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Thinking for Yourself : Developing Critical Thinking Skills Through Reading and Writing,9780838407356

Thinking for Yourself : Developing Critical Thinking Skills Through Reading and Writing

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Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780838407356

ISBN10:
0838407358
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/27/2003
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $85.00

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Summary

Focusing on the teaching of thinking through writing, the sixth edition provides new high-interest readings, cartoons, and Internet research exercises.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Introduction Introduction to Critical Thinking 1(11)
Learning How You Think
1(1)
Discovery Exercise
Experiencing How We Actually Think: An Exercise for the Whole Class To Complete Together
2(1)
Learning from Sharing How We Think
3(1)
What Is Critical Thinking?
4(2)
Comparisons to Creative Thinking
6(2)
Why Learn Critical Thinking?
8(1)
The Habits of Critical Thinking
9(1)
Box: Habits of a Critical Thinker
10(2)
PART I BASICS OF CRITICAL THINKING
Chapter 1 Observation Skills: What's Out There?
12(32)
Discovery Exercises
Comparing Our Perceptions
13(1)
What Is Observing?
13(1)
Observing a Cube
14(1)
Observation and Insight
15(1)
Using Observation Skills to Develop New Knowledge
16(1)
Reading
Look at Your Fish, by Samuel H. Scudder
17(3)
Core Discovery Writing Application
Observing the Familiar: Vegetables or Fruit
20(5)
Evaluating Your Work by Using the Scoring Boxes
25(1)
Alternate Core Discovery Writing Application
26(9)
Observing the Unfamiliar: A Tool
26(9)
The Observation Process: Sensing, Perceiving, Thinking
29(3)
Barriers to Observation
32(1)
How Discomfort Leads Us to Think
33(1)
Diagram: A Choice for Thinking
33(1)
Building Arguments
Observation Skills
34(1)
The Rewards of Skilled Observation
35(1)
Reading
The Innocent Eye,
by Dorr Bothwell
35(1)
Chapter Summary
38(1)
Chapter Quiz
38(1)
Composition Writing Application
Survival as a Result of Observing: A Descriptive Narrative Essay
39(1)
Reading
Desert Solitaire,
by Edward Abbey (1925-89)
40(3)
Optional Internet Research Assignment
43(1)
Chapter 2 Word Precision: How Do I Describe It?
44(30)
On Finding the Right Word
45(1)
Discovery Exercises
Taking an Interest in Dictionaries
46(2)
How Well Do You Use Your Dictionary?
48(1)
Clear Thinking Depends on Clear Word Definitions
49(1)
What Makes a Definition?
50(1)
Diagram: Definition Boundaries
51(1)
Exercise
Word Boundaries
51(1)
Kinds of Definitions
52(2)
The Connotations of Words
54(1)
The Importance of Defining Key Ideas
55(1)
Word Concepts
56(1)
Defining Reality
57(1)
Defining Truth
58(1)
What Is Critical Reading?
58(3)
Building Arguments
Word Choices
60(1)
Chapter Summary
61(1)
Chapter Quiz
62(1)
Composition Writing Application
A Short Essay of Definition
63(3)
Box: Clustering
66(1)
Readings
Modern Slavery,
by Kevin Bales
67(2)
Fighting for Our Lives,
by Deborah Tannen
69(1)
Saved,
by Malcolm X
70(3)
Advanced Optional Writing Assignment
73(1)
Optional Internet Research Assignment
73(1)
Chapter 3 Facts: What's Real?
74(34)
Discovery Exercises
Beginning with the Word Fact
75(1)
Learning To Recognize Facts
75(1)
Verifying Facts
76(1)
Facts and Reality
77(1)
Facts Are Not Absolutes
78(2)
Discerning Facts from Fiction
80(1)
Feelings Can Be Facts
81(3)
Facts and Social Pressure
84(1)
Diagram: Standard and Comparison Lines in the Asch Experiment
85(1)
Facts and Our Limited Senses
86(1)
Reading
The Blind Men and The Elephant
87(4)
Statements of Fact
87(4)
Core Discovery Writing Application
Using a List of Facts to Describe a Photograph
91(3)
Standard We Use to Determine Facts
92(1)
Chapter Summary
93(1)
Chapter Quiz
94(1)
Composition Writing Application
Writing a Short Fact-Finding Report
94(2)
Reading
The Accident and Aftermath,
by Hayden Herrera
96(3)
Advanced Optional Writing Assignment
99(1)
Readings
Lies My Teacher Told Me,
by James W. Loewen
99(4)
Fast Food Nation,
by Eric Schlosser
103(1)
Building Arguments
Facts
106(1)
Optional Internet Research Assignment
107(1)
Chapter 4 Inferences: What Follows?
