell
Environmental Impact of Lyocell
Uses of Lyocell
Types and Kinds of Lyocell
Acetate
86(3)
Production of Acetate
Physical Structure of Acetate
Chemical Composition and Molecular Arrangement of Acetate
Properties of Acetate
Environmental Impact of Acetate
Uses of Acetate
Types and Kinds of Acetate
Other Regenerated Fibers
89(2)
Synthetic Fibers
91(30)
Synthetic Fibers: An Overview
92(4)
Common Properties of Synthetic Fibers
Common Manufacturing Processes
Identification of Synthetic Fibers
Common Fiber Modifications
Nylon
96(7)
Production of Nylon
Physical Structure of Nylon
Chemical Composition and Molecular Arrangement of Nylon
Properties of Nylon
Environmental Impact of Nylon
Uses of Nylon
Types and Kinds of Nylon
Polyester
103(6)
Production of Polyester
Physical Structure of Polyester
Chemical Composition and Molecular Arrangement of Polyester
Properties of Polyester
Environmental Impact of Polyester
Uses of Polyester
Types and Kinds of Polyester
Olefin
109(4)
Production of Olefin
Physical Structure of Olefin
Chemical Composition and Molecular Arrangement of Olefin
Properties of Olefin
Environmental Impact of Olefin
Uses of Olefin
Acrylic
113(5)
Production of Acrylic
Physical Structure of Acrylic
Chemical Composition and Molecular Arrangement of Acrylic
Properties of Acrylic
Environmental Impact of Acrylic
Uses of Acrylic
Types and Kinds of Acrylic
Modacrylic Fibers
118(3)
Production of Modacrylic Fibers
Physical Structure of Modacrylic Fibers
Chemical Composition and Molecular Arrangement of Modacrylic Fibers
Properties of Modacrylic Fibers
Environmental Impact of Modacrylic Fibers
Uses of Modacrylic Fibers
Special-Use Fibers
121(16)
Elastomeric Fibers
122(3)
Rubber
Spandex
Elastoester
Fibers with Chemical, Heat, or Fire Resistance
125(9)
Aramid
Glass
Metal and Metallic Fibers
Novoloid
PBI
Sulfar
Saran
Vinyon
Vinal
Fluoropolymer
Carbon
Melamine
Other Special-Use Fibers
134(3)
SECTION THREE Yarns 137(30)
Yarn Processing
139(15)
Filament Yarns
140(3)
Smooth-Filament Yarn
Monofilament Yarns
Tape and Network Yarns
Bulk Yarns
Spun Yarns
143(6)
Processing Staple Fibers
Alternate Spun-Yarn Processes
Spinning Filament Tow into Spun Yarns
High-Bulk Yarns
149(1)
Fiber Blends
150(2)
Blend Levels
Blending Methods
Blended Filament Yarns
Environmental Impact of Yarn Processing
152(2)
Yarn Classification
154(13)
Fiber Length
155(1)
Yarn Twist
155(3)
Direction of Twist
Amount of Twist
Yarn Size
158(1)
Yarn Number
Denier
Tex System
Yarn Regularity
159(6)
Simple Yarns
Sewing Thread
Fancy Yarns
Composite Yarns
Yarn Performance and Yarn Quality
165(2)
SECTION FOUR Fabrication 167(100)
Basic Weaves and Fabrics
169(28)
Fabric Quality
171(1)
Woven Fabrics
171(1)
The Loom
172(4)
Preparing for Weaving
Loom Advancements
Environmental Impact of Weaving
Characteristics of Woven Fabrics
176(3)
Warp and Filling
Grain
Fabric Count
Balance
Selvages
Fabric Width
Fabric Weight
Properties of Woven Fabrics
179(1)
Naming and Diagramming Woven Fabrics
179(3)
Plain Weave
182(7)
Balanced Plain Weave
Unbalanced Plain Weave
Basket Weave
Twill Weave
189(4)
Characteristics of Twill Weave
Even-Sided Twills
Warp-Faced Twills
Satin Weave
193(4)
Satin Fabrics
Sateen
Fancy Weaves and Fabrics
197(16)
Dobby Weaves
198(4)
Extra-Yarn Weaves
Pique Weaves
Jacquard Weaves
202(1)
Momie Weaves
203(1)
Leno Weaves
204(1)
Double Cloth
205(2)
Doubles Weaves
Double-Faced Fabrics
Pile Weaves
207(3)
Filling-Pile Fabrics
Warp-Pile Fabrics
Slack-Tension Weaves
210(1)
Tapestry Weave
211(1)
Narrow Fabrics
212(1)
Knitting and Knit Fabrics
213(26)
Knitting
215(3)
Needles
Stitches
Fabric
Characteristics
Environmental Impact of Knitting
Filling (or Weft) Knitting
218(12)
Machines Used in Filling Knitting
Filling-Knit Structures--Stitches
Filling-Knit Fabrics
Warp Knitting
230(9)
Machines Used in Warp Knitting
Warp Knits versus Filling Knits
Warp-Knit Fabrics
Minor Warp Knits
Narrow Knitted Fabrics
Other Fabrication Methods
239(28)
Fabrics from Solutions
240(2)
Films
Foams
Fabrics from Fibers
242(6)
Nonwoven or Fiberweb Structures
Felt
Netlike Structures
Fabrics from Yarns
248(3)
Braids
Lace
