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Texts and Traditions Source Book : A Source Reader for the Study of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism

by
ISBN13:

9780881254556

ISBN10:
088125455X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
11/1/1997
Publisher(s):
Ktav Pub Inc
List Price: $39.50

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Author Biography

Lawrence H. Schiffman is Ethel and Irvin A. Edelman Professor of Hebrew and Judaic Studies and Chair of New York University's Skirball Department of Hebrew and Judaic Studies.

Table of Contents

Preface xxi(2)
Acknowledgments xxiii
1. Introduction
1(6)
2. The Biblical Heritage
7(58)
2.1 HISTORICAL SKETCH
11(5)
2.1.1 Genesis 1-3: The Creation
11(5)
2.2 A HISTORIOGRAPHY OF CIVILIZATION
16(9)
2.2.1 Genesis 6-9: Noah and the Flood
16(4)
2.2.2 Genesis 11: The Tower of Babel
20(1)
2.2.3 Genesis 22: The Sacrifice of Isaac
21(1)
2.2.4 Genesis 27: The Rivalry of Jacob and Esau
22(3)
2.3 REVELATION AND LAW
25(7)
2.3.1 Exodus 1: Descent of Israel to Egypt
25(1)
2.3.2 Exodus 12: The Night of the Exodus
25(1)
2.3.3 Exodus 13-14: The Splitting of the Sea
26(3)
2.3.4 Exodus 19-20: The Revelation at Sinai
29(1)
2.3.5 Exodus 21-22: The Code of Civil Law
30(2)
2.4 SACRIFICE AND PRIESTHOOD
32(7)
2.4.1 Leviticus 1: The Sacrificial System
32(2)
2.4.2 Leviticus 13: The Law of Skin Diseases
34(1)
2.4.3 Numbers 28-30: The Festival Offerings
34(5)
2.4.4 Leviticus 21: Laws of Purity for Priests
39(1)
2.5 PROPHECY
39(20)
2.5.1 Joshua 1: Joshua Succeeds Moses
39(1)
2.5.2 Joshua 6: The Conquest of Jericho
40(1)
2.5.3 Judges 4: The Battle against Sisera
41(2)
2.5.4 Judges 13, 15-16: The Story of Samson
43(4)
2.5.5 1 Samuel 8: The Desire for a King over Israel
47(1)
2.5.6 1 Kings 18: Elijah Challenges Baal on Mt. Carmel
48(2)
2.5.7 Isaiah 1: The Lord Chastises His Rebellious People
50(3)
2.5.8 Isaiah 6: The Heavenly Vision
53(2)
2.5.9 Isaiah 10-11: A Glimpse of the Messianic Era
55(1)
2.5.10 Ezekiel 1: The Four Winged Creatures
56(2)
2.5.11 Ezekiel 37: The Valley of the Dry Bones
58(1)
2.6 WISDOM LITERATURE
59(6)
2.6.1 Proverbs 8: The Character of Wisdom
59(1)
2.6.2 Job 38: God's Infinite Powers
60(2)
2.6.3 Ecclesiastes 3: The Nature of Man in Time
62(1)
2.6.4 Psalm 1: The Wages of Righteousness and Sin
63(1)
2.6.5 Psalm 130: Sin and Forgiveness
63(1)
2.6.6 Psalm 150: Musical Praise of God
64(1)
3. Judaism in the Persian Period
65(56)
3.1 HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND
70(3)
3.1.1 Ezra 1: Inaugurating the Return
70(1)
3.1.2 The Declaration of Cyrus: The Rebuilding of Ancient Shrines
71(2)
3.1.3 Ezra 1: The Vessels of the Temple
73(1)
3.2 POLITICAL AFFAIRS
73(20)
3.2.1 Elephantine Passover Papyrus: The Observance of Passover
73(1)
3.2.2 Elephantine Temple Papyrus: The Destruction of the Temple at Elephantine
74(2)
3.2.3 Marriage Contract from the Ananiah Archive: Document of Wifehood
76(2)
3.2.4 Contract from the Ananiah Archive: Loan of Grain
78(2)
3.2.5 Nehemiah 1-6: Rebuilding the Wall and Gates of Jerusalem
80(5)
3.2.6 Ezra 3: The Beginning of Sacrifice
85(1)
3.2.7 Ezra 7-8: The Arrival of Ezra
86(3)
3.2.8 Nehemiah 7-8: The Reading of the Torah
89(1)
3.2.9 Ezra 9-10: Expulsion of Foreign Wives
90(2)
3.2.10 Josephus, Antiquities XI, 297-303: The High Priesthood and the Samaritans
92(1)
3.3 THE SECOND TEMPLE
93(3)
3.3.1 Ezra 3: The Renewal of Sacrifices
93(1)
3.3.2 Ezra 6: The Order to Rebuild
94(2)
3.4 THE SAMARITAN SCHISM
96(7)
3.4.1 Ezra 4: The Samaritans and the Temple
96(1)
