Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World, Volume 2

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 4/1/2016
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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NEW Thinking through Sources primary source reader supplements the "Working with Evidence" source projects in Ways of the World. With six to eight carefully selected documents per chapter, this two-volume primary source reader presents a wide range of documents that connect to topics in each chapter in Ways of the World. Headnotes and questions to consider before each document help students approach the documents and essay questions at the end of each chapter provide a starting point for classroom discussion or a written assignment. This collection of sources is available both in print and in LaunchPad with innovative auto-graded assessment. Learn more about the "Thinking through Sources" activities in LaunchPad.

Author Biography

Robert W. Strayer (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin) brings wide experience in world history to the writing of Ways of the World. His teaching career began in Ethiopia where he taught high school world history for two years as part of the Peace Corps. At the university level, he taught African, Soviet, and world history for many years at the State University of New York-College at Brockport, where he received Chancellor's Awards for Excellence in Teaching and for Excellence in Scholarship. In 1998 he was visiting professor of world and Soviet history at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. Since moving to California in 2002, he has taught world history at the University of California, Santa Cruz; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Cabrillo College. He is a long-time member of the World History Association and served on its Executive Committee. He has also participated in various AP World History gatherings, including two years as a reader. His publications include Kenya: Focus on Nationalism, The Making of Mission Communities in East Africa, The Making of the Modern World, Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse?, and The Communist Experiment.

Eric W. Nelson (D.Phil., Oxford University) is a professor of history at Missouri State University. He is an experienced teacher who has won a number of awards, including the Governor’s Award for Teaching Excellence in 2011 and the CASE and Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Professor of the Year Award for Missouri in 2012. He is currently Faculty Fellow for Engaged Learning, developing new ways to integrate in-class and online teaching environments. His publications include The Legacy of Iconoclasm: Religious War and the Relic Landscape of Tours, Blois and Vendôme, and The Jesuits and the Monarchy: Catholic Reform and Political Authority in France.

Table of Contents

Please note:
Volume 1 includes Chapters 1-12.
Volume 2 includes Chapters 12-23


History Before Writing: How Do We Know?

Source 1.1: A Gatherer Hunter Woman in the Twentieth Century: Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman

Source 1.2: Lascaux Rock Art

Source 1.3: Female Figurine from Çatalhüyük

Source 1.4: Otzi the Ice Man

Source 1.5: Stonehenge


Social Life in the First Civilizations

Source 2.1: Law and Life in Ancient Mesopotamia: The Law Code of Hammurabi, ca. 1750 B.C.E.

Source 2.2: The Standard of Ur: Peace Panel and War Panel

Source 2.3: The Occupations of Old Egypt: Be a Scribe, ca. 2066–1650 B.C.E.

Source 2.4: The Social Relationships of Egyptian Agriculture: Agricultural Scenes from the Tomb of Menna

Source 2.5: Social Life in Ancient China: The Book of Songs, ca. 1046–771 B.C.E.

Source 2.6: Socializing with Ancestors: Bronze Gui 


Political Authority in Second-Wave Civilizations

Source 3.1: Behistun Inscription c. 500 BCE

Source 3.2: In Praise of Athenian Democracy: Pericles: Funeral Oration, 431–430 B.C.E.

Source 3.3: Statue of Augustus

Source 3.4: Governing a Chinese Empire

Source 3.5: Qin Shihuangdi Funerary Complex

Source 3.6: Governing an Indian Empire: The Writings of Master Han Fei, Third Century B.C.E. 


The "Good Life" in Asian Cultural Traditions

Source 4.1: Reflections from Confucius: Confucius: The Analects, ca. 479–221 B.C.E.

Source 4.2: Filial Piety Illustrated

Source 4.3: A Daoist Perspective on the Good Life: Loozi: Daodejing, 500 B.C.E.

Source 4.4: Reflections from the Hindu Scriptures: Bhagavad Gita, ca. Fifth to Second Century B.C.E.

Source 4.5: Reflections from Jesus: The Gospel of Matthew, ca. 70–100 C.E.

Source 4.6: Toward "Mature Manhood": Ladder of Divine Ascent 


Patriarchy and Women’s Voices

Source 5.1: A Greek Expression of Patriarchy: Aristotle: "On a Good Wife," ca. 330 B.C.E.

Source 5.2: An Indian Expression of Patriarchy: The Laws of Manu, 200–400 C.E.

Source 5.3: A Chinese Woman’s Instructions to Her Daughters: Ban Zhoo: Lessons for Women, Late First Century C.E.

Source 5.4: An Alternative to Patriarchy in India: Psalms of the Sisters, First Century B.C.E.

