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Thinking Socratically,9780134386317

Thinking Socratically

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780134386317

ISBN10:
0134386310
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/1/1996
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
List Price: $48.00
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Summary

A different approach to critical thinking, both conceptually and pedagogically, Thinking Socratically encourages students in a user-friendly way to improve their own natural reasoning skills. An enjoyable collection of readings presents students with real-life situations that raise questions about the basic assumptions of rationality, naturally engaging them in open dialogue - the hallmark of the rational person. The situations range from the problem of evidence at a trial to the absence of an explanation of why two children died in the same day care center on the same day. While the important objectives of more standard texts are not ignored, this book goes beyond the usual. Thinking Socratically considers topics that are not generally covered by other textbooks, such as the advantages of rationality over irrationality, the limits of rational thinking, the web of belief, the values implicit in science, the weaknesses of dogmatic and relativistic thinking. Thinking Socratically stresses understanding rather than gimmickry and rule memorization. It focuses on the connections between language and the world and what makes statements about the world acceptable or unacceptable. This is not an informal logic text but a genuine critical thinking text.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Acknowledgments xiii
Credits xv
INTRODUCTION WHY BE RATIONAL? 1(360)
Readings
``Why the Geese Shrieked,''
3(3)
Isaac Bashevis Singer
``The Shaman and the Dying Scientist: A Brazilian Tale,''
6(3)
Alan Riding
Euthyphro
9(16)
Plato
Reflections on the Readings
25(1)
Rationality and the Importance of the Open Dialogue
25(5)
Reason and Culture
30(2)
The Limits of Reason
32(1)
Exercises
33(2)
PART I CONNECTIONS
Language
35(21)
Introduction
35(2)
Readings
The Making of Americans (an excerpt)
37(5)
Gertrude Stein
``The Corner of the Eye,''
42(3)
Lewis Thomas
Reflections on the Readings
45(1)
Language and the World
45(2)
The Uses of Language
47(1)
Words
48(1)
Statements
49(1)
Factual Statements
50(2)
Exercises
52(4)
Knowledge and Certainty
56(8)
Introduction
56(1)
Reading
Meditations on First Philosophy (an excerpt)
57(1)
Rene Descartes
Reflections on the Reading
58(1)
Knowledge/Certainty
59(2)
The Web of Belief
61(1)
Exercises
62(2)
Arguments and Explanations
64(33)
Introduction
64(1)
Readings
The Decameron
65(2)
Giovanni Boccaccio
Michele Scalza
The Decameron
67(2)
Giovanni Boccaccio
Melchizedek
``The Day-Care Deaths: A Mystery''
69(13)
Linda Herskowitz
Reflections on the Readings
82(1)
Arguments: Premises and Conclusions
82(2)
Logical Warranting
84(1)
Reasoning with Necessity
84(1)
Reasoning with Probability
85(2)
Factual Warranting
87(2)
Implicit Premises and Conclusions
89(1)
Explanations
90(3)
Exercises
93(4)
PART II REASONING WITH NECESSITY
Necessary Links
97(11)
Introduction
97(2)
Reading
Dissenting Opinion in Gregg v. Georgia (an excerpt)
99(2)
Thurgood Marshall
Reflections on the Reading
101(1)
Validity and Logical Implication
102(4)
Exercises
106(2)
Formal Reasoning
108(16)
Introduction
108(1)
Reading
``Anselm's Ontological Argument'' (an excerpt)
109(1)
Norman Malcolm
Reflections on the Reading
110(1)
Some Common Valid Arguments
110(7)
Anselm's Ontological Argument
117(3)
Review of Common Valid Arguments
120(1)
Exercises
121(3)
PART III REASONING WITH PROBABILITY
Supporting Our Claims
124(55)
Introduction
124(2)
Readings
``The Adventure of the Blanched Soldier'' (incomplete)
126(11)
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
``Murder on the Main Line''
137(22)
Mike Mallowe
Other Selected Newspaper Articles on the William Bradfield Case
159(13)
Reflections on the Readings
172(1)
Traces and Background Knowledge
172(4)
Confirmation and Proof
176(2)
Exercises
178(1)
Forms of Reasoning with Probability
179(58)
Introduction
179(2)
Readings
``Doctors as Detectives''
181(5)
Cynthia Clendenin
``1964's Football 49ers Face Grim Puzzle''
186(3)
Mike Antonucci
A Lost Poem by Shakespeare?--Selected Newspaper Articles
189(12)
The Literary Digest Predicts Victory by Landon 1936-Assorted Articles
201(16)
Reflections on Readings
217(1)
Generalizations
218(7)
Analogies
225(3)
Causal Claims
228(7)
Exercises
235(2)
Scientific Reasoning
237(27)
Introduction
237(1)
Readings
``The Heliocentric Theory of Copernicus and Kepler''
238(15)
Morris Kline
Reflections on the Reading
253(1)
Copernicus and Kepler
254(3)
Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning
257(5)
Exercises
262(2)
Pseudoscience
264(14)
Reading
``Fliess, Freud, and Biorhythm''
265(8)
Martin Gardner
Reflections on the Reading
273(1)
Distinguishing Science From Pseudoscience
273(4)
Exercises
277(1)
Common Mistakes in Reasoning
278(23)
Introduction
278(1)
Readings
``Love Is a Fallacy,''
279(9)
Max Shulman
``The Sleaze Merchants Attack'' (an editorial)
288(1)
Reflections on the Readings
289(1)
The Nature of Fallacies
290(1)
Some Common Fallacies to Recognize
291(7)
Exercise
298(3)
PART IV REASONING ABOUT VALUES
The Nature of Morality
301(17)
Introduction
301(3)
Reading
The Brothers Karamazov (a short excerpt)
304(1)
Fyodor Dostoevsky
Reflections on the Reading
305(1)
Objectivism/Subjectivism
305(5)
Supporting Moral Claims
310(6)
Exercises
316(2)
Reasoning about Good and Bad
318(22)
Introduction
318(2)
Readings
Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals (an excerpt)
320(4)
Immanuel Kant
Existentialism Is a Humanism (an excerpt)
324(3)
Jean-Paul Sartre
Reflections on the Readings
327(1)
Kant
327(4)
Sartre
331(4)
Making Moral Decisions
335(3)
Exercises
338(2)
Dogmatism/Relativism
340(10)
Introduction
340
Reading
Euthyphro
9(332)
Plato
Reflections on the Reading
341(1)
Dogmatism/Relativism
341(4)
Moderation as Key
345(4)
Exercises
349(1)
Reason and Commitment
350(11)
Introduction
350(1)
Reading
``Prelude''
351(8)
Philip Hallie
Reflections on the Reading
359(2)
Index 361


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