3.4.2 Esdras 2: Opposition to the Temple
97(1)
3.4.3 2 Kings 17: Samaritan Origins
98(1)
3.4.4 Josephus, Antiquities XI, 75-108: The Restoration of the Temple
99(4)
3.5 MIDRASH AND THE FOUNDATIONS OF JEWISH LAW
103(3)
3.5.1 Nehemiah 8: The Building of the Booths
103(1)
3.5.2 Nehemiah 10: The Oath of the Covenant
104(2)
3.6 THE LITERATURE OF THE PERIOD
106(11)
3.6.1 1 Chronicles 28-9: The Kingdom of David and Solomon
106(3)
3.6.2 Haggai 1: Rebuilding the House of the Lord
109(1)
3.6.3 Haggai 2: Recalling the Splendor of the First Temple
110(1)
3.6.4 Zechariah 3-14: The Prophecy of Restoration
111(4)
3.6.5 Malachi 2-3: The Last of the Prophets
115(2)
3.7 THE CANONIZATION OF THE HEBREW SCRIPTURES
117(4)
3.7.1 Josephus, Against Apion I, 37-43: Authenticity of the Scripture
117(1)
3.7.2 Babylonian Talmud Bava Batra 14b-15a: The Order of Scripture
118(1)
3.7.3 Mishnah Yadayim 3:5: The Debate over the Biblical Canon
119(1)
3.7.4 Tosefta Yadayim 2:14: The Biblical Canon and Divine Inspiration
120(1)
4. The Hellenistic Age
121(50)
4.1 HELLENISM AS A CULTURAL PHENOMENON
125(5)
4.1.1 Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book I: The Greek Cultural Institutions
125(5)
4.2 UNDER PTOLEMIES AND SELEUCIDS
130(12)
4.2.1 Josephus, Antiquities XI, 321-47: Alexander and the Jews
130(3)
4.2.2 Babylonian Talmud Yoma 69a: The Meeting of Alexander and the High Priest
133(1)
4.2.3 Josephus, Antiquities XII, 1-9: Alexander's Successors
134(2)
4.2.4 Josephus, Antiquities XII, 129-46: Antiochus III Conquers Jerusalem
136(2)
4.2.5 Zenon Papyri: Jews in Hellenistic Egypt
138(3)
4.2.6 Vienna Papyrus: Jewish Military Settlers in Ptolemaic Palestine
141(1)
4.3 THE JERUSALEM TEMPLE AND PRIESTHOOD
142(3)
4.3.1 Josephus, Against Apion I, 195-99: Hecateus of Abdera on Jerusalem
142(1)
4.3.2 Ben Sira 50: The Glory of the High Priest
143(2)
4.4 THE GEROUSIA
145(2)
4.4.1 Josephus, Antiquities XII, 138-9: King Antiochus' Favorable Attitude to the Jews
145(1)
4.4.2 1 Maccabees 12: Letter to the Spartans
146(1)
4.4.3 1 Maccabees 14: Letter from the Spartans
146(1)
4.5 HELLENISTIC TRENDS IN PALESTINIAN JUDAISM
147(4)
4.5.1 Josephus, Antiquities XII, 156-85: The Ascendancy of the Tobiads
147(4)
4.6 HELLENISTIC REFORM AND THE MACCABEAN REVOLT
151(20)
4.6.1 2 Maccabees 3-6: The Hellenistic Reform and the Onset of Persecution
151(5)
4.6.2 1 Maccabees 1-4: The Maccabean Uprising
156(4)
4.6.3 1 Maccabees 4-6: The Rededication of the Temple
160(3)
4.6.4 2 Maccabees 11: Letters of Antiochus
163(1)
4.6.5 1 Maccabees 7-10: The Final Hasmonean Victory
164(7)
5. Judaism in the Hellenistic Diaspora
171(60)
5.1 THE EARLY HISTORY OF BABYLONIAN JEWRY
175(5)
5.1.1 Josephus, Antiquities XX, 17-95: The Conversion of the House of Adiabene
175(5)
5.2 JEWS IN THE HELLENISTIC WORLD
180(4)
5.2.1 Josephus, Antiquities XIII, 62-73: The Temple of Onias
180(2)
5.2.2 Josephus, Against Apion II, 51-5: An Anti-Semitic Pogrom
182(1)
5.2.3 Josephus, Antiquities XIII, 348-55: Cleopatra's Jewish Generals
183(1)
5.3 POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS
184(8)
5.3.1 Josephus, Antiquities XII, 119-21: Jews as Seleucid Soldier Citizens
184(1)
5.3.2 Josephus, Antiquities XII, 147-53: Antiochus and the Jews
185(1)
5.3.3 Josephus, Antiquities XIV, 185-267: Jewish Legal Status in the Roman World
186(6)
5.4 RELIGIOUS LIFE
192(7)
5.4.1 Inscriptions from the Catacombs: Evidence of Jewish Religious Life in Rome
192(3)
5.4.2 Dedicatory Inscriptions: Evidence of Jewish Religious Life in Hellenistic Egypt
195(2)
5.4.3 The Aphrodisias Inscription: Evidence for God-Fearers
