CART

(0) items

Thinking Socratically : Critical Thinking about Everyday Issues,9780130281630
This item qualifies for
FREE SHIPPING!

FREE SHIPPING OVER $59!

Your order must be $59 or more, you must select US Postal Service Shipping as your shipping preference, and the "Group my items into as few shipments as possible" option when you place your order.

Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace Items, eBooks, Apparel, and DVDs not included.

Thinking Socratically : Critical Thinking about Everyday Issues

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780130281630

ISBN10:
0130281638
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $90.40

Rent Textbook

(Recommended)
 
Term
Due
Price
$25.00

Hurry!

Only one copy
in stock at this price.

Buy Used Textbook

In Stock Usually Ships in 24 Hours.
U9780130281630
$63.28

eTextbook

We're Sorry
Not Available

New Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

More New and Used
from Private Sellers
Starting at $0.01
See Prices

Questions About This Book?

Why should I rent this book?
Renting is easy, fast, and cheap! Renting from eCampus.com can save you hundreds of dollars compared to the cost of new or used books each semester. At the end of the semester, simply ship the book back to us with a free UPS shipping label! No need to worry about selling it back.
How do rental returns work?
Returning books is as easy as possible. As your rental due date approaches, we will email you several courtesy reminders. When you are ready to return, you can print a free UPS shipping label from our website at any time. Then, just return the book to your UPS driver or any staffed UPS location. You can even use the same box we shipped it in!
What version or edition is this?
This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 1/1/2001.
What is included with this book?
  • The Used copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included.
  • The Rental copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. You may receive a brand new copy, but typically, only the book itself.

Related Products


  • Thinking Socratically
    Thinking Socratically
  • Thinking Socratically
    Thinking Socratically
  • Thinking Socratically Plus MySearchLab with eText -- Access Card Package
    Thinking Socratically Plus MySearchLab with eText -- Access Card Package




