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Thinking Through Communication : An Introduction to the Study of Human Communication,9780205289998

Thinking Through Communication : An Introduction to the Study of Human Communication

by
ISBN13:

9780205289998

ISBN10:
0205289991
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/1/1998
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
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Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Part I Introduction to Communication 1(46)
1 The Communication Tradition
1(18)
In the Time of Aristotle: A Brief History of Communication Study
2(11)
Studying Rhetoric in Ancient Greece
2(3)
The Classical Period: Enchanting the Mind by Arguments
5(4)
Medieval and Renaissance Communication: Truth Armed Against Falsehood
9(1)
The Modern Period: A Rational Science of Rhetoric
10(3)
Communication Today: Contemporary Departments of Rhetoric and Communication Theory
13(2)
Communication: Humanity or Social Science?
14(1)
What Do Rhetoricians and Communication Scientists Do?
14(1)
Summary
15(4)
2 Definitions, Models, and Perspectives
19(28)
Defining Communication
20(5)
Definitions: Discovery or Construction?
20(1)
Deciding What Communication Is
21(1)
How Broad Is Communication?
21(2)
Is Communication Intentional?
23(1)
Is Communication Sender- or Receiver-Based?
23(1)
Is All Communication Symbolic?
23(1)
Multiple Definitions: Communication as a Family of Concepts
24(1)
How Models Help Us Understand Communication
25(2)
The Forms and Functions of Models
25(1)
The Drawbacks of Models
26(1)
It All Depends on Your Point of View: Three Perspectives
27(13)
Communication as Message Transmission
28(1)
Elements of a Psychological Model
28(2)
Improving Faulty Communication
30(1)
Criticizing the Psychological Perspective
30(1)
Asking Questions From the Psychological Perspective
31(1)
Communication as World Building
31(1)
Elements of a Social Constructionist Model
31(3)
Improving Our Social Constructions
34(1)
Criticizing the Social Constructionist Perspective
34(1)
Asking Questions From the Social Constructionist Perspective
35(1)
Communication as Patterned Interaction
35(1)
Elements of a Pragmatic Model
36(2)
Improving Unhealthy Patterns
38(1)
Criticizing the Pragmatic Perspective
38(1)
Asking Questions From the Pragmatic Perspective
39(1)
Summary and Additional Perspectives
39(1)
What to Look for When You Look at Communication
40(2)
Summary
42(5)
Part II Listening and Language 47(345)
3 Decoding Messages: Perception, Information Processing and Listening
47(28)
What Is Perception?
48(7)
Imposing Order and Meaning on the World
49(1)
Using Cognitive Schemata
50(1)
Person Prototypes
50(2)
Personal Constructs
52(1)
Scripts
53(1)
Overcoming Mindlessness
53(2)
Information Processing: Communicating for Clarity
55(6)
Steps in Information Processing
55(1)
Capturing Attention
56(2)
Controlling Interpretation
58(1)
Increasing Comprehension
58(1)
Ensuring Acceptance
59(1)
Enhancing Retention and Retrieval
60(1)
Listening: How Receivers Can Improve Decoding
61(9)
What Is Listening?
62(1)
Listening and Hearing
62(1)
Ability and Performance
62(1)
Ways to Listen
63(1)
Improving General Listening Performance
64(1)
Improving Attention
64(2)
Improving Interpretation
66(2)
Improving Retention and Retrieval
68(1)
Active Listening
69(1)
Styles of Listening
69(1)
Helpful Listening
69(1)
Summary
70(5)
4 Encoding Messages: Spoken Language
75(38)
What Is Language?
76(5)
Language Is Symbolic
76(2)
Language Is a Kind of Knowledge
78(1)
Language Is Rule-Governed and Productive
78(1)
Language Affects the Way We See the World
79(2)
Language Takes Many Forms
81(1)
The Subsystems of Language
81(8)
The Sounds of Language
81(3)
The Words of Language
84(2)
The Sentences of Language
86(1)
The Social Context of Language
87(1)
Speech Acts
87(1)
Communication and Context
88(1)
Pragmatic Styles and Structures
89(6)
Forms of Discourse: Classifying Kinds of Talk
90(1)
Understanding Conversation
90(1)
Describing Classroom Interaction
91(1)
Dimensions of Discourse
92(1)
Interactive Discourse: Coherence and Structure
92(1)
Coordinating Conversational Moves
92(2)
Conversational Closings
94(1)
Guidelines for Understanding Discourse
94(1)
Language and Social Identity
95(7)
Genderlects: When Men's and Women's Talk Differs
95(1)
The Development of Gender Differences
96(2)
Adapting to Gender Differences
98(1)
Language and Cultural Difference
98(2)
Context Dependence
100(1)
Verbal Directness
100(1)