197(2)
5.5 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE HELLENISTIC WORLD
199(4)
5.5.1 Tacitus, Historiae V, 4-5: Jewish Origins and Rituals
199(2)
5.5.2 Plutarch, Questiones Convivales IV, Question 5: The Jewish Abstention from Pork
201(1)
5.5.3 Seneca, De Superstitione: Popularity of Jewish Ethics
202(1)
5.5.4 Juvenal, Satires XIV, 96-106: Judaism as a Mystery Religion
202(1)
5.6 THE LITERATURE OF THE HELLENISTIC DIASPORA
203(28)
5.6.1 Philo, Embassy to Gaius 132-4, 349-67: The Attitude of Gaius toward the Jews
203(3)
5.6.2 Josephus, Against Apion I, 223-311: The Origins of the Jewish People
206(3)
5.6.3 Josephus, Against Apion II, 80-111: Jewish Worship Defended
209(2)
5.6.4 The Letter of Aristeas: How the Jewish Law was Translated from Hebrew into Greek
211(7)
5.6.5 Babylonian Talmud Megillah 9a-b: Translation of the Torah into Greek
218(2)
5.6.6 The Works of Philo: A Survey of his Ideas
220(11)
6. Sectarianism in the Second Commonwealth
231(70)
6.1 THE HASMONEAN DYNASTY
235(31)
6.1.1 Josephus, Antiquities XIII, 179-83: The Ascendancy of Jonathan
235(1)
6.1.2 1 Maccabees 12-15: Jonathan's Death and the Reign of Simon
236(3)
6.1.3 Josephus, Antiquities XIII, 225-9: The Death of Simon
239(1)
6.1.4 Josephus, Antiquities XIII, 230-300: The Reign of John Hyrcanus
240(7)
6.1.5 Josephus, Antiquities XIII, 301-23: The Reign of Aristobulus
247(3)
6.1.6 Josephus, Antiquities XIII, 356-83: The Reign of Alexander Janneus
250(3)
6.1.7 Josephus, Antiquities XIII, 398-432: Queen Salome Alexandra
253(5)
6.1.8 Josephus, Antiquities XIV, 4-79: Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus
258(8)
6.1.9 Babylonian Talmud Sotah 49b: Hyrcanus and Aristobulus at War
266(1)
6.2 PHARISEES AND SADDUCEES
266(9)
6.2.1 Josephus, Antiquities XIII, 171-3: The Sects and God's Role in Human Affairs
266(1)
6.2.2 Josephus, War II, 119-66: Three Philosophical Schools
267(1)
6.2.3 Josephus, Antiquities XVIII, 11-17: More about the Pharisees and Sadducees
268(1)
6.2.4 Acts 23: The Pharisees and Sadducees on Resurrection
269(1)
6.2.5 Mishnah Yadayim 4:6-8: The Pharisee-Sadducee Debate
269(2)
6.2.6 Mishnah Hagigah 2:7: The Pharisees and Ritual Purity
271(1)
6.2.7 Mishnah Sotah 3:4: A Negative View of the Pharisees
271(1)
6.2.8 Mishnah Eruvin 6:2: The Sadducees and the Law of Eruv
272(1)
6.2.9 Mishnah Makkot 1:6: The Debate over the Punishment of False Witnesses
272(1)
6.2.10 Mishnah Parah 3:7: Purification at Sunset
273(1)
6.2.11 Mishnah Niddah 4:2: The Pharisaic Ruling on Sadducee Women
273(1)
6.2.12 Babylonian Talmud Qiddushin 66a: King Alexander Janneus and the Pharisees
274(1)
6.3 APOCALYPTICS AND ASCETICS
275(26)
6.3.1 Josephus, Antiquities XVIII, 18-22: The Doctrines of the Essenes
275(1)
6.3.2 Josephus, War II, 119-61: The Life of the Essenes
276(5)
6.3.3 Pliny, Natural History V, xv: The Solitary Essenes
281(1)
6.3.4 Philo, Every Good Man is Free XII, 75-87: Description of the Essenes
282(3)
6.3.5 Rule of the Community I-VII: The Teachings and Structure of the Dead Sea Sect
285(7)
6.3.6 Damascus Document I-XII: The History and Self-image of the Dead Sea Sectarians
292(9)
7 Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, and the Dead Sea Scrolls
301(68)
7.1 THE APOCRYPHA
306(30)
7.1.1 Mishnah Sanhedrin 10:1: The Status of Those Who Read the Apocrypha
306(1)
7.1.2 Jerusalem Talmud Sanhedrin 10:1 (28a): On the Status of Apocryphal Books
306(1)
7.1.3 Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 100b: The Books of the Early Christians
307(1)