108(40)
Discovery Exercise
Recognizing Inferential Thinking
108(2)
Understanding the Words Infer and Inference
110(1)
Discovery Exercises
Drawing Inferences from Evidence
111(1)
Drawing Inferences from Facts
112(1)
Distinguishing Inferences from Facts
112(4)
How Inferences Can Go Right and Wrong
116(1)
Reading
A Study in Scarlet,
by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
116(1)
Drawing Inferences from Careful Observation
120(3)
Core Discovery Writing Application
Using Facts and Inferences to Describe a Photograph
123(3)
Generalizations Are Inferences
125(1)
Composition Writing Application
Writing a Paragraph from Facts, Inferences, and Generalizations
126(2)
Core Discovery Writing Application
Analyzing the Use of Facts and Inferences in a Newspaper Article
128(1)
Reading
Tougher Grading Better for Students
129(4)
Building Arguments
Inferences
131(1)
Chapter Summary
131(2)
Chapter Quiz
133(1)
Readings
The Three Perceptives,
by Idries Shah
133(2)
Stone Boy,
by Gina Berriault
135(13)
Objectives Review of Part I
PART II PROBLEMS OF CRITICAL THINKING
Chapter 5 Assumptions: What's Taken for Granted?
148(30)
Discovery Exercises
What Is an Assumption?
149(2)
Understanding Assumptions
151(1)
Types of Assumptions
152(2)
Identifying Hidden Assumptions in Reasoning
154(3)
Diagram: Argument with Rug of Assumptions
157
Hidden Assumptions in Arguments
156(1)
Discovery Exercise
Articulating Hidden Assumptions Underlying Arguments
157(1)
Value or Belief Assumptions
158(2)
Assumption Layers in Arguments
160(2)
Diagram: Pyramid of Value Assumptions
162(1)
Assumptions, Incongruities, and Thinking
163(2)
Chapter Summary
165(1)
Building Arguments
Assumptions: Building an Argument
166(1)
Chapter Quiz
166(1)
Composition Writing Application
Expository Essay: Solving a Problem by Uncovering Assumptions
167(4)
Diagram: Thesis as a Frame
168(3)
Readings
Lateral and Vertical Thinking,
by Edward de Bono
171(3)
Winterblossom Garden,
by David Low
174(2)
Advanced Optional Writing Assignment
176(1)
Optional Internet Research Assignment
177(1)
Chapter 6 Opinions: What's Believed?
178(17)
Discovery Exercises
Comparing a Sample of Opinions
179(1)
Why Do We Get Confused by the Word Opinion?
179(1)
An Exercise in Evaluating Opinions
180(1)
Types of Opinions
181(1)
Distinguishing Between Responsible and Irresponsible Opinions
182(1)
Looking at Public Opinion Polls
183(2)
Opinions as Claims in Arguments
185(1)
Diagram: Argument Structure
186(1)
Composition Writing Application
First Option: A Short Argument Supporting an Opinion
187(1)
Second Option: A Short Expository Essay About an Opinion
187(1)
Third Option: A Short Essay Analyzing Three Opinions 188
Peer Review
188(2)
Chapter Summary
189(1)
Building Arguments
Opinions
189(1)
Chapter Quiz
190(1)
Readings
A Nation of Victims,
by Charles J. Sykes
190(2)
Loss of Innocence,
by James P. Steyer
192(2)
Advanced Optional Writing Assignment
Opinion on Sykes' or Steyer's Essay
194(1)
Chapter 7 Evaluations: What's Judged?
