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"Real Thinking for Real Life with Real Success" For your classes in Critical Thinking, McGraw-Hill introduces the new edition of THiNK, from the acclaimed M Series. Critical Thinking begins by listening and we began THiNKby listening to and observing students and instructors. McGraw-Hill conducted extensive research to gain insight into students' studying and buying behavior, as well as instructor challenges. Students told us they wanted more portable texts with innovative visual appeal and content that is designed according to the way they learn. Instructors told us they wanted a way to engage their students without compromising on high quality content. THiNKis critical thinking come to life. This innovative text provides instructors with scholarly yet succinct content on critical thinking and logical argumentation in a format that captivates students. With current examples, exercises, and applications, and powerful pedagogy that links concepts within and between chapters, THiNKdirects students to make connections between skill development and application to their college studies, careers, and personal lives. Imagine a class where students are actively and personally engaged in thinking critically while also discovering how to apply those thinking skills in everyday life. Now imagine those same students confidently participating in class, working efficiently through the exercises outside class, and performing better in the course. With Connect Critical Thinking, students can achieve this success. Connect Critical Thinkingis a first: a learning program with pedagogical tools that are anchored in research on critical thinking. More current, more portable, more captivating, a rigorous and innovative research foundation, plus Connect Critical Thinkingadds up to: more learning. When you meet students where they are, you can take them where you want them to be.
Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1: Why are Critical Thinking and Logic Skills Important
What is Critical Thinking?
Critical Thinking in Everyday Life
Cognitive Development in College Students
Characteristics of a Good Critical Thinker
Research and Inquiry Skills
Flexibility and Tolerance for Ambiguity
Attentive, Mindful, and Curious
Critical Thinking and Self-Development
Living the Self-Examined Life
Developing a Rational Life Plan
The Importance of Self-Esteem
Critical Thinking in a Democracy
Barriers to Critical Thinking
The Three-tier Model of Thinking
Types of Resistance
Rationalization and Doublethink
Cognitive and Social Dissonance
Stress as a Barrier
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Affirmative Action in College Admissions
Nancy Cantor, Affirmative Action and Higher Education
George W. Bush, Remarks by the President on the Michigan Affirmative Action Case
Chapter 2: Reason and Emotion in Critical Thinking
What is Reason?
Traditional Views of Reason
Gender, Race, Age, and Reason
Dreams and Problem-Solving
The Role of Emotion in Critical Thinking
Cultural Attitudes Toward Emotion
Emotional Intelligence and the Positive Effects of Emotion
Negative Effects of Emotion
Integrating Emotion and Reason
Artificial Intelligence, Reason, and Emotion
The Field of Artificial Intelligence
Can Computers Think?
Can Computers Feel Emotion?
Faith and Reason
Fideism: Faith Transcends Reason
Rationalism: Religious Beliefs and Reason
Critical Rationalism: Faith and Reason are Compatible
Religion, Spirituality and Real-Life Decisions
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on the Spirituality and Evolution of Artificial Intelligence
Ray Kurzweil, Artificial Intelligence and Evolution
Noreen Herzfeld, In Our Image: Artificial Intelligence and the Human Spirit
Chapter 3: Language and Communication
What is Language?
Functions of Language
Denotative and Connotative Meanings
Verbal Disputes Based on Ambiguous Definitions
Individual Styles of Communication
Communication Style, Gender and Race
Cultural Differences in Communication Styles
The Use of Language to Manipulate
Deception and Lying
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Free Speech Zones on College Campuses
West Virginia University, Policy on Free Speech Activities
Greg Lukianoff, Letter to President Hardesty, WVU, Freedom for IndividualRights in Education
Robert J. Scott, Reasonable Limits Are Good
Chapter 4: Knowledge, Evidence and Errors in Thinking
Human Knowledge and Its Limitations
Rationalism and Empiricism
Kant and the Structure of the Mind
Direct Experience and False Memories
The Unreliability of Hearsay and Anecdotal Evidence
Experts and Credibility
Evaluating Evidence for a Claim
Cognitive and Perceptual Errors in Thinking
Misperception of Random Data
Memorable Events Error
Social Errors and Biases
"One of Us/One of Them" Error
Group Pressure and Conformity
Diffusion of Responsibility
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on the Existence of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs)
Edward U. Condon, Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects
J. Allen Hynek, The UFO Experience: A Scientific Inquiry
Royston Paynter, Physical Evidence and UFOs
Chapter 5: Informal Fallacies
What is a Fallacy?