7.1.4 Ecclesiastes Rabbah 12:12: On the Study of Apocryphal Books
307(1)
7.1.5 Book of Tobit 11-12: The Reward of the Righteous
308(2)
7.1.6 Book of Judith 4-16: The Pious Heroine
310(10)
7.1.7 Greek Esther 13-14: The Letter and the Prayer
320(1)
7.1.8 Song of the Three Young Men 1-68: Supplication and Thanksgiving
321(2)
7.1.9 Book of Susanna 1-64: Daniel Rescues Susanna
323(3)
7.1.10 Baruch 1-5: The Destruction of the Temple and the Exile
326(3)
7.1.11 The Letter of Jeremiah 6:1-7: Prediction of the Babylonian Exile
329(1)
7.1.12 Book of Ben Sira 1-24: The Wisdom of a Sage
330(3)
7.1.13 Wisdom of Solomon 1-6: Righteousness and Foolishness
333(3)
7.2 PSEUDEPIGRAPHA
336(18)
7.2.1 1 Enoch, Book of Watchers: Enoch's Vision
336(4)
7.2.2 1 Enoch 93: Enoch's Vision of the Future
340(1)
7.2.3 1 Enoch 106: Fragment of the Book of Noah
341(1)
7.2.4 Book of Jubilees: The Book of Division
342(10)
7.2.5 Testament of Levi 1-13: The Sanctity of the Priesthood
352(2)
7.3 DEAD SEA SCROLLS
354(15)
7.3.1 Habakkuk Pesher I-XI: The Coming of the Final Age
354(2)
7.3.2 Thanksgiving Scroll V-VII: A Hymn of Praise
356(3)
7.3.3 The Scroll of the War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness I-II: The Thirty-Five Year's War
359(2)
7.3.4 The Temple Scroll LVI-LVII: The Law of the King
361(2)
7.3.5 Miqzat Ma`ase ha-Torah: Laws of Sacrifice and Purity
363(2)
7.3.6 Aramaic Apocalypse I-II: The "Son of God" Text
365(1)
7.3.7 Psalms Scroll 22:1-15: Apostrophe to Zion
366(3)
8. The Jewish-Christian Schism
369(60)
8.1 JUDEA UNDER ROMAN RULE
372(13)
8.1.1 Josephus, War I, 160-79: The Last Revolts of the Hasmoneans
372(2)
8.1.2 Josephus, War I, 199-358: Antipater and Herod's Rise to Power
374(11)
8.2 HERODIAN RULE
385(10)
8.2.1 Josephus, War I, 386-673: Personal Life and Rule of Herod
385(10)
8.3 JUDEA UNDER THE PROCURATORS
395(12)
8.3.1 Tacitus, Historiae V, 9:1-3: The Roman Conquest of Judea
395(2)
8.3.2 Josephus, War II, 167-404: Jewish Law Clashes with Roman Rule
397(10)
8.4 THE RISE OF THE EARLY CHURCH
407(7)
8.4.1 Mark 1-13: The Teachings of Jesus
407(7)
8.5 PARTING OF THE WAYS
414(4)
8.5.1 Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 28b: The Composition of the Blessing against the Heretics
414(1)
8.5.2 The Eighteen Benedictions: The Benediction against the Heretics
415(1)
8.5.3 Tosefta Hullin 2:20-21: Laws Distancing Jews from the Heretics
415(1)
8.5.4 Tosefta Hullin 2:24: Rabbi Eliezer and the Heretic
416(1)
8.5.5 Jerusalem Talmud Berakhot 9:1 (12d-13a): Rabbi Simlai Refutes the Trinity
417(1)
8.5.6 Babylonian Talmud Gittin 45b: A Torah Written by a Heretic
418(1)
8.6 JEWISH-CHRISTIAN RELATIONS IN THE EARLY CENTURIES
418(11)
8.6.1 Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho: Proofs of Christianity from the Old Testament
418(3)
8.6.2 Aphrahat: The Rejection of Israel
421(3)
8.6.3 Epiphanius, Panarion 29: The Nazarenes
424(5)
9. Revolt and Restoration
429(68)
9.1 THE GREAT REVOLT
434(35)
9.1.1 Josephus, War II, 405-48: The First Stage of the Revolt
434(5)
9.1.2 Josephus, War III, 1-7: The Appointment of Vespasian as General
439(1)
9.1.3 Josephus, War IV, 1-82: The Battle at Gamala
439(3)
9.1.4 Josephus, War V, 1-84, 269-88: The Battle of Jerusalem
442(4)
9.1.5 Josephus, War X, 420-565: The Siege of Jerusalem
446(4)
9.1.6 Tacitus, Historiae V, 10-14: The Roman Earthworks at Jerusalem
450(3)
9.1.7 Babylonian Talmud Gittin 56a-b: The Rabbinic Account of the Siege
453(4)
9.1.8 Josephus, War VI, 149-266: The Final Roman Victory
457(5)
9.1.9 Dio Cassius, Historia Romana LXVI, 4-7: A Roman Account of the Revolt