Expressiveness
101(1)
Formality
101(1)
Language Choices and Pragmatic Effects
102(5)
Ambiguity: When Not Making Sense Makes Sense
102(2)
Immediacy: Up Close and Personal
104(1)
Abstraction: Creating General Categories
105(1)
Metaphors We Live By
105(1)
Improving Language Choices
106(1)
Summary
107(6)
5 Encoding Messages: Nonverbal Communication
113(38)
What Is Nonverbal Communication?
114(8)
How Can We Know What Nonverbals Mean?
115(1)
Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication
116(1)
Nonverbal Communication May Be Unintentional
116(1)
Nonverbal Communication Consists of Multiple Codes
116(1)
Nonverbal Communication Is Immediate, Continuous, and Natural
117(1)
Nonverbal Communication Is Both Universal and Cultural
118(1)
What Meanings Are Best Conveyed Nonverbally?
118(1)
Making Initial Judgments
118(1)
Relational Information
119(1)
Emotional Expression
119(1)
Nonverbal Codes and Verbal Messages
120(2)
The Nonverbal Codes
122(21)
The Kinesic Code I: Body Movement and Gesture
122(1)
Emblems
122(2)
Illustrators
124(1)
Regulators
124(1)
Affect Display
124(1)
Adaptors
125(1)
The Kinesic Code II: Facial Expression and Eye Behavior
126(1)
Facial Displays
126(1)
Eye Behavior
127(2)
Paralinguistics: Vocal Behavior
129(1)
Chronemics and Proxemics: Time, Territory, and Space
130(1)
Time Orientations
131(2)
Territory and the Use of Space
133(2)
Spatial Arrangement
135(2)
Personal Space
137(1)
Touch
138(1)
Physical Appearance and Object Language
139(1)
Body Type
139(1)
Dress
140(1)
Object Language
141(2)
Increasing Nonverbal Skills
143(2)
Summary
145(6)
6 Interpersonal Communication
151(38)
What Is Interpersonal Communication?
152(4)
Characteristics of Dyadic Communication
152(1)
Are All Dyads Interpersonal?
153(1)
Why Do We Build Dyads?
154(2)
Managing Interpersonal Communication
156(7)
Balancing Interpersonal Tensions
156(3)
Avoiding Dysfunctional Patterns
159(1)
Rigid Role Relations
159(1)
Disconfirmations
160(2)
Paradoxes
162(1)
Spirals
162(1)
Relational Development: Stages in Intimate Dyads
163(9)
Paths To and From Intimacy
163(1)
The Journey Toward Intimacy
163(4)
The Retreat From Intimacy
167(2)
Variations in Relational Development
169(1)
Duck's Relational Dissolution Model
169(1)
Interpersonal Attraction: Filtering Theory
170(2)
Increasing Relational Skills
172(10)
Toward More Effective Self-Disclosure
174(1)
Responding to Others' Disclosures
175(3)
Managing Interpersonal Conflict
178(3)
Rules for Effective Feedback
181(1)
Becoming a More Responsible Communicator
182(1)
Summary
183(6)
7 Group Communication
189(38)
What Is a Group?
190(6)
Characteristics of Groups
190(1)
Group Size: How Big Is a Small Group?
191(2)
Why Communicate in Groups?
193(1)
When Are Groups More Effective Than Individuals?
194(2)
Managing Group Communication
196(9)
Balancing Group and Individual Needs
196(1)
Group Socialization Processes
197(2)
Adapting to Group Pressures
199(1)
Taking on Task and Maintenance Roles
200(3)
Combating Groupthink
203(2)
Group Development: Phases in Problem-Solving Groups
205(7)
Phase Models: Mapping the Life of a Group
205(1)
Tuckman's Five-Stage Model
206(1)
Fisher's Four-Phase Model
207(2)
Poole's Alternative: A Multiple-Sequence Model
209(1)
Leadership: How Groups Chose Leaders
209(1)
What It Takes to Be a Good Leader
211(1)
How Not to Be Chosen Leader
211(1)
Strengthening Group Discussion Skills
212(1)
Creating a Positive Climate
212(19)
Enhancing Problem Solving
213(1)
The Standard Agenda
214(2)
Brainstorming: Increasing Creativity
216(1)
Nominal Group Technique
217(1)
Using Special Formats for Public Discussion
218(1)
The Symposium
218(1)
The Forum
219(1)
The Panel Discussion
219(1)
The Buzz Group
220(1)
The Role-Playing Group
220(1)
Becoming a More Responsible Communicator
221(1)
Summary
222(5)
8 Public Communication
227(40)
What Is Public Communication?
228(4)
Characteristics of Public Communication
228(2)
Communicating in the Public Sphere
230(1)
Why Engage in Public Communication?
231(1)
Audience Adaptation and Source Credibility
232(11)
Audience Attitudes and Change
232(1)
Beliefs
232(1)
Attitudes
233(1)
Values
234(1)
The Importance of Knowing Your Audience
234(1)
Adapting Messages to Audiences
235(1)
Audience Adaptation
236(1)
Audience Analysis
237(1)
Source Characteristics and Audience Response
238(2)
Credibility
240(1)
Attractiveness
241(1)
Power
242(1)
Relationships Between Source Characteristics
242(1)
Constructing Valid Arguments
243(8)
The Structure of Argument: The Toulmin Model
243(1)
Parts of an Argument