Fallacies of Ambiguity
Fallacy of Accent
Fallacy of Division
Fallacies of Relevance
Personal Attack (Ad Hominem Fallacy)
Appeal to Force (Scare Tactics)
Appeal to Pity
Appeal to Ignorance
Fallacies Involving Unwarranted Assumptions
Begging the Question
Inappropriate Appeal to Authority
Strategies for Avoiding Fallacies
Critical Thinking Issues: Perspectives on Going to War in Iraq
President George W. Bush, Remarks on the Iraqi Threat
Dave Koehler, Fallacies and War: Misleading a Nervous America to the Wrong Conclusion
Chapter 6: Recognizing, Analyzing, and Constructing Arguments
What is an Issue?
Identifying an Issue
Asking the Right Questions
Argumentation versus Rhetoric
Distinguishing Between Rhetoric and Argumentation
Recognizing an Argument
Premises and Conclusions
Nonarguments: Explanations and Conditional Statements
Breaking Down and Diagramming Arguments
Breaking Down an Argument into Propositions
Identifying Premise(s) and Conclusion in Complex Arguments
Diagramming an Argument
Clarity: Is the Argument Clear and Unambiguous?
Credibility: Are The Premises Supported by Evidence?
Relevance: Are The Premises Relevant to the Conclusion?
Completeness: Are There Any Unstated Premises and Conclusions?
Soundness: Are the Premises True and Do They Support the Conclusion?
Constructing an Argument
Steps for Constructing an Argument
Testing and Revising Your Argument
Writing a College Essay Based on Logical Argumentation
Using Arguments in Making Real-Life Decisions
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Same Sex Marriage
Michael Nava and Robert Dawidoff, The Case for Gay Marriages
Robert Sokolowski, The Threat of Same-Sex Marriage
Chapter 7: Inductive Arguments
What is an Inductive Argument?
The Use of Inductive Reasoning in Everyday Life
Using Polls, Surveys, and Sampling to Make Generalizations
Applying Generalizations to Particular Cases
Evaluating Inductive Arguments Using Generalization
Uses of Analogies
Arguments Based on Analogies
Analogies as Tools for Refuting Arguments
Evaluating Inductive Arguments Based on Analogies
Establishing Causal Relationships
Causal Arguments in Public Policy and Everyday Decision Making
Evaluating Causal Arguments
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Legalizing Marijuana
Karen P. Tandy, Marijuana: The Myths Are Killing Us
Paul Armentano, Cannabis, Mental Health and Context: The Case for Regulation
Wayne Hall, MD, The Cannabis Policy Debate: Finding a Way Forward
Chapter 8: Deductive Arguments
What is a Deductive Argument?
Deductive Reasoning and Syllogisms
Valid and Invalid Arguments
Sound and Unsound Arguments
Types of Deductive Arguments
Arguments by Elimination
Arguments Based on Mathematics
Arguments from Definition
Evaluating Hypothetical Syllogisms for Validity
Evaluating Hypothetical Syllogisms for Soundness
Standard Form Categorical Syllogisms
Quantity and Quality
Diagramming Propositions with Venn Diagrams
Using Venn Diagrams to Evaluate Categorical Syllogisms
Translating Ordinary Arguments into Standard Form
Rewriting Everyday Propositions in Standard-Form
Identifying the Three Terms in the Argument
Putting the Argument in Standard Form
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on the Death Penalty
Gregg v. Georgia: Excerpts from the Majority Opinion of Justice Potter Stewart
Ernest van den Haag, The Ultimate Punishment: A Defense of Capital Punishment
European Union, Memorandum on the Death Penalty
Chapter 9: Critical Thinking in Ethics and Moral Decision-Making
What is Moral Reasoning?
Moral Values and Happiness
Conscience and Moral Sentiment
The Development of Moral Reasoning
Lawrence Kohlberg's Stage Theory of Moral Development
Carol Gilligan on Moral Reasoning Women
The Development of Moral Reasoning in College Students
Moral Theories: Morality is Relative
Moral Theories: Morality is Universal
Utilitarianism (Consequence-Based Ethics)
Deontology (Duty-Based Ethics)
Recognizing Moral Arguments
Constructing Moral Arguments
Evaluating Moral Arguments
Resolving Moral Dilemmas
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Abortion
Roe v. Wade: Excerpts from the Majority Opinion, Justice Blackmun
Judith Jarvis Thomson, A Defense of Abortion
Serrin M. Foster, Refuse to Choose: Women Deserve Better than Abortion
Chapter 10: Critical Thinking in Marketing and Advertising
Marketing in a Consumer Culture
Avoiding Confirmation Bias and Other Errors in Thinking
The SWOT Model
Consumer Awareness of Marketing Strategies
Advertising and the Media
The Role of Advertising in the Media
Television Advertising and Children
Common Fallacies in Advertisements