462(2)
9.1.10 Josephus, War VII, 252-404: The Siege of Masada
464(5)
9.2 DESTRUCTION AND ITS AFTERMATH
469(3)
9.2.1 Suetonius, Life of Domitian 12:2: The Jewish Tax and Hidden Jews
469(1)
9.2.2 Mishnah Gittin 5:6: Restoring the Land to the Jewish People
470(1)
9.2.3 Tosefta Sotah 15:10-15: Mourning for the Destroyed Temple
471(1)
9.3 FROM TEMPLE TO SYNAGOGUE
472(3)
9.3.1 Beth Alpha Synagogue: A "Rabbi"
472(1)
9.3.2 The Inscription in the Ein Gedi Synagogue: The "Secret of the Town"
472(2)
9.3.3 Corinth: A Synagogue
474(1)
9.3.4 Rome: An Archisynagogue
474(1)
9.3.5 The Theodotus Inscription in Jerusalem: The Functions of the Synagogue
474(1)
9.4 RESTORATION OF AUTONOMY: THE AUTHORITY OF THE RABBIS
475(4)
9.4.1 Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 27b-28a: The Impeachment of Rabban Gamliel
475(4)
9.5 JOSEPHUS: HISTORIAN OF THE GREAT REVOLT
479(8)
9.5.1 Josephus, Life 1-24, 80-83: The Autobiography of a Historian
479(3)
9.5.2 Josephus, Life 414-30: Josephus after the Revolt
482(2)
9.5.3 Josephus, War, Preface 6-16: Writing the History of the Jewish War
484(2)
9.5.4 Josephus, Antiquities XIV, 1-3: Josephus' Philosophy of History
486(1)
9.6 THE BAR KOKHBA REVOLT
487(7)
9.6.1 Dio Cassius, Historia Romana LXIX, 12-14: A Roman Account of the Bar Kokhba Revolt
487(1)
9.6.2 Eusebius, The Ecclesiastical History IV, 6: A Christian Account of the Bar Kokhba Revolt
488(1)
9.6.3 The Bar Kokhba Letters: Day-to-Day Conduct of the Revolt
489(2)
9.6.4 Jerusalem Talmud Ta`anit 4:6 (68d-69a): Rabbi Akiva and Bar Kokhba
491(2)
9.6.5 Babylonian Talmud Gittin 57a: The Destruction of Betar
493(1)
9.7 REBUILDING FOR THE FUTURE
494(3)
9.7.1 Song of Songs Rabbah to 2:5 (no. 3): The Sages of Usha
494(1)
9.7.2 Modestinus, Corpus Jurus Civilis: Digesta 48:8:11: Circumcision Limited to Jews
495(2)
10. Mishnah: The New Scripture
497(64)
10.1 FROM PHARISEES TO RABBIS
503(14)
10.1.1 Mishnah Hagigah 2:2-3, Tosefta Hagigah 2:8, 10: Rabbinic Traditions about the Pharisees
503(1)
10.1.2 Josephus, Antiquities XIV, 168-84: Herod's Trial before the Sanhedrin
504(3)
10.1.3 Josephus, Antiquities XV, 2-3, 368-70: Sameas and Pollio
507(1)
10.1.4 Tosefta Pesahim 4:13: Hillel's Rise to Power
508(1)
10.1.5 Jerusalem Talmud Pesahim 6:1 (33a): Another Version of Hillel's Rise to Power
509(2)
10.1.6 Sifre Deuteronomy 113: Hillel as Legislator
511(1)
10.1.7 Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 30b-31a: The Patience of Hillel
512(3)
10.1.8 Acts 5: Words of Rabban Gamaliel I
515(1)
10.1.9 Josephus, Life 191-8: Simeon ben Gamliel I
515(2)
10.1.10 Josephus, War I, 110-12: The Pharisees in Power
517(1)
10.2 WRITTEN AND ORAL TORAH
517(5)
10.2.1 Josephus, Antiquities XIII, 297: The Pharisees and Sadducees on the Traditions of the Fathers
517(1)
10.2.2 Philo, The Special Laws IV, 143-150: Written and Unwritten Law
518(1)
10.2.3 Mark 7: The Pharisees and Purity
519(1)
10.2.4 Megillat Ta`anit: The Law of the Sadducees and the Boethusians
520(1)
10.2.5 Jerusalem Talmud Megillah 4:1 (74a): Oral and Written Transmission of the Law
521(1)
10.2.6 Babylonian Talmud Temurah 14b: Prohibition on the Writing of the Oral Law
521(1)
10.2.7 Sifre Deuteronomy 351: The Antiquity of the Concept of Oral Law
522(1)
10.3 TANNAITIC ACADEMIES
522(9)
10.3.1 Babylonian Talmud Eruvin 54b: The Teaching of the Oral Law
522(1)
10.3.2 Mishnah Avot 1-5: The Ethics and Wisdom of the Rabbis
523(4)
10.3.3 Babylonian Talmud Bava Mezia 59a-b: The Bet Midrash and Divine Law
527(2)
10.3.4 Iggeret Rav Sherira Gaon 1-2: The First Generations of the Tannaim