Summary

This unique book is an exploration of critical thinking, rather than a text of informal logic. It emphasizes a philosophical reflection on real issues from everyday life, in order to teach readers the skills of critical thinking in a common-place context that is easy to understand and certain to be remembered.Critical thinking topics are assembled in readings taken from sources including newspapers, literature, magazines, and philosophy. These readings compliment the important concepts of critical thinking, and provide information on background knowledge, the web of belief, the limits of evidence, the nature of proof, and dogmatism and relativism.For critical thinkers who need something to think critically about, and are willing to see more than just two sides to every argument.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition xiii
Preface to the First Edition xv
Acknowledgments xvii
PART I: CONNECTIONS
Why Be Rational?
1(28)
Open Dialogue and the Importance of Rationality
1(16)
Euthyphro
4(13)
Plato
Study Questions
17(1)
Reason and Culture
17(8)
Why the Geese Shrieked
19(3)
Isaac Bashevis Singer
The Shaman and the Dying Scientist: A Brazilian Tale
22(2)
Alan Riding
Study Questions
24(1)
The Limits of Reason
25(2)
Summary
27(1)
Exercises
28(1)
Language
29(21)
The Uses of Language
29(1)
Language and the World
30(7)
The Corner of the Eye
33(2)
Lewis Thomas
Eight Little Piggies
35(2)
Stephen Jay Gould
Study Questions
37(1)
Words and Statements
37(2)
Warranted Statements
39(5)
The Making of Americans
41(2)
Gertrude Stein
Study Questions
43(1)
Factual Statements
44(1)
Summary
45(1)
Exercises
46(4)
Knowledge and Certainty
50(15)
Knowledge and Certainty
50(9)
Meditations on First Philosophy
55(3)
Rene Descartes
A Brief History of Time
58(1)
Stephen Hawking
Study Questions
58(1)
The Web of Belief
59(4)
Double Identity
61(1)
Michael Dobbs
Study Questions
62(1)
Summary
63(1)
Exercises
63(2)
Arguments and Explanations
65(30)
Arguments: Premises and Conclusions
65(2)
Implicit Premises and Conclusions
67(1)
Arguments: Standard Form
68(1)
Logical Warranting
69(1)
Deductive Reasoning
70(1)
Inductive Reasoning
71(1)
Factual Warranting
72(5)
The Decameron: Michele Scalza
75(2)
Giovanni Boccaccio
The Decameron: Melchizedek
77(2)
Giovanni Boccaccio
Study Questions
78(1)
Explanations
79(12)
The Day-Care Deaths: A Mystery
82(9)
Linda Herskowitz
Study Questions
91(1)
Summary
91(1)
Exercises
92(3)
PART II: DEDUCTIVE REASONING
Deductive Links
95(10)
Reasoning with Necessity
95(5)
Dissenting Opinion in Gregg v. Georgia
96(3)
Thurgood Marshall
Study Questions
99(1)
Validity and Logical Implication
100(3)
Summary
103(1)
Exercises
104(1)
Deductive Standards
105(20)
Logic
105(1)
Some Common Valid Arguments
106(12)
Anselm's Ontological Argument
117(1)
Norman Malcolm
Study Questions
117(1)
Anselm's Ontological Argument
118(3)
Summary
121(1)
Exercises
122(3)
PART III: INDUCTIVE REASONING
Supporting Our Claims
125(57)
Evidence: Traces and Background Knowledge
125(41)
The Adventure of the Blanched Soldier
130(9)
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
The William Bradfield Case
139(1)
Murder on the Main Line
139(17)
Mike Mallowe
Coded Bradfield Note: ``My Danger Conspiracy''
156(3)
Emilie Lounsberry
The Jury: Convinced or Confused?
159(2)
Emilie Lounsberry
Henry Goldman
Bradfield, on Stand, Denies Any Role
161(3)
Emilie Lounsberry
Bradfield and Women
164(2)
Henry Goldman
Study Questions
166(1)
Webs of Belief: Confirmation and Proof
166(14)
The Warren Commission: Why We Still Don't Believe It
169(6)
David W. Belin
Conclusion to ``The Adventure of the Blanched Soldier''
175(4)
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Study Questions
179(1)
Summary
180(1)
Exercises
181(1)
Standards of Inductive Reasoning
182(50)
Patterns
182(7)
Doctors As Detectives
185(4)
Cynthia Clendenon
Study Questions
189(1)
Generalizations
189(20)
The Literary Digest Predicts Victory by Landon, 1936
196(1)
``Digest'' Poll Machinery Speeding Up
196(2)
``Digest's'' First Hundred Thousand
198(2)
Landon Holds Lead in ``Digest'' Poll
200(1)
Landon, 1,293,669; Roosevelt, 972,897
201(4)
What Went Wrong with the Polls?
205(3)
Study Questions
208(1)
Analogies
209(7)
Thy Countenance Shakes Spears
212(4)
Mark K. Anderson
Study Questions
216(1)
Causal Claims
216(12)
So Smoking Causes Cancer: This Is News?
225(1)
Denise Grady
Renewing Philosophy
226(2)
Hilary Putnam
Study Questions
228(1)
Summary
228(2)
Exercises
230(2)
Fallacies
232(32)
The Nature of Fallacies
232(2)
Fallacies of Irrelevance
234(8)
Lost Genius
240(1)
Russell Baker
Study Questions
241(1)
Fallacies of Faulty Generalization
242(10)
Love Is a Fallacy
245(7)
Max Shulman
Study Questions
252(1)
Fallacies of Emotional Manipulation
252(3)
The Sleaze Merchants Attack
254(1)
Study Questions
255(1)
Summary
255(2)
Exercises
257(7)
Scientific Reasoning
264(25)
Science and Good Reasoning
264(1)
Copernicus and Kepler
265(17)
The Heliocentric Theory of Copernicus and Kepler
269(12)
Morris Kline
Study Questions
281(1)
Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning
282(4)
Summary
286(1)
Exercises
287(2)
Pseudoscience
289(14)
Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience
289(10)
Fliess, Freud, and Biorhythm
293(6)
Martin Gardner
Study Questions
299(1)
Summary
299(1)
Exercises
300(3)
PART IV: REASONING ABOUT VALUES
The Nature of Morality
303(16)
Supporting Moral Claims
303(8)
The Brothers Karamazov
310(1)
Feodor Dostoevsky
Study Questions
310(1)
Morality and Reasoning
311(5)
Summary
316(1)
Exercises
317(2)
Reasoning About Good and Bad
319(21)
Making Moral Decisions
319(3)
Reasonable Objectivism and Reasonable Subjectivism
322(7)
Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals
323(4)
Immanuel Kant
Existentialism Is a Humanism
327(2)
Jean Paul Sartre
Study Questions
329(1)
Kant
329(4)
Sartre
333(4)
Summary
337(1)
Exercises
338(2)
Moral Dialogue
340(15)
Dogmatism/Relativism
340(9)
Euthyphro
344(4)
Plato
Classroom Scene
348(1)
Study Questions
348(1)
Moderation as Key
349(3)
Summary
352(1)
Exercises
353(2)
Reason and Commitment
355(4)
Open Rational Dialogue
355(4)
Keynote Speech May 18 at Simpson College's 1996 Commencement
356(1)
Jane Smiley
Study Questions
357(2)
Index 359

