9780139172205

Thermal Environmental Engineering

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780139172205

  • ISBN10:

    0139172203

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1/28/1998
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

The latest edition of the classic book grounded in the fundamentals. It introduces heating, ventilation, and air conditioning starting with basic principles of engineering leading to the latest HVAC design practice. Its engineering approach emphasizes fundamentals and realistic applications.Acknowledging numerous approaches to all engineering problems, the book presents alternate approaches and describes why some approaches work best in specific applications and what compromises are made using each of them. Provides carefully worked examples with step-by-step solutions listing assumptions, reference equations, and supporting material. Incorporates a careful use of easy-to-follow units and conversion factors providing basic mass and energy balances. The third edition ofThermal Environmental Engineeringhas been updated to reflect current approaches as well as new chapters on energy estimation, air handling system design, and piping system design. Discusses new replacement refrigerants as well as environmental issues. Presents single and multiple zone psychronetric systems; moisture transport in building structures; and the latest topics on indoor air quality and human comfort.An essential reference book for professional mechanical engineers.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Part I INTRODUCTION 1(48)
1 Introduction to Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration
1(8)
1.1 Historical Overview
1(3)
1.2 Overview of HVAC System Design
4(4)
1.3 Summary
8(1)
Endnotes
8(1)
2 Review of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics, and Heat Transfer
9(40)
2.1 Introduction
9(1)
2.2 Thermodynamic Properties
9(1)
2.3 Systems of Units
10(1)
2.4 Specific Volume, Density, Specific Weight, and Specific Gravity
10(1)
2.5 Pressure
11(1)
2.6 Temperature
11(1)
2.7 Heat and Power Units
12(1)
2.8 First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics
13(1)
2.9 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Entropy
13(1)
2.10 The Perfect Gas
14(1)
2.11 Mixtures of Perfect Gases
14(1)
2.12 Dry Air
15(1)
2.13 Properties of Water and Steam
16(3)
2.14 Low-Pressure Water Vapor
19(2)
2.15 Thermodynamic Properties of Refrigerants
21(1)
2.16 The Steady-Flow Energy Equation
22(1)
2.17 The Steady-Flow Entropy Equation
23(1)
2.18 Heat Conduction
24(1)
2.19 Forced Convection for Internal Flows
25(1)
2.20 Forced Convection for External Flows
26(1)
2.21 Natural Convection for External Flows
27(1)
2.22 Natural Convection for Cavity Flows
28(1)
2.23 Pool Boiling
28(1)
2.24 Forced-Convection Boiling
29(2)
2.25 Condensation on External Surfaces
31(1)
2.26 Condensation in Internal Flows
32(1)
2.27 Thermal Radiation
32(6)
2.28 Combined Modes of Heat Transfer
38(1)
2.29 Overall Transfer of Heat
39(4)
2.30 Fluid Flow in Ducts and Pipes
43(1)
Endnotes
44(1)
Problems
45(1)
Symbols
46(3)
Part II REFRIGERATION 49(129)
3 Mechanical Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycles
49(24)
3.1 Introduction
49(1)
3.2 The Carnot Refrigeration Cycle
50(2)
3.3 The Theoretical Single-Stage Cycle
52(3)
3.4 Comparison of the Theoretical Single-Stage Cycle with the Carnot Cycle
55(3)
3.5 Subcooling and Superheating Refrigerant in the Single-Stage Cycle
58(1)
3.6 Performance of Single-Stage Cycle at Low Evaporating Temperatures
59(2)
3.7 Theoretical Multistage Vapor-Compression Cycles
61(7)
3.8 Theoretical Cascade Vapor-Compression Cycles
68(1)
3.9 Theoretical Single-Stage Cycle Using a Refrigerant Mixture
68(1)
Endnotes
69(1)
Problems
69(3)
Symbols
72(1)
4 Mechanical Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Components and Systems
73(41)