529(2)
10.4 MIDRASH AND MISHNAH
531(4)
10.4.1 Sifra: The Thirteen Hermeneutical Rules of Rabbi Ishmael
531(1)
10.4.2 Mishnah Bava Qamma 6:4-5: Restitution for Damage by Fire
532(2)
10.4.3 Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael, Nezeqin 14: Restitution for Damage by Fire
534(1)
10.5 HALAKHAH AND AGGADAH
535(2)
10.5.1 Babylonian Talmud Hagigah 14a: Defining the Aggadah
535(1)
10.5.2 Jerusalem Talmud Hagigah 1:8 (76a): Revelation of the Oral Law
536(1)
10.5.3 Jerusalem Talmud Horayot 3:5 (48c): The Power of Aggadah
536(1)
10.5.4 Jerusalem Talmud Sheqalim 5:1 (48c): Separation of Halakhah and Aggadah
537(1)
10.6 THE REDACTION OF THE MISHNAH
537(10)
10.6.1 Iggeret Rav Sherira Gaon 3: The Mishnah
537(6)
10.6.2 Mishnah Shabbat 23:1-2: Permitted Activities on the Sabbath
543(1)
10.6.3 Mishnah Bava Mezia 1:2-4: Property Disputes
544(1)
10.6.4 Mishnah Rosh ha-Shanah 1:1-9: The Fixing of the Calendar
545(2)
10.6.5 Jerusalem Talmud Horayot 3:5 (48c): Alternative Mishnah Collections
547(1)
10.7 OTHER TANNAITIC TEXTS
547(14)
10.7.1 Iggeret Rav Sherira Gaon 4: The Tosefta
547(3)
10.7.2 Tosefta Rosh ha-Shanah 1:1-14: More on the Fixing of the Calendar
550(3)
10.7.3 Iggeret Rav Sherira Gaon 5: The Baraitot, Sifra, and Sifre
553(1)
10.7.4 Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael, Beshallah: Moses and the Bones of Joseph
554(3)
10.7.5 Sifra Emor 5: Logic and Scripture
557(4)
11. Formative Judaism Comes of Age
561(58)
11.1 DECLINE OF HELLENISTIC JUDAISM
565(6)
11.1.1 Acts 15: The Acceptance of Gentile Converts into Christianity
565(3)
11.1.2 Dio Cassius, Historia Romana LXVIII, 32:1-3: The Jewish Uprising
568(1)
11.1.3 Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History IV, 1-5: The Jewish Uprising
569(1)
11.1.4 Mishnah Sotah 9:14: Persecutions under Quietus
570(1)
11.1.5 Seder Olam Rabbah 30: Chronology of Revolts
570(1)
11.2 UNDER BYZANTINE CHRISTIANITY
571(25)
11.2.1 Jerusalem Talmud Sanhedrin 2:1 (19d-20a): The Patriarchate and the Sages
571(1)
11.2.2 Babylonian Talmud Avodah Zarah 10a-11a: Antoninus and Rabbi
572(2)
11.2.3 Libanius, Letter to the Patriarch: The Politics of Byzantine Rule
574(2)
11.2.4 Codex Theodosianus: Laws Concerning the Jews
576(7)
11.2.5 The Novels of the Sainted Theodosius Augustus: Treatment of Jews, Samaritans, Heretics and Pagans
583(3)
11.2.6 Jerome, Chronicon for 352: The Gallus Revolt
585(1)
11.2.7 Socrates Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History II, 33: The Gallus Revolt
586(1)
11.2.8 Sozomenus, Ecclesiastical History V, 22: Julian the Apostate Tries to Rebuild the Temple
586(2)
11.2.9 Emperor Julian, To the Community of the Jews: The Redress of Oppressive Measures
588(1)
11.2.10 Codex Justinianus 1: Anti-Jewish Legislation
589(1)
11.2.11 Chronicon Paschale: The Samaritan Rebellion of 484
590(1)
11.2.12 Procopius of Caesarea, Buildings V, vii: The First Samaritan Rebellion
591(2)
11.2.13 Procopius of Caesarea, Anecdota XI, 13-31: Religious Compulsion in the Christian Roman Empire
593(1)
11.2.14 Chronicon Paschale: The Samaritan Revolt of 529
594(1)
11.2.15 Antiochus Strategos: The Persian Conquest of Jerusalem in 614
595(1)
11.3 BY THE RIVERS OF BABYLON
596(23)
11.3.1 Josephus, Antiquities XVIII, 310-79: A Jewish Babylonian Principality
596(7)
11.3.2 Jerusalem Talmud Yevamot 12:1 (12c): The Tannaitic Movement in Babylonia
603(1)
11.3.3 Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 32b: The Great Tannaitic Sages
604(1)
11.3.4 Mishnah Yevamot 16:7: The Tannaitic Tradition in Babylonia
604(1)