Excerpts

Preface to the Second EditionWe had three purposes in mind when we wroteThinking Socratically.The first was to help our students, and all college students, become better thinkers--which for us means to engage, like Socrates, willingly and patiently in open rational dialogue. Since most students who take a course in critical thinking are first or second year college students, they are often still at what the cognitive psychologists callblack/white thinking.That is, they only see two sides to an argument, theirs, which they assume correct, and the other person's whom they assume to be wrong. We wanted to help them become open to the myriad other possibilities that exist between the two poles of an argument and to learn to engage in dialogue with others and themselves in ways that will help them find these other possibilities. When they finish this text, we hope they will have the ability and the "courage" that Jane Smiley speaks of in the last reading.Second, we want our student readers to learn that critical thinking is not an esoteric discipline but an important everyday skill like using a computer or driving a car. It helps to get you where you want to go. Hence, we have tried to use everyday examples from stories, newspapers, magazines, even philosophy, to show them these skills in action. Critical thinking cannot be taught without something to think critically about! Yet some textbooks try to do precisely that. We do not. We give them commonplace contexts that exemplify the skill or the need for the skill we are teaching. We think that the skills will be learned more easily and will be remembered when they can be seen in context.Finally, we seek to overcome the cynicism that many pseudosophisticated college students bring to the classroom. This is the cynicism that stems from the relatively little knowledge they have acquired, which has taught them, they think, that nothing can be proven correct or right. Therefore, they think, people can believe whatever they want to. No one can be proven wrong. We seek to overcome such cynicism with the pragmatic view that, even if no one "right way" can be proven to be the one true way, there is still a big difference among points of view and courses of action. Some beliefs and some actions are better than others. These are the beliefs and actions that make our lives healthier, happier, and more pleasant, and these can be demonstrated--through the kind of open rational argument that Socrates practiced. That Socratic model is very important to us. We start out with it and come back to it at the end. Of course, we prefer open rational dialogue with our friends but even open rational dialogue with our enemies is useful. After all, what is the alternative?The second edition is distinguished from the first by the addition of a significant number of new readings and by the placement of the readings after the expository material, rather than before. We hope students will see the connections we are making more clearly that way. We have also greatly increased our discussion of the items that normally appear in critical thinking textbooks. For example, we have expanded the material on deductive reasoning and included Venn diagrams as well. We have increased the number of informal fallacies we cover. We have added summaries at the end of each chapter. Finally, we have adopted more standard terminology in order to conform to that which students hear in other classes; e.g., "reasoning with probability" has become the standard "inductive reasoning." While we still think our old terminology was more apt, we find that faculty tend to use the more familiar terms, thereby leaving students more confused than enlightened. We hope you will find the changes helpful.The book is designed as a whole so that the lessons of epistemology learned in the beginning connect very closely with the lessons regarding morality at the end. It is a bi


Please wait while the item is added to your cart...