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Thinking for Yourself Developing Critical Thinking Skills Through Reading and Writing

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9781413017724

ISBN10:
141301772X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/24/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning

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This is the 7th edition with a publication date of 2/24/2006.
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Summary

THINKING FOR YOURSELF: DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS THROUGH READING AND WRITING offers a unique integration of composition, reading, and critical thinking. As you complete the book's writing assignments, you'll see how your writing reflects your thinking and how self-directed improvement in thinking also improves writing. The book offers step-by-step nstruction, humor, cartoons, Internet research exercises, and up-to-date social and political examples.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Introduction Introduction to Critical Thinking 1(1)
Learning How You Think
1(1)
Discovery Exercise
Experiencing How We Actually Think: A Whole Class Exercise
2(1)
Learning from Sharing How We Think
3(1)
What Is Critical Thinking?
4(2)
Relationship to Creative Thinking
6(2)
Why Learn Critical Thinking?
8(4)
Box: Habits of a Critical Thinker
9(3)
PART I Basics of Critical Thinking
Observation Skills: What's Out There?
12(32)
Discovery Exercises
Comparing Our Perceptions
13(1)
What Is Observing?
14(1)
Observing a Cube
14(1)
Observation and Insight
15(1)
Using Observation Skills to Develop New Knowledge
16(5)
Reading: Look at Your Fish
17(4)
Samuel H. Scudder
Core Discovery Writing Application
Observing the Familiar: Vegetable or Fruit
21(4)
Evaluating Your Work by Using the Scoring Boxes
25(1)
Alternate Core Discovery Writing Application
Observing the Unfamiliar: A Tool
26(3)
The Observation Process: Sensing, Perceiving, Thinking
29(3)
Barriers to Observation
32(1)
How Discomfort Leads Us to Think
32(2)
Building Arguments: Observation Skills
34(1)
The Rewards of Skilled Observation
35(3)
Reading: The Innocent Eye
35(3)
Dorr Bothwell
Chapter Summary
38(1)
Chapter Quiz
38(1)
Composition Writing Application
Survival as a Result of Observing: A Descriptive Narrative Essay
39(1)
Reading: Desert Solitaire
40(3)
Edward Abbey
Optional Internet Research Assignment
43(1)
Word Precision: How Do I Describe It?
44(31)
On Finding the Right Word
45(1)
Discovery Exercise
Taking an Interest in Dictionaries
46(2)
How Well Do You Use Your Dictionary?
48(1)
Clear Thinking Depends on Clear Word Definitions
49(1)
What Makes a Definition?
50(1)
Diagram: Definition Boundaries
51(1)
Exercise
Word Boundaries
51(1)
Kinds of Definitions
52(2)
The Connotations of Words
54(1)
The Importance of Defining Key Ideas
55(1)
Word Concepts
56(2)
What Is Critical Reading?
58(2)
Building Arguments: Word Choices
60(1)
Chapter Summary
61(1)
Chapter Quiz
62(1)
Composition Writing Application
A Short Essay of Definition
63(1)
Box: Clustering
64(2)
Reading: The Professor and the Madman
66(2)
Simon Winchester
Reading: Saved
68(3)
Malcolm X
Reading: What Privacy Is---and What It Is Not
71(3)
Charles J. Sykes
Advanced Optional Writing Assignment
74(1)
Optional Internet Research Assignment
74(1)
Facts: What's Real?
75(30)
Discovery Exercises
Beginning with the Word Fact
76(1)
Learning to Recognize Facts
76(1)
Verifying Facts
77(1)
Facts and Reality
78(1)
Facts Are Not Absolutes
79(2)
Distinguishing Facts from Fiction
81(1)
Feelings Can Be Facts
82(2)
Facts and Social Pressure
84(3)
Facts and Our Limited Senses
87(1)
Reading: The Blind Men and the Elephant
87(1)
Statements of Fact
88(3)
Core Discovery Writing Application
Using a List of Facts to Describe a Photograph
91(1)
Standards We Use to Determine Facts
92(1)
Chapter Summary
93(1)
Chapter Quiz
94(1)
Composition Writing Application
Writing a Short Fact-Finding Report
95(2)
Reading: The Debt Explosion Elizabeth Warren and Amelia
97(2)
Warren Tyagi
Reading: Fast Food Nation
99(3)
Eric Schlosser
Building Arguments: Facts
102(1)
Advanced Optional Writing Assignment
103(1)
Optional Internet Research Assignment
103(2)
Inferences: What Follows?