Source 5.5: Roman Women in Protest: Livy: History of Rome, Early First Century C.E. 


Art and the Maya Elite

Source 6.1: Shield Jaguar and Lady Xok, A Royal Couple of Yaxchilan

Source 6.2: The Presentation of Captives

Source 6.3: A Bloodletting Ritual

Source 6.4: The Ball Game

Source 6.5: A Maya Ruler Relaxing 


Life and Travel on the Silk Roads

Source 7.1: Dangers and Assistance on the Silk Roads: Silk Road Merchants Encounter Bandits

Source 7.2: Advice for Merchants: Francesco Pegolotti: Advice for European Merchants Traveling to China, ca. 1340

Source 7.3: Stopping at a Caravanserai

Source 7.4: Buddhism on the Silk Roads: Regulations for a Community of Monks, Third Century C.E.; Faxian: A Record of the Buddhist Kingdoms, ca. 416

Source 7.5: Christianity on the Silk Roads: The Jesus Sutras, 635–1005

Source 7.6: Letters from the Silk Road: From a Soldier on Guard Duty, 103 B.C.E–40 C.E.; From an Abandoned Wife, Early Fourth Century C.E. 


The Making of Japanese Civilization

Source 8.1: Japanese Political Ideals: Shotoku: The Seventeen Article Constitution, 604

Source 8.2: The Uniqueness of Japan: Kitabatake Chikafusa: The Chronicle of the Direct Descent of Gods and Sovereigns, 1339

Source 8.3: Social Life at Court: Sei Shonagon: Pillow Book, ca. 1000

Source 8.4: Japanese Zen Buddhism: Su Dongpo in Straw Hat and Wooden Shoes

Source 8.5: The Way of the Warrior: Shiba Yoshimasa: Advice to Young Samurai, ca. 1400: Imagawa Ryoshun: The Imagawa Letter, 1412

Source 8.6: Samurai and the "Arts of Peace" 


Voices of Islam

Source 9.1: The Voice of Allah: The Quran, Seventh Century C.E.

Source 9.2: The Voice of the Prophet Muhammad: The Hadiths, Eighth and Ninth Centuries

Source 9.3: The Voice of the Law: The Sharia, Ninth Century

Source 9.4: The Voice of the Sufis: Inscription in Rumi’s Tomb, Thirteenth Century; Rumi: Poem, Thirteenth Century; Rumi: Mathnawi, Thirteenth Century

Source 9.5: Islamic Practice in West Africa: Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa, 1354

Source 9.6: Men and Women at Worship 


The Crusades as Cultural Encounter

Source 10.1: A Western Christian Perspective: Pope Urban II: Speech at Clermont, 1095

Source 10.2: Jewish Perspectives on the Crusades: An Account of Attacks on Jews during the First Crusade, Early to Mid-Twelfth Century

Source 10.3: Muslim Perspectives on the Crusades: Ibn al-Athir: The Complete History, ca. 1231

Source 10.4: Jerusalem and the Crusades: The Looting of Jerusalem, 1099; How Jerusalem Was Captured by Saladin, 1187

Source 10.5: A Byzantine Perspective on the Crusades: Nicetas Choniates: The Sack of Constantinople, 1204

Source 10.6: More than Conflict: Usmah Ibn Munqidh: Christian Piety and Muslim Piety, Mid-Twelfth Century; Fulcher of Chartres: The Latins in the East, Early Twelfth Century 


Living and Dying During the Black Death

Source 11.1: The Black Death in the Islamic World: Ibn al-Wardi: Report of the Pestilence, 1348

Source 11.2: The Black Death in Western Europe: Giovanni Boccaccio: The Decameron, Mid-Fourteenth Century

Source 11.3: The Black Death in Byzantium: Emperor John VI of Byzantium: Historarum, Mid to Late Fourteenth Century

Source 11.4: Religious Responses in the Islamic World: Ibn Kathir: The Beginning and the End: On History, ca. 1350–1351

Source 11.5: Religious Responses in the Christian World: The Flagellants; A Culture of Death

Source 11.6: The Black Death and European Jews: Jacob Von Königshofen: About the Great Plague and the Burning of the Jews, ca. Early Fifteenth Century

Source 11.7: A Government’s Response to the Plague: Ordinances against the Spread of Plague, Pistoia, 1348  


Early Encounters; First Impressions

Source 12.1: Cadamosto in a West African Chiefdom: Alvise da Cadamosto: On Meeting with Budomel, 1455

Source 12.2: Vasco da Gama at Calicut, India: A Journal of the First Voyage of Vasco da Gama, 1498

