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Thinking Critically About Ethical Issues,9780072831887

Thinking Critically About Ethical Issues

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780072831887

ISBN10:
007283188X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/5/2003
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
List Price: $56.22
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Summary

This concise accessible text emphasizes doing ethical analysis, rather than focusing on ethical theory or the history of ethics. Ruggiero's readers are invited to apply ethical principles to issues that exemplify the kinds of moral challenges encountered in everyday life.

Table of Contents

Part I: THE CONTEXT

CHAPTER 1 - THE NEED FOR ETHICS

Why do we need ethics if we have laws?

Ethics defined

Ethics and religious belief

The need for ethics

Preliminary guidelines

Doing research on the Internet

Making discussion meaningful

Sample responses

Inquiries

CHAPTER 2 - THE ROLE OF THE MAJORITY VIEW

A sample situation

The majority can err

Sample response

Inquiries

CHAPTER 3 - THE ROLE OF FEELINGS

How feelings came to be emphasized

Are feelings reliable?

A better guide is needed

Sample response

Inquiries

CHAPTER 4 - THE ROLE OF CONSCIENCE

Conscience and shame

Individual differences

The shapers of conscience

Natural endowment

Social conditioning

Moral choice

A balanced view of conscience

Sample response

Inquiries

CHAPTER 5 - COMPARING CULTURES

Differences among cultures

Interpreting the differences

The similarity of values

Is judgment appropriate?

Three important cautions

Inquiries

Part II: A STRATEGY

CHAPTER 6 - A FOUNDATION FOR JUDGMENT

Assessing ought statements

Oughts in ancient cultures

Governmental oughts

Organizational oughts

Our own everyday oughts

The principle of right desire

The principle of contradiction

Challenges to judgment

Relativism

Absolutism

Inquiries

CHAPTER 7 - THE BASIC CRITERIA

A fundamental good: respect for persons

Three basic criteria

Obligations

Moral ideals

Consequences

Analyzing ethical issues

Step 1: Study the details of the case

Step 2: Identify the relevant criteria

Step 3: Determine possible courses of action

Step 4: Decide which action is most ethical

The case of Professor Woebegone

Analysis 1: The details of the case

Analysis 2: Relevant criteria

Analysis 3: Possible courses of action

Analysis 4: The most ethical action

The case of Horace’s house

Analysis 1: The details of the case

Analysis 2: Relevant criteria

Analysis 3: Possible courses of action

Analysis 4: The most ethical action

A caution about generalizing

Avoiding other errors

“Mine is better” thinking

Double standard

Unwarranted assumptions

Oversimplifications

Hasty conclusions

Inquiries

CHAPTER 8 - CONSIDERING OBLIGATIONS

When obligations conflict

Weighing the obligations

Two moral dilemmas

The Alabama syphilis case

Thoroughness is important

Inquiries

CHAPTER 9 - CONSIDERING MORAL IDEALS

Important moral ideals

Prudence

Justice

Temperance

Courage

Loving kindness

Integrity

Forgiveness

Repentance

Reparation

Gratitude

Beneficence

Ideals in conflict

The Munich incident

The issue of affirmative action

Ideals versus obligations

Inquiries

CHAPTER 10 - CONSIDERING CONSEQUENCES

Dealing with probability

Making the analysis thorough

Three difficult questions

A caution

Dealing with dilemmas

Inquiries

CHAPTER 11 - DETERMINING MORAL RESPONSIBILITY

How free are our choices?

When culpability is diminished

Ethics and law

More typical cases

Heroism not required

Inquiries

Part III: THE TRADITION

CHAPTER 12 - A PERSPECTIVE ON HISTORY

The classical period

The medieval period

The modern period

The ethics of duty

The ethics of consequences

Great issues in ethics

Inquiry

Part IV: CONTEMPORARY ETHICAL CONTROVERSIES

Education

Media and the arts

Sex

Government

Law

Business

Medicine

Science

War

AFTERWORD: A SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDY

APPENDIX

A: WRITING ABOUT MORAL ISSUES

B: AVOIDING PLAGIARISM



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