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For undergraduate/graduate courses in Theories of Development, Child Development, and Lifespan Development.
The result of extensive scholarship and consultation with leading scholars, this text introduces students to twenty-four theorists and compares and contrasts their theories on how we develop as individuals. Emphasizing the theories that build upon the developmental tradition established by Rousseau, this text also covers theories in the environmental/learning tradition.
From Locke and Rousseau to Piaget and Bandura, scholars have advanced our understanding of psychological development. In this lively and readable book, Crain introduces the concepts of a number of outstanding theorists, giving special attention to the practical applications of their thought.
This Fifth Edition features new discussions of:
-Piaget and his critics
-Freud's mechanisms of defense
-Werner and today's push for early literacy instruction
-Schachtel's views on why adults forget early childhood experiences
-The standards movement that dominates contemporary education
William Crain is professor of psychology at The City College of New York. A social activist, Dr. Crain served nine years on the Teaneck, NJ, school board and works for student access to higher education and the protection of nature and animals. He and his wife Ellen F. Crain, a pediatrician, have three grown children.
Table of Contents
|Early Theories: Preformationism, Locke, and Rousseau||p. 3|
|Locke's Environmentalism||p. 6|
|Rousseau's Romantic Naturalism||p. 12|
|Gesell's Maturational Theory||p. 22|
|Biographical Introduction||p. 22|
|Principles of Development||p. 23|
|Philosophy of Child Rearing||p. 29|
|Ethological Theories: Darwin, Lorenz and Tinbergen, and Bowlby and Ainsworth||p. 35|
|Darwin and the Theory of Evolution||p. 35|
|Modern Ethology: Lorenz and Tinbergen||p. 39|
|Bowlby and Ainsworth on Human Attachment||p. 47|
|Montessori's Educational Philosophy||p. 71|
|Biographical Introduction||p. 71|
|Theory of Development||p. 72|
|Early Education in the Home||p. 76|
|The Montessori School||p. 77|
|Werner's Organismic and Comparative Theory||p. 93|
|Biographical Introduction||p. 93|
|Werner's View of Development||p. 95|
|Some Comparative Studies||p. 100|
|Symbol Formation: An Organismic View||p. 105|
|Theoretical Issues||p. 108|
|Practical Applications||p. 112|
|Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory||p. 118|
|Biographical Introduction||p. 118|
|Overview of the Theory||p. 120|
|Period I. Sensorimotor Intelligence (Birth to 2 Years)||p. 122|
|Periods II and III. Preoperational Thought (2 to 7 Years) and Concrete Operations (7 to 11 Years)||p. 127|
|Period IV. Formal Operations (11 Years to Adulthood)||p. 138|
|Theoretical Issues||p. 140|
|Implications for Education||p. 143|
|Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development||p. 157|
|Biographical Introduction||p. 157|
|Piaget's Stages of Moral Judgment||p. 158|
|Kohlberg's Method||p. 159|
|Kohlberg's Six Stages||p. 160|
|Theoretical Issues||p. 166|
|Gilligan on the Feminine Voice||p. 174|
|Implications for Education||p. 176|
|Learning Theory: Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner||p. 180|
|Pavlov and Classical Conditioning||p. 180|
|Skinner and Operant Conditioning||p. 187|
|Bandura's Social Learning Theory||p. 204|
|Biographical Introduction||p. 204|
|Basic Concepts||p. 205|
|Socialization Studies||p. 208|
|Abstract Modeling and Piaget's Stages||p. 215|
|Practical Implications||p. 219|
|Vygotsky's Social-Historical Theory of Cognitive Development||p. 224|
|Biographical Introduction||p. 224|
|Marx's Views on Human Nature||p. 226|
|Vygotsky'a Theory of Psychological Tools||p. 228|
|Memory Aids||p. 232|
|Practical Applications||p. 245|
|Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory||p. 253|
|Biographical Introduction||p. 253|
|The Stages of Psychosexual Development||p. 256|
|The Agencies of the Mind||p. 268|
|Practical Implications||p. 276|
|Erikson and the Eight Stages of Life||p. 281|
|Biographical Introduction||p. 281|
|Erikson's Stage Theory||p. 282|
|Theoretical Issues||p. 297|
|Practical Implications||p. 302|
|Mahler's Separation/Individuation Theory||p. 306|
|Biographical Introduction||p. 306|
|Overview of Concepts and Methods||p. 307|
|Phases of Normal Development||p. 309|
|Practical Applications||p. 315|
|A Case Study in Psychoanalytic Treatment: Bettelheim on Autism||p. 320|
|Biographical Introduction||p. 320|
|The Autistic Syndrome||p. 321|
|Schachtel on Childhood Experiences||p. 329|
|Biographical Introduction||p. 329|
|Basic Concepts||p. 329|
|Implications for Education||p. 333|
|Jung's Theory of Adulthood||p. 338|
|Biographical Introduction||p. 338|
|Personality Structure||p. 341|
|Theory of Development||p. 344|
|Practical Implications||p. 348|
|Chomsky's Theory of Language Development||p. 351|
|Biographical Introduction||p. 351|
|Basic Concepts||p. 352|
|Notes on the Growth of Grammar||p. 358|
|Chomsky and Learning Theory||p. 362|
|Chomsky and Piaget||p. 368|
|Implications for Education||p. 369|
|Conclusion: Humanistic Psychology and Developmental Theory||p. 373|
|Humanistic Psychology||p. 373|
|Developmentalists as Humanists||p. 379|
|Epilogue: A Developmental Perspective on the Standards Movement||p. 385|
|Name Index||p. 417|
|Subject Index||p. 423|
|Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.|