Composite Fabrics
251(12)
Coated Fabrics
Poromeric Fabrics
Suedelike Fabrics
Tufted-Pile Fabrics
Laminates
Stitch-Bonded Fabrics
Quilted Fabrics
Supported-Scrim Structures
Fiber-Reinforced Materials
Animal Products
263(4)
Leather
Furs
SECTION FIVE Finishing 267(74)
Finishing: An Overview
268(12)
Routine Finishing Steps
272(6)
Fiber Processing
Yarn Processing
Yarn Preparation
Fabrication
Fabric Preparation
Whitening
Further Preparation Steps
Coloration
Finishing
Drying Reworking
Routine Finishing Steps for Wool Fabrics
278(1)
Carbonizing
Crabbing
Decating
Pressing
Environmental Impact of Finishing
278(2)
Aesthetic Finishes
280(16)
Luster
282(3)
Glazed
Cire
Moire
Schreiner
Embossed
Drape
285(1)
Crisp and Transparent
Burned Out
Sizing
Weighting
Texture
286(7)
Sheared
Brushed
Embossed
Pleated
Puckered Surface
Plisse
Flocked
Tufted
Embroidered
Expanded Foam
Napped Fulled
Beetled
Coronized
Hand
293(3)
Emerizing, Sueding, or Sanding
Abrasive, Chemical, or Enzyme Washes
Crepeing
Silk Boil-Off
Caustic Treatment
Hand Builders
Special-Purpose Finishes
296(17)
Stabilization: Shrinkage Control
297(3)
Relaxation Shrinkage and Finishes
Progressive Shrinkage and Finishes
Shape-Retention Finishes
300(3)
Theory of Wrinkle Recovery
Durable Press
Quality Performance Standards and Care
Appearance-Retention Finishes
303(2)
Soil- and Stain-Release Finishes
Abrasion-Resistant Finishes
Antislip Finishes
Fume Fading-Resistant Finishes
Surface or Back Coatings
Light-Stabilizing Finishes
Pilling-Resistant Finishes
Comfort-Related Finishes
305(3)
Water-Repellent Finishes
Porosity-Control Finishes
Water-Absorbent Finishes
Ultraviolet-Absorbent Finishes
Antistatic Finishes
Fabric Softeners
Phase-Change Finishes
Biological Control Finishes
308(1)
Insect- and Moth-Control Finishes
Mold- and Mildew-Control Finishes
Rot-Proof Finishes
Antimicrobial Finishes
Microencapsulated Finishes
Safety-Related Finishes
309(4)
Flame-Retardant Finishes
Liquid-Barrier Finishes
Light-Reflecting Finishes
Dyeing and Printing
313(28)
Color Theory
314(1)
Colorants
315(2)
Pigments
Dyes
Stages of Dyeing
317(4)
Fiber Stage
Yarn Stage
Piece or Fabric Stage
Product Stage
321(1)
Methods of Dyeing
321(2)
Batch Dyeing
Package Dyeing
Combination Dyeing
Printing
323(10)
Direct Printing
Discharge Printing
Resist Printing
Other Printing Methods
Recent Developments in Dyeing and Printing
333(1)
Color Problems
333(4)
Environmental Impact of Dyeing and Printing
337(4)
SECTION SIX Other Issues Related to Textiles 341(46)
Care of Textile Products
343(15)
Factors Related to Cleaning
344(3)
Soil and Soil Removal
Detergency
Solvents
Laundering
347(4)
Synthetic Detergents and Soaps
Other Additives
Sorting
Washing
351(1)
Horizontal- and Vertical-Axis Machines
Drying
352(1)
Dry Cleaning
352(2)
Dry Cleaning of Leather and Fur
Home Solvent Cleaning
Professional Wet Cleaning
354(1)
Storage
354(1)
Other Cleaning Methods
355(1)
Vacuuming
Wet Cleaning
Dry Foam Cleaning
Hot-Water Extraction
Powder Clearners
Ultrasonic Cleaning
Conservation Practices
356(1)
Environmental Impact of Cleaning
356(2)
Legal and Environmental Concerns
358(17)
Laws and Regulations
359(6)
Silk Regulation, 1932
Wool Products Labeling Act, 1939 (Amended 1986)
Fur Products Labeling Act, 1952 (Amended 1980)
Textile Fiber Products Identification Act, 1960 (Amended)
Permanent Care Labeling Regulation, 1972 (Amended 1984)
Laws and Regulations Related to Safety
Flammable Fabrics Act, 1953, and Its Amendment
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
Other Label Information
365(1)
Mandatory and Voluntary Labeling Programs
Codes
366(1)
Tort
367(1)
Consumer Recourse
367(1)
Environmental Issues
367(8)
Environmental Impact
Efforts within the Textile Industry
Environmental Health and Safety
Disposal and Recycling
Career Exploration
375(12)
Sourcing
376(1)
Product Development
376(2)
Quality Assurance
378(1)
Research, Development, and Evaluation
378(2)
Production
380(1)
Design
380(2)
Merchandising
382(1)
Wholesaling
383(1)
Marketing
383(1)
Government
383(1)
Education
384(1)
Museum or Collection Work
384(1)
Summary
384(3)
