9780130351173

Thermodynamics An Interactive Approach

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780130351173

  • ISBN10:

    0130351172

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 11/13/2014
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

For the thermodynamics course in the Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering department. This text also serves as a useful reference for anyone interested in learning more about thermodynamics.

Thermodynamics: An Interactive Approach employs a layered approach that introduces the important concepts of mass, energy, and entropy early, and progressively refines them throughout the text. To create a rich learning experience for today’s thermodynamics student, this book melds traditional content with the web-based resources and learning tools of TEST: The Expert System for Thermodynamics (www.pearsonhighered.com/bhattacharjee)–an interactive platform that offers smart thermodynamic tables for property evaluation and analysis tools for mass, energy, entropy, and exergy analysis of open and closed systems.

Beside the daemons–web-based calculators with a friendly graphical interface–other useful TEST modules include an animation library, rich Internet applications (RIAs), traditional charts and tables, manual and TEST solutions of hundreds of engineering problems, and examples and problems to supplement the textbook. The book is written in a way that allows instructors to decide the extent that TEST is integrated with homework or in the classroom.

MasteringEngineering for Thermodynamics is a total learning package. This innovative online program emulates the instructor’s office—hour environment, guiding students through engineering concepts from Thermodynamics with self-paced individualized coaching.

Teaching and Learning Experience

To provide a better teaching and learning experience, for both instructors and students, this program will:

  • Personalize Learning with Individualized Coaching: MasteringEngineering emulates the instructor’s office-hour environment using self-paced individualized coaching.
  • Introduce Fundamental Theories Early: A layered approach introduces important concepts early, and progressively refines them in subsequent chapters to lay a foundation for true understanding.
  • Engage Students with Interactive Content: To create a rich learning experience for today’s thermodynamics student, this book melds traditional content with web-based resources and learning tools.

Note: You are purchasing the standalone text. MasteringEngineering does not come automatically packaged with the text. To purchase MasteringEngineering, search for ISBN-10: 0133807975 / ISBN-13: 9780133807974. That package contains ISBN-10: 0130351172 / ISBN-13: 9780130351173 and ISBN-10: 0133810844 / ISBN-13: 9780133810844. MasteringEngineering is not a self-paced technology and should only be purchased when required by an instructor.

Author Biography

Professor Subrata Bhattacharjee, known by his friends as Sooby, earned a B.Tech. degree in Mechanical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur in 1983 and his Ph.D. from Washington State University, Pullman, USA in 1988. After two years of post-doctoral work on a NASA project, he joined San Diego State University in 1991 and currently holds Professorship in Mechanical Engineering Department and Adjunct Professorship in Computer Science Department.

 

Professor Bhattacharjee has been actively involved in research in radiation heat transfer, combustion, computational thermodynamics, and development of software for educational purposes. For his dissertation, he developed a modified two-flux method (Effective Angle Method) for calculating radiative source term and used this model to study two-way coupling between radiation and fluid dynamics in a laminar diffusion flame. Working on a project on jet flow in boundary layers, he came upon a new non-dimensional group that compares a known pressure drop with viscous forces. This number is being used in textbook and literature in connection with electronic cooling.

 

Throughout his research career, Dr. Bhattacharjee has been interested in uncovering the mechanism of flame spread over solid fuels, especially in a microgravity environment. His work helped establish the dominance of radiation heat transfer in near quiescent environment. He has been a PI and co-PI of several projects funded by NASA. Some of his contributions include: 1. Discovery of the phenomenon that flame over thick fuel bed in a quiescent microgravity environment self-extinguishes irrespective of the oxygen level; 2. Development of a formula for a critical thickness that renders a fuel thick in such an environment; 3. Development of two formulas for flame spread rate, one in the thin limit and one in the thick limit, which are the only flame spread formulas ever developed in the microgravity regime. Several of his experiments on flames over solids have been conducted aboard NASA's Space Shuttles, Sounding Rockets, and Russia's Mir Space Station. One of his recently proposed experiments is currently under design to be conducted in the International Space Station.