Source 12.3: Celebrating de Gama’s Arrival in Calicut

Source 12.4: Columbus in the Caribbean: Christopher Columbus: Letter to Ferdinand and Isabella, 1493

Source 12.5: Columbus Engraved: Columbus Arriving on Hispaniola 


The Spanish and the Aztecs: From Encounter to Conquest (1519-1521)

Source 13.1: The Meeting of Cortés and Moctezuma: A Spanish View: Bernal Díaz: The True History of the Conquest of New Spain, Mid-Sixteenth Century

Source 13.2: The Meeting of Cortés and Moctezuma: An Aztec Account: Fray Bernardino de Sahagún: The Florentine Codex, Mid-Sixteenth Century

Source 13.3: Images of Encounter: Moctezuma and Cortés; The Massacre of the Nobles

Source 13.4: Conquest and Victory: The Fall of Tenochtitlan from a Spanish Perspective: Francisco de Aguilar: Brief Record of the Conquest of New Spain, ca. 1560

Source 13.5: Defeat: The Fall of Tenochtitlan from an Aztec Perspective: Fray Bernardino de Sahagún: The Florentine Codex, Mid-Sixteenth Century

Source 13.6: The Battle of Tenochtitlan

Source 13.7: Lamentation: The Aftermath of Defeat: Cantares Mexicanos, Late Sixteenth Century 


Voices from the Slave Trade

Source 14.1: The Journey to Slavery: Olaudah Equiano: The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, 1789

Source 14.2: The Business of the Slave Trade: Thomas Phillips: A Journal of a Voyage Made in the Hannibal of London, 1694

Source 14.3: The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Kongo: King Affonso I: Letters to King João of Portugal, 1526

Source 14.4: The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Asante: Osei Bonsu: Conversation with Joseph Dupuis, 1820

Source 14.5: Images of the Slave Trade: Sale of Slaves in West Africa; The Slave Ship Wildfire; Advertisement for a Slave Auction in Charleston, SC

Source 14.6: Data: Patterns of the Slave Trade: Voyages and Slave Rebellion: An Aggregate Statistic; Changing Patterns of the Slave Trade 


Renewal and Reform in the Early Modern World

Source 15.1: Luther’s Protest: Martin Luther: Table Talk, Early Sixteenth Century

Source 15.2: Calvinism and Catholicism: Calvinists Destroying Statues in a Catholic Church, 1566

Source 15.3: Progress and Enlightenment: Marquis de Condorcet: Sketch of the Progress of the Human Mind, 1793–1794

Source 15.4: Art and Enlightenment: Joseph Wright, A Philosopher Giving a Lecture on the Orrery

Source 15.5: The Wahhabi Perspective on Islam: Abdullah Wahhab: History and Doctrines of the Wahhabis, 1803

Source 15.6: The Poetry of Kabir: Kabir: Poetry, ca. Late Fifteenth Century

Source 15.7: Religious Syncretism in Indian Art: Kumbhaka 


Claiming Rights

Source 16.1: The French Revolution and the "Rights of Man": The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789

Source 16.2: Representing the Declaration: Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (Painting)

Source 16.3: Rights and National Independence: Simón Bolívar: The Jamaica Letter, 1815

Source 16.4: Rights and Slavery: "Reason and Nature": All Mortals Are Equal, It Is Not Birth but Virtue That Makes the Difference

Source 16.5: Rights and Slavery: An African American Voice: Frederick Douglass: What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?, 1852

Source 16.6: The Rights of Women: "Frenchwomen Freed"

Source 16.7: The Rights of Women: An American Feminist Voice: Elizabeth Cady Stanton: The Solitude of Self, 1892 


Experiencing the Early Industrial Revolution

Source 17.1: The Experience of an English Factory Worker: Elizabeth Bentley: Factory Worker

Testimony, 1831; William Harter, Mill Owner: Testimony, 1832

Source 17.2: Urban Living Conditions: Friedrich Engels: The Condition of the Working Class in England, 1844

Source 17.3: Another View of Factory Life: Outside the Factory

Source 17.4: A Weaver’s Lament: Only a Weaver, 1860s

Source 17.5: Protest and Song: Eugène Pottier: The Internationale, 1871

Source 17.6: Railroads and the Middle Class: The Railroad as a Symbol of the Industrial Era

Source 17.7: Inequality: Capital and Labour  


Colonial India: Experience and Response

Source 18.1: Images of Colonial Rule: A British Breakfast in India; Tiger Hunting in Colonial India; The British and Indian Princes; Blowing from a Gun

Source 18.2: Seeking Western Education: Ram Mohan Roy: Letter to Lord Amherst, 1823