195(24)
Discovery Exercises
Defining Evaluate
196(1)
Recognizing Evaluative Words
196(1)
On Evaluations
197(1)
Premature Evaluations
198(1)
Evaluations Are Not Facts
199(1)
Expectations Influence Evaluations
200(1)
Recognizing Evaluations in Word Connotations
201(1)
Discovery Exercise
Recognizing Evaluative Words' Persuasive Powers
202(1)
Skilled Use of Evaluations
203(1)
Readings
The Maltese Falcon
204(1)
Discarding the Concept o f Man as "Killer Ape,"
by Richard Leakey
204(1)
Propaganda and Hidden Evaluations
205(1)
Building Arguments
Evaluations
207(1)
Chapter Summary
208(1)
Chapter Quiz
209(1)
Composition Writing Application
First Option: Observing and Analyzing Evaluations in Advertisements
209(1)
Second Option: Writing a Critical Review
210(1)
Readings
Evaluation,
by Barbara Ehrenreich
211(4)
Porn, Pervasive Presence: The Creepy Wallpaper of Our Lives,
by William E Buckley Jr.
215(2)
Advanced Optional Writing Assignment
217(1)
Optional Internet Research Assignment
217(2)
Chapter 8 Viewpoints: What's the Filter?
219(27)
Discovery Exercises
Understanding the Term Viewpoint
220(1)
What Types of Viewpoints Are There?
220(1)
Viewpoints in Literature
221(1)
On Unconscious Viewpoints
222(2)
Discovery Exercise
Recognizing Political and Social Points of View
224(1)
Recognizing Viewpoints Left and Right
225(1)
Diagram: The Left-to-Right Political Spectrum
225(1)
Diagram: The Two-Axis Model of Political Views
226(1)
Reading
Beyond the Myth of Objectivity,
by Jay Davis
227(3)
Composition Writing Application
A Survey of Two Alternative Viewpoints in Two Publications
230(6)
Hidden Viewpoints: The Use of News Framing
233(1)
Discovery Assignment
Observing How a Newspaper Frames Its Information
234(1)
Chapter Summary
235(1)
Building Arguments
Viewpoints
235(1)
Chapter Quiz
236(1)
Advanced Optional Writing Assignment
Essay: Comparing and Contrasting the Reading Audience of Two Magazines
236(2)
Readings
The Loyalty Questionnaire from To The Stars,
by George Takei
238(3)
The Real Story Versus the Official Story,
by Jun˘t Diaz
241(2)
Objectives Review of Part II
243(3)
PART III FORMS AND STANDARDS OF CRITICAL THINKING
Chapter 9 Argument: What's a Good Argument?
246(29)
Discovery Exercise
Reading and Judging Arguments
247(1)
Critical Reading of Arguments
248(1)
What Viewpoint Is the Source of This Argument?
249(1)
What Is the Issue of Controversy?
250(2)
Box: Arguments and Reports: Different Purposes, Structures, and Standards
252(1)
Is It an Argument or a Report?
252(3)
How Is the Argument Structured in Terms of Reasons and Conclusions?
255(8)
Identifying the Conclusion of an Argument
256(7)
Exercise
Identifying Reasons and Conclusions
259(1)
More on Distinguishing Reasons from Conclusions 260
Implied Conclusions
260(1)
Conclusions in a Series
260(1)
Conclusion at the Beginning
261(1)
Conclusion in the Middle
261(1)
Exercise
More Practice in Identifying Reasons and Conclusions
261(1)
Exercise
More Practice with Longer Arguments
262(1)
Core Discovery Writing Application
Writing a Short Persuasive Argument: A Letter of Complaint
263(5)
What Are the Strengths and Weaknesses of This Argument?
266(1)
Detecting Missing Information
266(1)
Detecting False or Contradictory Information
268(1)
Reading
The Junkman's Answer to Terrorism: Use More Asbestos
268(3)
Chapter Summary
270(1)
Readings
Striking a Balance: Civil Liberties Versus National Securitiy
271(1)
Arguments
by John Ashcroft and Anthony D. Romero
272(3)
Chapter 10 Fallacies: What's a Faulty Argument?