 

Under a current grant from NASA, Prof. Bhattacharjee and his team is building a 10 m tall Flame Tower at SDSU to conduct some fundamental experiments to predict the behavior of flames in a gravity free environment of a spacecraft. These ground based work is in support of the proposed space based experiment. In this work, researchers from Gifu University, Japan, are collaborating with SDSU.

 

Supported by NSF, Dr. Bhattacharjee has been developing a novel cyber infrastructure for multi-scale approach to thermodynamic data and chemical equilibrium services. Users can now plug in these services and "outsource" the data used in their thermofluids calculations. By simply altering key words such as NASA, NIST, or AB-INITIO, for example, they can change the source of data used in their research applications. Likewise, equilibrium calculations can be integrated into any CFD code written in FORTRAN, MATLAB, or any other language through a relatively new technology called web services. The chemical equilibrium program developed by Dr. Bhattacharjee's group is equally powerful as NASA's benchmark CEA and offers a built-in parallel architecture.

 

Prof. Bhattacharjee's passion for making thermodynamics easier to master led to the development of a web based software called TEST, the Expert System for thermodynamics (www.pearsonhighered.com/bhattacharjee), which has been used by students, professionals and educators from around the world. Several articles and one book have been written about the use of TEST in thermodynamic education.

 

Winner of Outstanding Faculty Award, Monty Award at SDSU, Most Influential Faculty award, Faculty Friend Award, Outstanding Engineering Educator award, Best Paper award, and ASME Fellow award, Professor Bhattacharjee can be contacted at prof.bhattacharjee@gmail.com

Table of Contents

Introduction Thermodynamic System and its Interactions with the Surroundings 1

0.1 Thermodynamic Systems 1

0.2 Test and Animations 3

0.3 Examples of Thermodynamic Systems 3

0.4 Interactions Between The System and its Surroundings 5

0.5 Mass Interaction 5

0.6 Test and the Daemons 7

0.7 Energy, Work, and Heat 7

0.7.1 Heat and Heating Rate (Q, Q) 10

0.7.2 Work and Power (W, W#) 12

0.8 Work Transfer Mechanisms 13

0.8.1 Mechanical Work (WM, W#M) 13

0.8.2 Shaft Work (Wsh, W#sh) 15

0.1.5 Electrical Work (Wel , Wel#) 15

0.8.3 Boundary Work (WB, W#B) 16

0.8.4 Flow Work (W#F) 18

0.8.5 Net Work Transfer (W#, Wext) 19

0.8.6 Other Interactions 21

0.9 Closure 21

Chapter 1 Description of a System: States And Properties 33

1.1 Consequences of Interactions 33

1.2 States 33

1.3 Macroscopic vs. Microscopic Thermodynamics 35

1.4 An Image Analogy 36

1.5 Properties of State 37

1.5.1 Property Evaluation by State Daemons 37

1.5.2 Properties Related to System Size (V, A, m, n, m # , V#, n # ) 39

1.5.3 Density and Specific Volume (r, v) 41

1.5.4 Velocity and Elevation (V, z) 42

1.5.5 Pressure (p) 42

1.5.6 Temperature (T) 46

1.5.7 Stored Energy (E, KE, PE, U, e, ke, pe, u, E#) 48

1.5.8 Flow Energy and Enthalpy (j, J#, h, H#) 51

1.5.9 Entropy (S, s) 53

1.5.10 Exergy (f, c) 55

1.6 Property Classification 56

1.7 Evaluation of Extended State 57

1.8 Closure 60

Chapter 2 Development of Balance Equations for Mass, Energy, and Entropy:

Application to Closed-Steady Systems 67

2.1 Balance Equations 67

2.1.1 Mass Balance Equation 68

2.1.2 Energy Balance Equation 70

2.1.3 Entropy Balance Equation 75

2.1.4 Entropy and Reversibility 78

2.2 Closed-Steady Systems 83

2.3 Cycles–a Special Case of Closed-Steady Systems 86

2.3.1 Heat Engine 86

2.3.2 Refrigerator and Heat Pump 89

2.3.3 The Carnot Cycle 91

2.3.4 The Kelvin Temperature Scale 95

2.4 Closure 96

Chapter 3 Evaluation of Properties: Material Models 111

3.1 Thermodynamic Equilibrium and States 111

3.1.1 Equilibrium and LTE (Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium) 111

3.1.2 The State Postulate 112

3.1.3 Differential Thermodynamic Relations 114

3.2 Material Models 116

3.2.1 State Daemons and TEST-Codes 117

3.3 The SL (Solid>Liquid) Model 117

3.3.1 SL Model Assumptions 118

3.3.2 Equations of State 118

3.3.3 Model Summary: SL Model 119

3.4 The PC (Phase-Change) Model 121

3.4.1 A New Pair of Properties–Qualities x and y 122

3.4.2 Numerical Simulation 123

3.4.3 Property Diagrams 124

3.4.4 Extending the Diagrams: The Solid Phase 126

3.4.5 Thermodynamic Property Tables 127

3.4.6 Evaluation of Phase Composition 129

3.4.7 Properties of Saturated Mixture 131

3.4.8 Subcooled or Compressed Liquid 134

3.4.9 Supercritical Vapor or Liquid 136

3.4.10 Sublimation States 136

3.4.11 Model Summary–PC Model 136

3.5 GAS MODELS 137

3.5.1 The IG (Ideal Gas) and PG (Perfect Gas) Models 137

3.5.2 IG and PG Model Assumptions 137

3.5.3 Equations of State 138

3.5.4 Model Summary: PG and IG Models 143

3.5.5 The RG (Real Gas) Model 147

3.5.6 RG Model Assumptions 148

3.5.7 Compressibility Charts 149

3.5.8 Other Equations of State 150

3.5.9 Model Summary: RG Model 151

3.6 Mixture Models 152

3.6.1 Vacuum 152

3.7 Standard Reference State and Reference Values 153

3.8 Selection of a Model 153

3.9 Closure 155

Chapter 4 Mass, Energy, and Entropy Analysis of Open-Steady Systems 167

4.1 Governing Equations and Device Efficiencies 167

4.1.1 TEST and the Open-Steady Daemons 168

4.1.2 Energetic Efficiency 169

4.1.3 Internally Reversible System 170

4.1.4 Isentropic Efficiency 172

4.2 Comprehensive Analysis 173

4.2.1 Pipes, Ducts, or Tubes 173

4.2.2 Nozzles and Diffusers 176

4.2.3 Turbines 181

4.2.4 Compressors, Fans, and Pumps 185

4.2.5 Throttling Valves 188

4.2.6 Heat Exchangers 190

4.2.7 TEST and the Multi-Flow Non-Mixing Daemons 190

4.2.8 Mixing Chambers and Separators 192

4.2.9 TEST and the Multi-Flow Mixing Daemons 192

4.3 Closure 195

Chapter 5 Mass, Energy, and Entropy Analysis of Unsteady Systems 207

5.1 Unsteady Processes 207

5.1.1 Closed Processes 208

5.1.2 TEST and the Closed-Process Daemons 209

5.1.3 Energetic Efficiency and Reversibility 209

5.1.4 Uniform Closed Processes 212

5.1.5 Non-Uniform Systems 224

5.1.6 TEST and the Non-Uniform Closed-Process Daemons 224

5.1.7 Open Processes 228

5.1.8 TEST and Open-Process Daemons 230

5.2 Transient Analysis 233

5.2.1 Closed Transient Systems 233

5.2.2 Isolated Systems 234

5.2.3 Mechanical Systems 235

5.2.4 Open Transient Systems 236

5.3 Differential Processes 238

5.4 Thermodynamic Cycle as a Closed Process 239

5.4.1 Origin of Internal Energy 240

5.4.2 Clausius Inequality and Entropy 240

5.5 Closure 241

Chapter 6 Exergy Balance Equation: Application to Steady and Unsteady Systems 251

