Fundamental Concepts of Thermodynamics | |
What Is Thermodynamics and Why Is It Useful? | |
Basic Definitions Needed to Describe Thermodynamic Systems | |
Thermometry | |
Equations of State and the Ideal Gas Law | |
A Brief Introduction to Real Gases | |
Heat, Work, Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and The First Law of Thermodynamics | |
The Internal Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics | |
Work | |
Heat | |
Heat Capacity | |
State Functions and Path Functions | |
Equilibrium, Change, and Reversibility | |
Comparing Work for Reversible and Irreversible Processes | |
Determining and Introducing Enthalpy, a New State Function | |
Calculating q, w, , an? for Processes Involving Ideal Gases | |
The Reversible Adiabatic Expansion and Compression of an Ideal Gas | |
The Importance of State Functions: Internal Energy and Enthalpy | |
The Mathematical Properties of State Functions | |
The Dependence of U on V and T | |
Does the Internal Energy Depend More Strongly on V or T? | |
The Variation of Enthalpy with Temperature at Constant Pressure | |
How Are CP and CV Related? | |
The Variation of Enthalpy with Pressure at Constant Temperature | |
The Joule-Thomson Experiment | |
Liquefying Gases Using an Isenthalpic Expansion | |
Thermochemistry | |
Energy Stored in Chemical Bonds Is Released or Taken Up in Chemical Reactions | |
Internal Energy and Enthalpy Changes Associated with Chemical Reactions | |
Hess's Law Is Based on Enthalpy Being a State Function | |
The Temperature Dependence of Reaction Enthalpies | |
The Experimental Determination o? and for Chemical Reactions | |
Differential Scanning Calorimetry | |
Entropy and The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics | |
The Universe Has a Natural Direction of Change | |
Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics | |
Introducing Entropy | |
Calculating Changes in Entropy | |
Using Entropy to Calculate the Natural Direction of a Process in an Isolated System | |
The Clausius Inequality | |
The Change of Entropy in the Surroundings and = + | |
Absolute Entropies and the Third Law of Thermodynamics | |
Standard States in Entropy Calculations | |
Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions | |
Refrigerators, Heat Pumps, and Real Engines | |
(Supplemental) Using the Fact that S Is a State Function to Determine the Dependence of S on V and T | |
(Supplemental) The Dependence of S on T and P | |
(Supplemental) The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale | |
Chemical Equilibrium | |
The Gibbs Energy and the Helmholtz Energy | |
The Differential Forms of U, H, A, and G | |
The Dependence of the Gibbs and Helmholtz Energies on P, V, and T | |
The Gibbs Energy of a Reaction Mixture | |
The Gibbs Energy of a Gas in a Mixture | |
Calculating the Gibbs Energy of Mixing for Ideal Gases | |
Expressing | |
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