4.1 Refrigerants
73(5)
4.2 The Inorganic Refrigerants
78(1)
4.3 The Halocarbon Refrigerants
78(2)
4.4 Reaction of Refrigerants with Moisture and Oil
80(2)
4.5 Reciprocating Compressors
82(8)
4.6 Rotary Compressors
90(2)
4.7 Scroll Compressors
92(4)
4.8 Screw Compressors
96(3)
4.9 Centrifugal Compressors
99(2)
4.10 Expansion Devices
101(3)
4.11 Actual Refrigeration Systems
104(6)
Endnotes
110(1)
Problems
110(2)
Symbols
112(2)
5 Absorption Refrigeration
114(37)
5.1 Introduction
114(1)
5.2 Simple Theoretical Absorption Refrigeration System
115(2)
5.3 Elementary Properties of Binary Mixtures
117(4)
5.4 Elementary Steady-Flow Processes with Binary Mixtures
121(7)
5.5 Rectification of a Binary Mixture
128(6)
5.6 The Aqua-Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration System
134(5)
5.7 The Lithium Bromide-Water Absorption System
139(8)
5.8 Comparison of Absorption Systems with Mechanical Vapor-Compression Systems
147(1)
Endnotes
148(1)
Problems
149(1)
Symbols
150(1)
6 Ultralow-Temperature Refrigeration: Cryogenics
151(27)
6.1 Introduction
151(1)
6.2 Minimum Work Required to Liquefy a Gas
152(1)
6.3 Cooling of a Gas by Expansion
153(3)
6.4 Linde Air-Liquefaction Cycle
156(3)
6.5 Claude Air-Liquefaction Cycle
159(3)
6.6 Separation of Air
162(9)
6.7 Liquefaction of Hydrogen and Helium
171(3)
6.8 Approach to Absolute Zero by the Adiabatic Demagnetization of a Paramagnetic Salt
174(1)
Endnotes
175(1)
Problems
175(2)
Symbols
177(1)
Part III PSYCHROMETRICS 178(85)
7 Thermodynamic Properties of Moist Air
178(23)
7.1 Atmospheric Air
178(1)
7.2 Fundamental Discussion of Moist Air
179(3)
7.3 Thermodynamic Wet-Bulb Temperature
182(1)
7.4 The Tables for Moist Air
183(2)
7.5 Perfect-Gas Relationships for Approximate Calculations
185(7)
7.6 Construction of the Psychrometric Chart
192(4)
7.7 The ASHRAE Psychrometric Charts
196(1)
Endnotes
197(1)
Problems
197(2)
Symbols
199(2)
8 Psychrometric Processes and Applications
201(42)
8.1 Introduction
201(1)
8.2 Elementary Psychrometric Processes
201(16)
8.3 Psychrometric Systems--Single Zone
217(8)
8.4 Psychrometric Systems--Multiple Zone
225(10)
Endnotes
235(1)
Problems
236(5)
Symbols
241(2)
9 The Psychrometer and Humidity Measurement
243(20)
9.1 Introduction
243(1)
9.2 Mass Transfer and Evaporation of Water into Moist Air
243(3)
9.3 Theory of the Psychrometer
246(6)
9.4 Practical Use of a Psychrometer
252(1)
9.5 Correlation of Psychrometer Wet-Bulb Temperature with Thermodynamic Wet-Bulb Temperature
252(5)
9.6 Other Methods for Measuring Air Humidity
257(1)
9.7 Humidity Standards
258(2)
Endnotes
260(1)
Problems
260(1)
Symbols
261(2)
Part IV HEAT- AND MASS-TRANSFER PROCESSES AND APPLICATIONS 263(152)
10 Direct-Contact Transfer Processes between Moist Air and Water
263(25)
10.1 Introduction
263(1)
10.2 Directly Recirculated Isothermal Spray Water: the Air Washer
263(5)
10.3 Counterflow Contact of Moist Air by Heated Spray Water: the Cooling Tower
268(13)
10.4 Counterflow Contact of Moist Air by Chilled Spray Water: the Spray Dehumidifier
281(1)
10.5 Mass-Transfer Coefficients for Water-Air Direct-Contact Devices
282(2)
Endnotes
284(1)
Problems
285(1)
Symbols
286(2)
11 Heating and Cooling of Moist Air by Extended-Surface Coils
288(44)
11.1 General Remarks
288(1)
11.2 True Mean Temperature Difference for Heat Exchangers of the Cross-Flow, Finned-Tube Type
289(6)
11.3 Evaluating Heat-Exchanger Performance Using the Number-of-Transfer-Units Method
295(2)
11.4 The Efficiency of Various Extended Surfaces
297(4)
11.5 Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient for a Dry Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger
301(2)
11.6 Overall Heat-Transfer Problems Involving Dry Finned Surfaces
303(6)
11.7 Introduction to Heat Transfer in Wet-Surface Cooling Coils
309(3)
11.8 The Efficiency of Various Extended Surfaces When Both Cooling and Dehumidifying Occur
312(2)