6.1 Exergy Balance Equation 251

6.1.1 Exergy, Reversible Work, and Irreversibility 254

6.1.2 TEST Daemons for Exergy Analysis 257

6.2 Closed-Steady Systems 258

6.2.1 Exergy Analysis of Cycles 259

6.3 Open-Steady Systems 261

6.4 Closed Processes 266

6.5 Open Processes 269

6.6 Closure 271

Chapter 7 Reciprocating Closed Power Cycles 278

7.1 The Closed Carnot Heat Engine 278

7.1.1 Significance of the Carnot Engine 280

7.2 IC Engine Terminology 280

7.3 Air-Standard Cycles 283

7.3.1 TEST and the Reciprocating Cycle Daemons 284

7.4 Otto Cycle 284

7.4.1 Cycle Analysis 285

7.4.2 Qualitative Performance Predictions 286

7.4.3 Fuel Consideration 286

7.5 Diesel Cycle 289

7.5.1 Cycle Analysis 290

7.5.2 Fuel Consideration 291

7.6 Dual Cycle 293

7.7 Atkinson and Miller Cycles 294

7.8 Stirling Cycle 295

7.9 Two-Stroke Cycle 298

7.10 Fuels 298

7.11 Closure 299

Chapter 8 Open Gas Power Cycle 306

8.1 The Gas Turbine 306

8.2 The Air-Standard Brayton Cycle 308

8.2.1 TEST and the Open Gas Power-Cycle Daemons 310

8.2.2 Fuel Consideration 310

8.2.3 Qualitative Performance Predictions 311

8.2.4 Irreversibilities in an Actual Cycle 314

8.2.5 Exergy Accounting of Brayton Cycle 316

8.3 Gas Turbine With Regeneration 318

8.4 Gas Turbine With Reheat 319

8.5 Gas Turbine With Intercooling and Reheat 321

8.6 Regenerative Gas Turbine With Reheat and Intercooling 322

8.7 Gas Turbines For Jet Propulsion 324

8.7.1 The Momentum Balance Equation 324

8.7.2 Jet Engine Performance 326

8.7.3 Air-Standard Cycle for Turbojet Analysis 329

8.8 Other Forms of Jet Propulsion 331

8.9 Closure 331

Chapter 9 Open Vapor Power Cycles 341

9.1 The Steam Power Plant 341

9.2 The Rankine Cycle 342

9.2.1 Carbon Footprint 343

9.2.2 TEST and the Open Vapor Power Cycle Daemons 344

9.2.3 Qualitative Performance Predictions 346

9.2.4 Parametric Study of the Rankine Cycle 348

9.2.5 Irreversibilities in an Actual Cycle 349

9.2.6 Exergy Accounting of Rankine Cycle 351

9.3 Modification of Rankine Cycle 352

9.3.1 Reheat Rankine Cycle 352

9.3.2 Regenerative Rankine Cycle 354

9.4 Cogeneration 359

9.5 Binary Vapor Cycle 362

9.6 Combined Cycle 363

9.7 Closure 365

Chapter 10 Refrigeration Cycles 378

10.1 Refrigerators and Heat Pump 378

10.2 Test and the Refrigeration Cycle Daemons 379

10.3 Vapor-Refrigeration Cycles 379

10.3.1 Carnot Refrigeration Cycle 380

10.3.2 Vapor Compression Cycle 380

10.3.3 Analysis of an Ideal Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle 381

10.3.4 Qualitative Performance Predictions 382

10.3.5 Actual Vapor-Compression Cycle 383

10.3.6 Components of a Vapor-Compression Plant 386

10.3.7 Exergy Accounting of Vapor Compression Cycle 386

10.3.8 Refrigerant Selection 388

10.3.9 Cascade Refrigeration Systems 389

10.3.10 Multistage Refrigeration with Flash Chamber 391

10.4 Absorption Refrigeration Cycle 392

10.5 Gas Refrigeration Cycles 394

10.5.1 Reversed Brayton Cycle 394