Source 18.3: The Indian Rebellion: Prince Feroze Shah: The Azamgarh Proclamation, 1857

Source 18.4: The Credits and Debits of British Rule in India: Dadabhai Naoroji: Speech to a London Audience, 1871

Source 18.5: Gandhi on Modern Civilization: Mahatma Gandhi: Indian Home Rule, 1909  


Japan and the West in the Nineteenth Century

Source 19.1: Continuing Japanese Isolation: An Edict of Expulsion, 1825

Source 19.2: The Debate: Expel the Barbarians: Tokugawa Nariaki: Memorial on the American Demand for a Treaty, 1853

Source 19.3: The Debate: A Sumo Wrestler and a Foreigner

Source 19.4: The Debate: Eastern Ethics and Western Science: Sakuma Shozan: Reflections on My Errors, mid-1850s

Source 19.5: Westernization: Women and Westernization

Source 19.6: A Critique of Westernization: Critique of Wholesale Westernization

Source 19.7: War and Empire

Source 19.8: Japan in the Early Twentieth Century: Okuma Shigenobu: Fifty Years of New Japan, 1907–1908 


Experiencing World War I

Sources 20.1: Experiences on the Battlefront: Julian Grenfell: Letter from a British Officer in the Trenches, November 18, 1914; John Nash: Over the Top, 1918: Hugo Mueller: Letter from a German Soldier on the Western Front, 1915; Behari Lal: Letter from a Soldier in the British Indian Army, 1917

Sources 20.2: On the Home Front: Women of Britain Say –– "Go!," 1915; Keep the Home Fires Burning, 1915; Editha von Krell: Recollections of Four Months Working in a German Munitions Factory, 1917; Berlin Police Reports, 1915

Sources 20.3: In the Aftermath of the Great War: Otto Dix: Prague Street, 1920; Erich Maria Remarque: All Quiet on the Western Front, 1929; Nar Diouf: A Senegalese Veteran’s Oral Testimony, 1919 


Experiencing Stalinism

Source 21.1: Stalin on Stalinism: Joseph Stalin: The Results of the First Five-Year Plan, 1933

Source 21.2: Collectivization: A Stalinist Vision: The Day of Harvest and Collectivization, 1930

Source 21.3: Living through Collectivization: Anna Akimovna Dubova: "Branded Kulaks and Dispossessed," 1928–1929; Letter from Feigin to Ordzhonikidze, April 9, 1932; Leaving the Collective Farms, 1937

Source 21.4: Industrialization and Religion: A Stalinist Vision: Religion Is the Enemy of Industrialization

Source 21.5: Living through Stalinist Industrialization: Personal Accounts of Soviet Industrialization, 1930s: Letter in a Newspaper from a Tatar Electrician; Newspaper Commentary by an Engineer, 1938; Letter to a Soviet Official from a Worker, 1938; Letter from a Student to His Teacher; Two Comments from Factory Workers Found in Soviet Archives, 1930s; Entry from a Worker’s Diary, 1936; Comment from an Anonymous Communist in Soviet Archives, 1938

Source 21.6: Living through the Stalinist Terror: Irina Kakhovskaya: Arrest and Interrogation, 1937; Eugenia Ginsberg: A Day in Kolyma, 1939; Inna Shikheeva-Gaister: Sending a Parcel, 1938 


Articulating Independence

Source 22.1: Declaring Vietnam’s Independence: Declaration of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, September 2, 1945

Source 22.2: Vietnam’s Independence: 50 Years Later: Fiftieth Anniversary of Vietnamese Independence

Source 22.3: India’s "Tryst with Destiny": Jawaharlal Nehru: Independence Day Speech, August 14, 1947

Source 22.4: Another View of India’s Struggle for Independence: Gandhi and the Fight against British Colonialism

Source 22.5: One Africa: Kwame Nkrumah: Africa Must Unite, 1963

Source 22.6: South African "Independence": South African Election

Source 22.7: Independence as Threat: Alvim Pereira: Ten Principles, 1961  


The Future as History

Source 23.1: Looking Ahead from 1900: John E. Watkins: "What May Happen in the Next Hundred Years," 1900

Source 23.2: Imagining the Future of Technology: Air Battles and Air Freight in the Future; The Horse as a Curiosity; The School of the Future; A Video-Telephone in the Year 2000

Source 23.3: The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948

Source 23.4: Throwing Off Europe: Frantz Fanon: The Wretched of the Earth, 1961

Source 23.5: Predicting 2100: "The Last Hours"

Source 23.6: "What’s Possible?"

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