Appendix A Fiber Names in Other Languages 387(2)
Appendix B Fibers No Longer Produced in the United States 389(2)
Appendix C Selected Trade Names 391(2)
Glossary 393(22)
Index 415

Excerpts

Pilosophy of this Book Textilesprovides students with a basic knowledge of textiles so that they understand how textiles are produced and how appropriate performance characteristics are incorporated into materials and products. With this knowledge, they have the foundation they need to make informed decisions regarding textile materials and products and to communicate effectively with buyers, suppliers, customers, and others. A solid understanding of textile components (fibers, yarns, fabrics, and finishes), the interrelationships among these components, and their impact on product performance is necessary to fulfill day-to-day responsibilities in many careers in the textile, apparel, and furnishings industry. Serviceability of textiles and textile products is the fundamental principle emphasized throughout the book. I discuss the contributions of each component as it is incorporated in or combined with other components in a textile product. I stress interrelationships among the components. Basic information regarding how each component is processed or handled helps in understanding product performance and cost. Production of textiles is a complex process dealing with a wide variety of materials and techniques. To understand textiles, students need a basic understanding of the choices and technology involved. This book will help students: use textile terminology correctly. know laws and labeling requirements regulating textile distribution. understand the impact of production processes and selection of components on product performance, cost, and consumer satisfaction. recognize the forces that drive industry developments. identify fiber type, yarn type, and fabrication method. predict fabric or product performance based on a knowledge of fibers, yarns, fabrication methods, and finishes in conjunction with informative labeling. select textile components or products based on specified end uses and target market expectations for performance and serviceability. select appropriate care for textile products. develop an interest in and appreciation of textiles. Understanding textiles cannot be achieved only by studying this book; it also requires working with fabrics. Kits are available from several sources. In addition, many workbooks for lab use and self-study have been designed to help students learn this information. Organization of this Book Each section of the book focuses on a basic component or aspect of fabrics and textile products or on general issues important to the use of, production of, or satisfaction with textile products. These sections are complete and can be used in any order desired. The four main sections follow the normal sequence used in the production of textiles: fiber, yarn, fabrication, and finishing. The first section of the book introduces the study of textiles and approaches product development from a textile perspective. Section Two focuses on fibers, their production, serviceability, effect on product performance, and use. Several new fibers or new generic classifications have been added to this section. Section Three focuses on yarn production, yarn types, the relationship of yarn type to product performance and serviceability, and sewing thread. Section Four examines fabrication methods. These chapters are organized by basic fabrication method, standard or classic fabric names and types, and the relationships between fabrication and product performance. Flow charts to aid in identify* fabrics have been added. (More extensive flow charts are available in the instructor's manual.) Section Five deals with finishes, grouped by type or effect. Dyeing and printing are also included, as well as problems that consumers and producers experience with dyed or printed fabrics. The discussion of ink-jet printing has been updated to reflect the tremendous changes occurring in th


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