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Theories of Development : Concepts and Applications,9780131849914
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Theories of Development : Concepts and Applications

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780131849914

ISBN10:
0131849913
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2011
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $91.40
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Summary

This engaging book, written with the help of extensive scholarship and leading scholars, introduces learners to twenty-four different theorists and compares and contrasts their theories on how we develop as individuals.Emphasizing the theories that follow and build upon the developmental tradition established by Rousseau, this text also covers theories in the environmental/learning tradition.For individuals interested in the psychology of child development.

Author Biography

William Crain is professor of psychology at the City College of New York.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Introduction xv
Early Theories: Preformationism, Locke, and Rousseau
1(19)
Preformationism
1(3)
Locke's Environmentalism
4(6)
Rousseau's Romantic Naturalism
10(10)
Gesell's Maturational Theory
20(13)
Biographical Introduction
20(1)
Principles of Development
21(6)
Philosophy of Child Rearing
27(3)
Evaluation
30(3)
Ethological Theories: Darwin, Lorenz and Tinbergen, and Bowlby and Ainsworth
33(32)
Darwin and the Theory of Evolution
33(3)
Modern Ethology: Lorenz and Tinbergen
36(8)
Bowlby and Ainsworth on Human Attachment
44(21)
Montessori's Educational Philosophy
65(22)
Biographical Introduction
65(2)
Theory of Development
67(3)
Early Education in the Home
70(2)
The Montessori School
72(11)
Evaluation
83(4)
Werner's Organismic and Comparative Theory
87(25)
Biographical Introduction
87(2)
Werner's View of Development
89(6)
Some Comparative Studies
95(5)
Symbol Formation: An Organismic View
100(2)
Theoretical Issues
102(5)
Practical Applications
107(2)
Evaluation
109(3)
Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory
112(39)
Biographical Introduction
112(2)
Overview of the Theory
114(2)
Period I. Sensorimotor Intelligence (Birth to 2 Years)
116(5)
Periods II and III. Preoperational Thought (2 to 7) and Concrete Operations (7 to 11)
121(11)
Period IV. Formal Operations (11 to Adulthood)
132(2)
Theoretical Issues
134(3)
Implications for Education
137(4)
Evaluation
141(10)
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
151(23)
Biographical Introduction
151(1)
Piaget's Stages of Moral Judgment
152(1)
Kohlberg's Method
153(1)
Kohlberg's Six Stages
154(5)
Theoretical Issues
159(8)
Gilligan on the Feminine Voice
167(2)
Implications for Education
169(3)
Evaluation
172(2)
Learning Theory: Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner
174(23)
Pavlov and Classical Conditioning
174(3)
Watson
177(4)
Skinner and Operant Conditioning
181(16)
Bandura's Social Learning Theory
197(20)
Biographical Introduction
197(1)
Basic Concepts
198(3)
Socialization Studies
201(5)
Self-Efficacy
206(2)
Abstract Modeling and Piaget's Stages
208(4)
Practical Implications
212(2)
Evaluation
214(3)
Vygotsky's Social-Historical Theory of Cognitive Development
217(31)
Biographical Introduction
217(2)
Marx's Views on Human Nature
219(2)
Vygotsky's Theory of Psychological Tools
221(4)
Memory Aids
225(1)
Speech
226(9)
Schooling
235(5)
Practical Applications
240(3)
Evaluation
243(5)
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
248(29)
Biographical Introduction
248(3)
The Stages of Psychosexual Development
251(13)
The Agencies of the Mind
264(7)
Practical Implications
271(2)
Evaluation
273(4)
Erikson and the Eight Stages of Life
277(26)
Biographical Introduction
277(2)
Erikson's Stage Theory
279(14)
Theoretical Issues
293(6)
Practical Implications
299(1)
Evaluation
300(3)
Mahler's Separation/Individuation Theory
303(14)
Biographical Introduction
303(1)
Overview of Concepts and Methods
304(2)
Phases of Normal Development
306(6)
Practical Applications
312(2)
Evaluation
314(3)
A Case Study in Psychoanalytic Treatment: Bettelheim on Autism
317(9)
Biographical Introduction
317(1)
The Autistic Syndrome
318(1)
Therapy
319(5)
Evaluation
324(2)
Schachtel on Childhood Experiences
326(9)
Biographical Introduction
326(1)
Basic Concepts
327(3)
Implications for Education
330(1)
Evaluation
331(4)
Jung's Theory of Adulthood
335(13)
Biographical Introduction
335(3)
Personality Structure
338(3)
Theory of Development
341(4)
Practical Implications
345(1)
Evaluation
346(2)
Chomsky's Theory of Language Development
348(21)
Biographical Introduction
348(1)
Basic Concepts
349(6)
Notes on the Growth of Grammar
355(4)
Chomsky and Learning Theory
359(5)
Chomsky and Piaget
364(1)
Implications for Education
365(2)
Evaluation
367(2)
Conclusion: Humanistic Psychology and Developmental Theory
369(12)
Humanistic Psychology
369(6)
Developmentalists as Humanists
375(6)
Epilogue: A Developmental Perspective on the Standards Movement
381(11)
The Standards Movement
381(3)
A Developmental Critique
384(8)
References 392(20)
Name Index 412(5)
Subject Index 417