11.9 Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient for a Wet Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger
314(3)
11.10 Mean Air Enthalpy Difference for Wet Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers
317(1)
11.11 Overall Heat-Transfer Problems Involving Wet Finned Surfaces
318(5)
11.12 Calculation of Cooling-Coil Performance at Other than Design Conditions
323(2)
11.13 Practical Considerations Involving Finned-Tube Heating and Cooling Coils
325(1)
Endnotes
326(1)
Problems
326(2)
Symbols
328(4)
12 Human Thermal Comfort and Indoor Air Quality
332(49)
12.1 Introduction
332(1)
12.2 Energy Balance on the Human Body
332(9)
12.3 Environmental Parameters
341(5)
12.4 Environmental Comfort Indices
346(5)
12.5 Body Regulatory Processes against Heat or Cold
351(2)
12.6 Prediction of Human Thermal Comfort
353(3)
12.7 Airborne Contaminants
356(1)
12.8 Acceptable Indoor Levels of Airborne Contaminants
357(5)
12.9 Control of Indoor Airborne Contaminants
362(11)
12.10 Modeling of Indoor Contaminant Concentration
373(3)
Endnotes
376(1)
Problems
377(2)
Symbols
379(2)
13 Solar Radiation
381(34)
13.1 Introduction
381(1)
13.2 The Earth
381(2)
13.3 Basic Earth-Sun Angles
383(2)
13.4 Relationship between Clock Time and Solar Time
385(2)
13.5 Derived Solar Angles
387(5)
13.6 Shading of Surfaces from Direct Solar Radiation
392(4)
13.7 Solar-Radiation Intensity at Outer Limit of Atmosphere
396(1)
13.8 Depletion of Direct Solar Radiation by Earth's Atmosphere
397(3)
13.9 Estimation of Intensity of Solar Radiation during Average Clear Days
400(1)
13.10 Solar Radiation Striking a Surface
401(6)
13.11 Solar-Radiation Measurement
407(2)
Endnotes
409(1)
Problems
410(3)
Symbols
413(2)
Part V HEATING- AND COOLING-LOAD CALCULATIONS IN BUILDINGS 415(169)
14 Winter Design Heat Loss
415(57)
14.1 Introduction
415(1)
14.2 Above-Grade Heat Transfer in Buildings
416(19)
14.3 Below-Grade Heat Transfer in Buildings
435(8)
14.4 Infiltration
443(12)
14.5 Unheated-Space Temperatures and Heat Losses
455(1)
14.6 Winter Design Conditions
456(1)
14.7 Winter Design Heat-Loss Summary
457(2)
14.8 Moisture Transport in Building Structures
459(6)
Endnotes
465(1)
Problems
466(3)
Symbols
469(3)
15 Instantaneous Heat Gain
472(60)
15.1 Introduction
472(1)
15.2 Summer Design Conditions
473(1)
15.3 Sol-Air Temperature
474(7)
15.4 Periodic Heat Gain through Walls and Roofs
481(22)
15.5 Instantaneous Heat Gain through Fenestrations
503(19)
15.6 Heat Gain from Internal Sources
522(4)
Endnotes
526(1)
Problems
526(2)
Symbols
528(4)
16 Instantaneous Cooling Load
532(27)
16.1 Introduction
532(1)
16.2 Instantaneous Cooling Load for Forced-Air Systems
532(2)
16.3 Transfer-Function Method
534(6)
16.4 Hand-Calculation (CLTD) Method
540(15)
Endnotes
555(1)
Problems
556(1)
Symbols
557(2)
17 Energy-Estimation Methods
559(25)
17.1 Degree-Day Method
559(4)
17.2 Bin Method
563(15)
17.3 Modified Bin Method
578(1)
17.4 Detailed Energy-Estimation Methods
579(1)
Endnotes
580(1)
Problems
581(1)
Symbols
582(2)
Part VI AIR- AND WATER-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM DESIGN 584(90)
18 Air-Distribution Systems and Duct Design
584(61)
18.1 Introduction
584(1)
18.2 Room Air Distribution and Diffuser Selection
585(18)
18.3 Basic Air-Distribution System Principles
603(27)
18.4 Duct Layout and Sizing Procedures
630(8)
Endnotes
638(1)
Problems
638(5)
Symbols
643(2)
19 Hydronic System Operation and Design
645(29)
19.1 Introduction
645(1)
19.2 Basic Principles of Hydronic Systems
645(14)
19.3 Pipe Layout and Sizing Procedures
659(9)
19.4 Additional Components and Considerations
668(2)
Endnotes
670(1)
Problems
670(2)
Symbols
672(2)
Appendix A Thermodynamic and Thermophysical Property Tables 674(33)
Appendix B Weather Data 707(25)
Appendix C Refrigerant, Cryogenic, and Psychrometric Charts 732(1)
Index 733

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