10.5.2 Linde-Hampson Cycle 397

10.6 Heat Pump Systems 398

10.7 Closure 399

Chapter 11 Evaluation of Properties: Thermodynamic Relations 411

11.1 Thermodynamic Relations 411

11.1.1 The Tds Relations 411

11.1.2 Partial Differential Relations 413

11.1.3 The Maxwell Relations 415

11.1.4 The Clapeyron Equation 418

11.1.5 The Clapeyron-Clausius Equation 419

11.2 Evaluation of Properties 420

11.2.1 Internal Energy 420

11.2.2 Enthalpy 422

11.2.3 Entropy 423

11.2.4 Volume Expansivity and Compressibility 424

11.2.5 Specific Heats 424

11.2.6 Joule-Thompson Coefficient 427

11.3 The Real Gas (RG) Model 428

11.4 Mixture Models 432

11.4.1 Mixture Composition 432

11.4.2 Mixture Daemons 434

11.4.3 PG and IG Mixture Models 436

11.4.4 Mass, Energy, and Entropy Equations for IG-Mixtures 440

11.4.5 Real Gas Mixture Model 444

11.5 Closure 446

Chapter 12 Psychrometry 447

12.1 The Moist Air Model 447

12.1.1 Model Assumptions 447

12.1.2 Saturation Processes 448

12.1.3 Absolute and Relative Humidity 449

12.1.4 Dry- and Wet-Bulb Temperatures 450

12.1.5 Moist Air (MA) Daemons 450

12.1.6 More properties of Moist Air 451

12.2 Mass And Energy Balance Equations 454

12.2.1 Open-Steady Device 454

12.2.2 Closed Process 456

12.3 Adiabatic Saturation and Wet-Bulb Temperature 457

12.4 Psychrometric Chart 459

12.5 Air-Conditioning Processes 461

12.5.1 Simple Heating or Cooling 461

12.5.2 Heating with Humidification 462

12.5.3 Cooling with Dehumidification 464

12.5.4 Evaporative Cooling 465

12.5.5 Adiabatic Mixing 467

12.5.6 Wet Cooling Tower 468

12.6 Closure 471

Chapter 13 Combustion 1

13.1 Combustion Reaction 1

13.1.1 Combustion Daemons 2

13.1.2 Fuels 4

13.1.3 Air 5

13.1.4 Combustion Products 8

13.2 System Analysis 10

13.3 Open-Steady Device 10

13.3.1 Enthalpy of Formation 12

13.3.2 Energy Analysis 14

13.3.3 Entropy Analysis 19

13.3.4 Exergy Analysis 22

13.3.5 Isothermal Combustion–Fuel Cells 27

13.3.6 Adiabatic Combustion–Power Plants 28

13.4 Closed Process 30

13.5 Combustion Efficiencies 32

13.6 Closure 34

Chapter 14 Equilibrium 1

14.1 Criteria for Equilibrium 1

14.2 Equilibrium of Gas Mixtures 6

14.3 Phase Equilibrium 10

14.3.1 Osmotic Pressure and Desalination 15

14.4 Chemical Equilibrium 18

14.4.1 Equilibrium Daemons 21

14.4.2 Equilibrium Composition 22

14.5 Closure 32

Chapter 15 Gas Dynamics 1

15.1 One-Dimensional Flow 1

15.1.1 Static, Stagnation and Total Properties 2

15.1.2 The Gas Dynamics Daemon 3

15.2 Isentropic Flow of a Perfect Gas 5

15.3 Mach Number 6

15.4 Shape of an Isentropic Duct 9

15.5 Isentropic Table for Perfect Gases 11

15.6 Effect of Back Pressure: Converging Nozzle 14

15.7 Effect of Back Pressure: Converging-Diverging Nozzle 16

15.7.1 Normal Shock 18

15.7.2 Normal Shock in a Nozzle 21

15.8 Nozzle and Diffuser Coefficients 23

15.9 Closure 29

Appendices 000

Glossary 000

Index 000

 

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