Excerpts

This fifth edition ofTheories of Developmentis basically similar to the earlier editions. Its purpose, once again, is to introduce students to a variety of theorists, giving special attention to those who have contributed to that distinctly developmental perspective that began with Rousseau. The book focuses, that is, on writers who help us understand how development might arise from our inner promptings and spontaneous interests and how we might view the world differently at different stages of life.This new edition updates several chapters. Most notably, it discusses recent critiques of Piaget's theory and the growing research that bears on Schachtel's theory of early memories. The book also suggests how Werner's holistic approach is becoming increasingly relevant, especially with respect to the current push for early literacy instruction. Werner's approach cautions us against rushing in to teach reading and writing skills at young ages. Instead, we should consider all the activities out of which literacy might more naturally emerge.In the prior edition, published in 2000, I added an epilogue on the standards and testing movement that was sweeping the United States. I pointed out that this educational movement was focusing so exclusively on adults' goals and expectations that it was robbing children of the chance to develop their special strengths at their own stage of life. It would have been great if the standards movement had subsided since then. Instead, it has become even more powerful, causing children even more harm, as described in the revised epilogue.Over the years, many people have contributed to this book. I would like to give special thanks to my wife Ellen. As always, she provided unwavering support and valuable insight. I also am deeply indebted to our children. It was initially by watching them that I became so impressed by the growth process I decided to write this book about it. Our children are grown now, but they continue to offer support and ideas that mean a great deal to me.This new edition has benefited from critical readings and suggestions by professors Laurie S. Hunter, Francis Marion University; Coady Lapierre, Tarleton State University; Chadwick Royal, North Carolina Central University; and Judith Torney-Purta, the University of Maryland. My brother Stephen Crain, professor of linguistics at the University of Maryland, once again helped me write the chapter on Chomsky.I am grateful, finally, to those who have given permission to quote from various sources: W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., and The Hogarth Press Ltd. granted permission to quote from Erik H. Erikson'sChildhood and Society,2nd ed., 1963; Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., and Bruno Bettelheim granted permission to quote from his book,The Empty Fortress,copyright 1967 by Bruno Bettelheim; Little, Brown, & Co. granted permission to quote the first stanza of "Growth of Man like growth of Nature" fromPoems by Emily Dickinson,edited by Martha Dickinson Bianchi, 1957 by Mary L. Hampson; andFamily Circle Magazinegranted permission to quote from Louise B. Ames's "Don't push your preschooler," in the December 1971 issue, 1971, The Family Circle, Inc., all rights reserved. Henry Holt and Company gave permission to reproduce lines from my 2003 book,Reclaiming Childhood.Credit for the use of illustrations and other material is given within the text. William Crain


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