243(2)
Using the Toulmin Model
245(1)
Types of Arguments
246(1)
Authoritative and Motivational Arguments
246(2)
Substantive Arguments
248(2)
Guarding Against Unsound Warrants
250(1)
Preparing and Presenting the Public Speech
251(9)
Introductions and Conclusions
251(1)
Functions of the Introduction
251(2)
Functions of the Conclusion
253(2)
Organizing the Body of the Speech
255(3)
Outlining Main Points and Subpoints
258(2)
Increasing Public Speaking Skills
260(1)
Becoming a More Responsible Communicator
260(2)
Summary
262(5)
9 Communication and the Traditional Mass Media
267(34)
What Is Mass Communication?
268(4)
Defining Mass Communication
268(1)
Characteristics of Media Messages
269(1)
Institutional Sources
270(1)
Invisible Receivers
270(1)
Interposed Channels
271(1)
How Audiences and Media Messages Interact
272(9)
Functions of the Media
272(2)
Media Effects: An Overview
274(1)
What Media Messages Do to Receivers
275(1)
Media Agendas
275(1)
Hegemonic Messages
276(1)
Media Logics
277(1)
What Receivers Do With Media Messages
278(1)
Selective Processing
278(1)
Need Gratification
279(1)
Reading Media Texts
280(1)
Media Formats and Logics
281(11)
Newspapers
282(1)
Magazines
283(2)
Radio
285(2)
Television
287(1)
Entertainment Programming
288(1)
News Programming
289(1)
The Pervasiveness of TV Logic
290(1)
Other Media
291(1)
Becoming a More Responsible Communicator
292(3)
Ethical Issues for Media Practitioners
292(2)
Using Media More Responsibly
294(1)
Summary
295(6)
10 Emerging Communication Technologies
301(30)
What is Technology?
303(8)
Defining Technology
304(1)
Characteristics of the New Technologies
305(1)
Digitization Technologies
305(4)
Transmission Technologies
309(1)
Why Communicate Electronically?
310(1)
The Geography of Cyberspace: The Net, the Web, and the Highway
311(3)
The Internet and the World Wide Web
311(1)
The Information Superhighway
312(1)
Virtual Reality
313(1)
How Technology is Changing Communication
314(8)
Interpersonal Communication and Electronically-Mediated Relationships
315(1)
The Case of Joan and Alex
315(1)
Characteristics of Electronic Relationships
316(1)
Group and Organizational Communication: The Electronic Workplace
317(1)
Telecommuting: Promise and Problems
318(2)
Electronic Commerce: Doing Business on the Net
320(1)
Public Communication: Virtual Communities
321(1)
Election Democracy
321(1)
Information and Disinformation on the Net
322(1)
Becoming a More Responsible Communicator
322(3)
Summary
325(6)
11 Intercultural Communication
331(30)
What Is Culture?
333(7)
Defining Culture
333(1)
Characteristics of Cultures
333(1)
Cultures Are Learned
333(1)
Cultures Are Shared
334(2)
Cultures Are Multifaceted
336(1)
Cultures Are Dynamic
337(1)
Cultural Identities Are Overlapping
337(1)
Why Communicate Cross-Culturally?
338(1)
Living in the Global Village
338(2)
Coming to Terms With Diversity
340(1)
Intercultural Communication and Personal Growth
340(1)
Barriers to Intercultural Communication
340(12)
How Culture Affects Communication
341(1)
Culture and Perception
341(1)
Culture and Role Identities
342(1)
Culture and Goals
343(1)
Culture and Images of the Self
344(1)
Culture and Language Style
345(2)
Attitudes That Diminish Understanding
347(1)
Stereotypes and Prejudices
348(1)
Assumed Similarity
348(2)
Anxiety and Withdrawal
350(1)
Ethnocentrism
351(1)
Adapting to New Cultures
352(3)
Nature of the Host Culture
352(2)
Personal Predispositions
354(1)
Communication Bonds
354(1)
Becoming a More Open Communicator
355(1)
Summary
356(5)
12 Methods of Discovery
361(31)
How Is Communication Research Done?
362(5)
Problems with Commonsense Ways of Knowing
363(1)
Systematic Ways of Knowing
363(2)
Common Research Tasks
365(2)
Four Popular Research Methods
367(18)
Rhetorical Criticism
370(1)
Steps in Rhetorical Criticism
370(1)
The Myth of the American Cowboy: An Example of Social Values Criticism
371(2)
Ethnographic Research
373(1)
Steps in Ethnographic Research
374(1)
Talking Like a Man in Teamsterville: An Ethnography of Communication
375(2)
Survey Research
377(1)
Steps in Conducting a Survey
377(3)
Making the Love Connection: An Example of Survey Research
380(1)
Experimental Research
381(1)
Steps in Doing an Experiment
382(1)
Thanks for Not Smoking: An Example of a Field Experiment
383(2)
Learning More About Communication
385(3)
Subject Areas in Speech Communication
385(1)
Other Sources of Discovery
386(2)
Summary
388(4)
Author Index 392(3)
Subject Index 395


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