105(39)
Discovery Exercises
Recognizing Inferential Thinking
107(1)
Defining Infer
107(1)
Understanding the Words Infer and Inference
107(1)
Discovery Exercises
Drawing Inferences from Evidence
108(1)
Drawing Inferences from Facts
109(1)
Distinguishing Inferences from Facts
109(3)
How Inferences Can Go Right and Wrong
112(4)
Reading: The Adventure of the Speckled Band
113(3)
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Drawing Inferences from Careful Observation
116(3)
Core Discovery Writing Application
Using Facts and Inferences to Describe a Photograph
119(1)
Generalizations Are Inferences
120(2)
Composition Writing Application
Writing a Paragraph from Facts, Inferences, and Generalizations
122(2)
Core Discovery Writing Application
Analyzing the Use of Facts and Inferences in a Newspaper Article
124(1)
Reading: Tougher Grading Better for Students
125(2)
Building Arguments: Inferences
127(1)
Chapter Summary
128(1)
Chapter Quiz
129(13)
Reading: The Three Perceptives
130(2)
Idries Shah
Reading: The Stone Boy
132(10)
Gina Berriault
Objectives Review of Part I
142(2)
PART II Problems of Critical Thinking
Assumptions: What's Taken for Granted?
144(31)
Discovery Exercises
Defining Assumption
145(1)
Finding Assumptions in Cartoons
145(1)
Finding Assumptions in Stories
145(2)
Understanding Assumptions
147(2)
Types of Assumptions
149(2)
Identifying Hidden Assumptions in Reasoning
151(2)
Hidden Assumptions in Arguments
153(1)
Discovery Exercise
Articulating Hidden Assumptions Underlying Arguments
154(1)
Value or Belief Assumptions
155(1)
Assumption Layers in Arguments
156(3)
Assumptions, Incongruities, and Thinking
159(3)
Chapter Summary
162(1)
Building Arguments: Assumptions
163(1)
Chapter Quiz
163(1)
Composition Writing Application
Expository Essay: Solving a Problem by Uncovering Assumptions
164(4)
Reading: Lateral and Vertical Thinking Edward de Bono
168(3)
Reading: Winterblossom Garden
171(2)
David Low
Advanced Optional Writing Assignment
173(1)
Optional Internet Research Assignment
174(1)
Opinions: What's Believed?
175(20)
Discovery Exercises
Comparing a Sample of Opinions
176(1)
Why Do We Get Confused by the Word Opinion?
176(1)
An Exercise in Evaluating Opinions
177(1)
Types of Opinions
178(1)
Distinguishing between Responsible and Irresponsible Opinions
179(2)
Looking at Public Opinion Polls
181(1)
Opinions as Claims in Arguments
182(2)
Composition Writing Application
First Option: A Short Argument Supporting an Opinion
184(1)
Second Option: A Short Expository Essay About an Opinion
184(1)
Third Option: A Short Essay Analyzing Three Opinions
185(1)
Chapter Summary
186(1)
Building Arguments: Opinions
186(1)
Chapter Quiz
187(7)
Reading: The Loss of Innocence
187(2)
James P. Steyer
Reading: A Modest Proposal
189(5)
Jonathan Swift
Optional Internet Research Assignment
194(1)
Evaluations: What's Judged?
195(22)
Discovery Exercises
Defining Evaluate
196(1)
Recognizing Evaluative Words
196(1)
On Evaluations
197(1)
Premature Evaluations
198(1)
Evaluations Are Not Facts
199(2)
Expectations Influence Evaluations
201(1)
Recognizing Evaluations in Word Connotations
201(1)
Discovery Exercise
Recognizing Evaluative Words' Persuasive Powers
202(2)
Skilled Use of Evaluations
204(2)
Reading: Million Dollar Brutality
205(1)
Vicki Haddock
Propaganda and Hidden Evaluations
206(2)
Building Arguments: Evaluations
208(1)
Chapter Summary
209(1)
Chapter Quiz
209(1)
Composition Writing Application
First Option: Observing and Analyzing Evaluations in Advertisements
210(1)
Second Option: Writing a Critical Review
211(1)
Reading: Prices Without Values
211(2)
Frank Ackerman
Lisa Heinzerling
Reading: Porn, Pervasive Presence
213(2)
William F. Buckley, Jr.
Advanced Optional Writing Assignment
215(1)
Optional Internet Research Assignment
216(1)
Viewpoints: What's the Filter?
217(23)
Discovery Exercises
Understanding the Term Viewpoint
218(1)
What Types of Viewpoints Are There?
218(1)
Viewpoints in Literature
219(1)
On Unconscious Viewpoints
220(2)
Discovery Exercise
Recognizing Political and Social Points of View
222(1)
Recognizing Viewpoints Left and Right
223(6)
Reading: Beyond the Myth of Objectivity
227(2)
Jay Davis
Core Discovery Exercise
Learning to Recognize Political Viewpoints
229(1)
Composition Writing Application
A Survey of Some Alternative Viewpoints
229(3)
Hidden Viewpoints: The Use of News Framing
232(1)
Discovery Assignment
Observing How a Newspaper Frames Its Information
233(1)
Building Arguments: Viewpoints
234(1)
Chapter Summary
234(1)
Chapter Quiz
235(3)
Reading: Why Can't We Talk About Religion and Politics?
235(3)
Jim Wallis
Objectives Review of Part II
238(2)
PART III Forms and Standards of Critical Thinking
Argument: What's a Good Argument?