275(27)
Discovery Exercise
Recognizing Fallacies
276(1)
Fallacies of Trickery
276(1)
Box: Fallacies of Trickery Covered in This Chapter
277(1)
Trickery with Language
277(1)
Trickery with Emotions
277(1)
Trickery with Distraction
277(1)
Fallacies That Use Language Trickery
278(6)
Word Ambiguity
278(2)
Misleading Use of Euphemisms
280(1)
Prejudicial Language
281(3)
Fallacies Involving Trickery with Emotions
284(8)
Emotional Appeals to Fear and Pity
285(1)
Appeal to False Authority
286(3)
Appeal to Prejudice: Personal Attack and Poisoning the Well
289(3)
Fallacies Using the Trickery of Distraction
292(6)
Red Herring
292(2)
Pointing to Another Wrong
294(1)
Straw Man
295(1)
Circular Reasoning
296(2)
Chapter Summary
298(1)
Chapter Quiz
299(3)
Chapter 11 Inductive Reasoning and Inductive Fallacies: How Do I Reason from Evidence?
302(45)
Discovery Exercises
Defining Key Terms
303(1)
Answering a Survey on Test Performance
303(1)
Looking at Inductive Reasoning
303(2)
Reasoning from Sensory Observation
305(1)
Reasoning from Enumeration
306(1)
Analogical Reasoning
307(1)
Discovering Patterns
308(1)
Reasoning from and About Causes
309(2)
Reasoning with Hypotheses
311(3)
Reasoning Through Statistics and Probability
314(3)
Composition Writing Application
Working from Facts to Inferences to Hypotheses
317(5)
Chapter Summary
319(1)
Chapter Quiz
320(1)
Building Arguments
Induction
321(1)
Reading
The Global 2000 Study of 1975: An Interagency Forecast Prepared Under President Jimmy Carter
322(24)
Fallacies of Inductive Reasoning
326(1)
Box: Fallacies of Inductive Reasoning Covered in This Chapter
327(1)
The Hasty Generalization
327(1)
The Either-or Fallacy, or False Dilemma
329(1)
The Questionable Statistic
330(1)
Contradictions and Inconsistencies
333(1)
The Loaded Question
336(1)
The False Analogy
337(1)
Discovery Exercise
Evaluating Analogies
338(1)
False Cause
339(1)
The Slippery Slope
342(1)
Chapter Summary
343(1)
Chapter Quiz
344(2)
Advanced Optional Short Research Assignment
Detecting Fallacies in an Argument
346(1)
Chapter 12 Deductive Reasoning: How Do I Reason from Premises?
347(24)
Discovery Exercises
What Is Deductive Reasoning?
348(1)
Evaluating Deductive Arguments
348(1)
About Deductive Reasoning
349(2)
The Basic Vocabulary of Logic
351(4)
Argument
351(1)
Reasoning
351(1)
Syllogism
352(1)
Premises and Conclusion
352(1)
Validity
353(1)
Soundness
353(2)
Standardized Forms in Syllogisms
355(2)
Discovery Exercise
Practice in Constructing Syllogisms
356(1)
What Syllogisms Do
357(4)
What Is Said and Is It True?
357(2)
Is There a Hidden Premise?
359(1)
Is the Reasoning Correct?
359(4)
Exercise
Reviewing the Vocabulary of Logic
361(1)
The Interplay of Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
361(1)
Box: Chart Comparing Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
362(1)
Composition Writing Application
Writing a Deductive Argument
363(4)
Building Arguments
Deduction
364(1)
Chapter Summary
365(1)
Chapter Quiz
366(1)
Readings
The Declaration of Independence (excerpt),
by Thomas Jefferson
367(2)
Letter from a Birmingham Jail (excerpt),
by Martin Luther King, Jr.
369(1)
Objectives Review of Part III
370(1)
Appendix The Research Paper 371(13)
Research Paper Assignments in This Text
371(1)
Two Research Writing Applications:
First Research Option: Analysis of Two Arguments Pro and Con on a Recent Controversial Issue
371(5)
Instructions for the Argument Analysis Assignment
372(1)
Outline Form Used in This Assignment
372(1)
Total Format
373(1)
Research Preparation
373(2)
Arguments, Not Reports
375(1)
Length and Viewpoints of Arguments Selected
375(1)
Second Research Writing Option: An Argumentative Essay Writing an Argumentative Research Essay
376(3)
Preparation Instructions
376(1)
Writing the First Draft
377(1)
Final Touches
377(1)
Suggested Handbooks for Guidance in Research Writing
377(2)
Student Model Paper: Analysis of Two Arguments on the Issue
Can Civil Liberties be Maintained Given the New National Security Policies?
379(5)
Index 384


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