11.3.5 Genesis Rabbah 46:11: The Circumcision of the Sons of Ptolemy
605(1)
11.3.6 Iggeret Rav Sherira Gaon 9-10: The Amoraim
605(4)
11.3.7 Seder Olam Zuta, 9-10: History of the Exilarchs
609(1)
11.3.8 Babylonian Talmud Horayot 11b: The Status of the Exilarch vs. the Patriarch
610(1)
11.3.9 Babylonian Talmud Hullin 92a: The Two Princes
611(1)
11.3.10 Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma 58b: Judgment of the Exilarch
611(1)
11.3.11 Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 48a: Lax Observance in the Home of the Exilarch
612(1)
11.3.12 Babylonian Talmud Bava Batra 55a: The Law of the Land
612(1)
11.3.13 Iggeret Rav Sherira Gaon 11: The Last of the Amoraim and the Savoraim
613(4)
11.3.14 Morning Service for Sabbaths and Festivals: Prayer for the Scholars
617(2)
12. The Sea of the Talmud
619(52)
12.1 AMORAIC SCHOOLS
622(2)
12.1.1 Genesis Rabbah 97:13: The Migrations of the Sanhedrin
622(1)
12.1.2 Babylonian Talmud Eruvin 54b-55a: Amoraic Pedagogy
623(1)
12.2 FROM AMORAIC INTERPRETATION TO TALMUDIC TEXTS
624(3)
12.2.1 The Rehov Inscription: Agricultural Precepts of the Land of Israel
624(3)
12.3 THE PALESTINIAN TALMUD
627(6)
12.3.1 Jerusalem Talmud Berakhot 2:5 (5a): Distraction in Prayer
627(1)
12.3.2 Jerusalem Talmud Bava Mezia 2:5 (8b): The Return of Lost Articles
627(1)
12.3.3 Jerusalem Talmud Pesahim 10:1 (37a-c): Preparing for the Seder
628(5)
12.4 THE BABYLONIAN TALMUD
633(5)
12.4.1 Babylonian Talmud Bava Mezia 21b-24a: Lost and Found
633(4)
12.4.2 Babylonian Talmud Qiddushin 31b: The Proper Treatment of Parents
637(1)
12.4.3 Babylonian Talmud Pesahim 25b: Murder by Command
638(1)
12.5 THE EXEGETICAL AND HOMILETICAL MIDRASHIM
638(18)
12.5.1 Lamentations Rabbah, Proem 21: The Leper and the Temple
638(2)
12.5.2 Exodus Rabbah, 1:18-26: The Early Life of Moses
640(3)
12.5.3 Pesiqta de-Rav Kahana 25:1-4: A Penitential Homily
643(4)
12.5.4 Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 30a-b: The Soul of Man is the Lamp of the Lord
647(3)
12.5.5 Targum to Exodus 20:1-14: The Ten Commandments
650(3)
12.5.6 Targum Jonathan to Judges 5: An Aggadic Translation
653(3)
12.6 JEWISH LITURGY
656(15)
12.6.1 The Weekday Amidah: Themes of Jewish Prayer
656(3)
12.6.2 The Qedushah: The Mystical Praise of God
659(1)
12.6.3 The Additional Amidah for Rosh ha-Shanah: Themes of the Day of Remembrance
660(6)
12.6.4 Concluding Service for the Day of Atonement: A Last-Minute Prayer for Forgiveness
666(1)
12.6.5 A Qedushta by Yannai: On the Recitation of the Shema
667(1)
12.6.6 A Liturgical Poem for the Sabbath Preceding Passover: Miracles that Occurred at Night
668(3)
13. The Life of Torah
671(78)
13.1 THE WORLD OF THE AGGADAH
677(5)
13.1.1 Babylonian Talmud Pesahim 56a: The Oneness of God and the Children of Israel
677(1)
13.1.2 Deuteronomy Rabbah, Va-Ethanan 2:35: The Reading of the Shema
678(1)
13.1.3 Midrash Tanhuma, Vayera 6: The Oneness of God
679(1)
13.1.4 Midrash Tanhuma, Vayera 5: God as the Master of the Universe
680(2)
13.1.5 Exodus Rabbah, Shemot 2:5: The Revelation at the Thorn Bush
682(1)
13.2 THE DAILY LIFE OF THE JEW
682(17)
13.2.1 Mishnah Berakhot 1:1-4: Laws Regarding Recitation of the Shema
682(2)
13.2.2 The Benedictions Before the Morning Shema: Accepting God and His Commandments
684(3)
13.2.3 The Shema: Affirming Faith in God and His Commandments
687(2)
13.2.4 The Benediction After the Morning Shema: Remembering the Redemption from Egypt
689(1)
13.2.5 Benedictions for the Evening Shema: Liturgy as Interpretation
690(2)
13.2.6 Mishnah Berakhot 3:1-4: Rules of Prayer
692(1)
13.2.7 Mishnah Berakhot 4:1-7: The Times of Prayer
693(1)
13.2.8 Mishnah Berakhot 5:1-3: The Proper Intentions in Prayer
694(1)
13.2.9 Mishnah Berakhot 6:1-4: The Blessings Over Food
694(1)
13.2.10 Grace After Meals: Thanking God the Provider
695(2)
13.2.11 Mishnah Berakhot 9:1-3: Other Daily Blessings
697(1)
13.2.12 Mishnah Qiddushin 1:7: The Obligation of the Commandments
698(1)
13.3 SANCTUARIES IN TIME
699(16)
13.3.1 Mishnah Shabbat 7:1-2: The Thirty-Nine Acts of Forbidden Labor on the Sabbath
699(1)
13.3.2 Mishnah Shabbat 12:1-3: Sabbath Labor
699(1)
13.3.3 Mishnah Pesahim 1:1-4: The Search for Leaven
700(1)
13.3.4 Mishnah Pesahim 10:2-9: The Passover Seder
701(2)
13.3.5 The Passover Haggadah: Retelling the Exodus
703(3)
13.3.6 Mishnah Bikkurim 3:1-6: The Ceremony of the First Fruits in the Temple
706(1)
13.3.7 Mishnah Sukkah 1:1-11: The Building of a Sukkah
707(1)
13.3.8 Mishnah Sukkah 3:1-7: Lulav and Etrog
708(2)
13.3.9 Mishnah Sukkah 5:1-4: The Water Drawing Ceremony
710(1)
13.3.10 Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 21b: The Significance of Hanukkah
711(1)
13.3.11 `Al ha-Nissim: Additional Prayer for Hanukkah
712(1)
13.3.12 Mishnah Megillah 1:1-2: The Holiday of Purim
713(1)
13.3.13 Mishnah Megillah 2:1-2: The Reading of the Scroll of Esther
714(1)
13.3.14 Mishnah Ta`anit 4:6-7: Days of National Mourning
714(1)
13.4 THE SANCTIFIED TABLE
715(4)
13.4.1 Leviticus 11: Permitted and Forbidden Animals
715(2)
13.4.2 Mishnah Hullin 1:1-2: Laws of Ritual Slaughter
717(1)
13.4.3 Mishnah Hullin 8:1-4: Separation of Meat and Milk
718(1)
13.5 MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY
719(7)
13.5.1 Mishnah Ta`anit 4:8: Choosing a Spouse
719(1)
13.5.2 Mishnah Qiddushin 1:1: The Law of Marriage
720(1)
13.5.3 Babylonian Talmud Ketubot 8a: The Marriage Benedictions
721(1)
13.5.4 Babatha's Ketubah: An Early Marriage Contract
722(1)
13.5.5 Papyrus Yadin 18: Jewish Marriage Contract in Greek
723(2)
13.5.6 Mishnah Gittin 1, 3, 9: The Law of Divorce
725(1)
13.5.7 Murabba`at Aramaic Papyrus (Mur 19 ar): Writ of Divorce
726(1)
13.6 RITUAL PURITY AND IMPURITY
726(5)
13.6.1 Mishnah Niddah 2:4, 6: Some Laws of Purity
726(1)
13.6.2 Mishnah Niddah 4:1-2: The Laws of Purity and Jewish Sectarians
727(1)
13.6.3 Mishnah Miqva'ot 2:2-4, 8:1: The Fitness of a Ritual Pool
728(2)
13.6.4 Mishnah Yadayim 1:1-4: Hand Washing
730(1)
13.7 LIFE CYCLE
731(1)
13.7.1 Mishnah Shabbat 18-19: From Birth to Circumcision
731(1)
13.7.2 Mishnah Avot 5:21: Stages of Life
732(1)
13.8 STUDY IN THE SERVICE OF GOD
732(3)
13.8.1 Qinyan Torah: The Acquisition of the Torah
732(3)
13.9 THE MYSTIC WAY
735(14)
13.9.1 Mishnah Hagigah 2:1: Teaching the Secrets of the Torah
735(1)
13.9.2 Jerusalem Talmud Hagigah 2:1 (77a): Merkavah Speculation
735(2)
13.9.3 Jerusalem Talmud Hagigah 2:1 (77a-77c): Four Who Entered the Pardes
737(4)
13.9.4 Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 33b: Rabbi Simeon bar Yohai and the Cave
741(3)
13.9.5 Ma`aseh Merkavah: A Mystical Prayer
744(2)
13.9.6 Horvat Kanaf Amulet: Incantation against Fever and Pain
746(1)
13.9.7 Aramaic Magic Bowl: The Expulsion of Lilith
747(1)
13.9.8 Aramaic Magic Bowl: For Protection of the Family
748(1)
14. Epilogue: The Hegemony of the Babylonian Talmud
749(14)
14.1.1 Nathan ha-Bavli: The Babylonian Academy
750(2)
14.1.2 Nathan ha-Bavli: The Installation of an Exilarch
752(4)
14.1.3 Sefer ha-Qabbalah VI: The Succession of Geonim
756(7)
Bibliography 763(6)
Index of Sources 769


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