240(34)
Discovery Exercise
Reading and Judging Arguments
241(1)
Critical Reading of Arguments
242(2)
What Viewpoint Is the Source of This Argument?
244(1)
What Is the Issue of Controversy?
244(2)
Is It an Argument or a Report?
246(3)
How Is the Argument Structured in Terms of Reasons and Conclusions?
249(3)
Identifying the Conclusion of an Argument
250(1)
Identifying Reasons
251(1)
Exercise
Identifying Reasons and Conclusions
252(1)
More on Distinguishing Reasons from Conclusions
253(2)
Implied Conclusions
253(1)
Conclusions in a Series
254(1)
Conclusion at the Beginning
254(1)
Conclusion in the Middle
255(1)
Exercises
More Practice in Identifying Reasons and Conclusions
255(1)
More Practice with Longer Arguments
256(1)
Core Discovery Writing Application
Writing a Short Persuasive Argument: A Letter of Complaint
257(3)
What Are the Strengths and Weaknesses of This Argument?
260(1)
Is Any Important Information Missing?
260(2)
Following Up on Missing Information
262(2)
Reading: Eczema Drugs Carry Cancer Risk US FDA Says
262(2)
Is Any Information False, Contradictory or Irreconcilable?
264(2)
Chapter Summary
266(8)
Reading: Job Outsourcing Good for America
267(2)
Michael Hussey
Reading: 30 Little Turtles by Thomas L. Friedman
269(1)
Reading: What's Wrong with Outsourcing?
270(4)
Rory L. Terry
Fallacies: What's a Faulty Argument?
274(27)
Discovery Exercise
Recognizing Fallacies
275(1)
The Fallacies
275(2)
Fallacies That Manipulate Through Language
277(6)
Word Ambiguity
277(2)
Misleading Euphemisms
279(2)
Prejudicial Language
281(2)
Fallacies That Manipulate Emotions
283(8)
Emotional Appeals to Fear and Pity
284(1)
Appeal to False Authority
285(3)
Appeal to Prejudice: Personal Attack and Poisoning the Well
288(3)
Fallacies That Manipulate Through Distraction
291(6)
Red Herring
291(3)
Pointing to Another Wrong
294(1)
Straw Man
294(2)
Circular Reasoning
296(1)
Chapter Summary
297(1)
Chapter Quiz
298(3)
Inductive Reasoning and Inductive Fallacies: How Do I Reason from Evidence?
301(46)
Discovery Exercises
Defining Key Terms
302(1)
Answering a Survey on Test Performance
302(1)
Looking at Inductive Reasoning
302(2)
Reasoning from Sensory Observation
304(1)
Reasoning from Enumeration
305(1)
Analogical Reasoning
306(1)
Discovering Patterns
307(1)
Reasoning From and About Causes
307(3)
Reasoning with Hypotheses
310(2)
Reasoning Through Statistics and Probability
312(3)
Composition Writing Application
Working from Facts to Inferences to Hypotheses
315(3)
Chapter Summary
318(1)
Chapter Quiz
318(1)
Building Arguments: Induction
319(6)
Reading: The Global 2000 Study of 1975: An Interagency Forecast
320(5)
Fallacies of Inductive Reasoning
325(1)
The Hasty Generalization
326(2)
The Either-Or Fallacy, or False Dilemma
328(1)
The Questionable Statistic
329(3)
Contradictions and Inconsistencies
332(3)
The Loaded Question
335(1)
The False Analogy
336(1)
Discovery Exercise
Evaluating Analogies
337(2)
False Cause
339(3)
The Slippery Slope
342(1)
Chapter Summary
343(1)
Chapter Quiz
344(2)
Advanced Optional Short Research Assignment
Detecting Fallacies in an Argument
346(1)
Deductive Reasoning: How Do I Reason from Premises?
347(25)
Discovery Exercises
What Is Deductive Reasoning?
348(1)
Evaluating Deductive Arguments
348(1)
About Deductive Reasoning
349(2)
The Basic Vocabulary of Logic
351(4)
Argument
351(1)
Reasoning
351(1)
Syllogism
352(1)
Premises and Conclusion
352(1)
Validity
353(1)
Soundness
354(1)
Standardized Forms in Syllogisms
355(1)
Discovery Exercise
Practice in Constructing Syllogisms
356(1)
What Syllogisms Do
357(4)
What Is Said and Is It True?
358(1)
Is There a Hidden Premise?
359(1)
Is the Reasoning Correct?
360(1)
Exercise
Reviewing the Vocabulary of Logic
361(1)
The Interplay of Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
362(2)
Composition Writing Application
Writing a Deductive Argument
364(1)
Chapter Summary
364(2)
Building Arguments: Deduction
366(1)
Chapter Quiz
367(4)
Reading: The Declaration of Independence
368(1)
Thomas Jefferson
Reading: Letter from a Birmingham Jail
369(2)
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Objectives Review of Part III
371(1)
APPENDIX ONE: The Research Paper
372(13)
Research Paper Assignments in This Text
372(1)
First Option: Analysis of Two Arguments Pro and Con on a Recent Controversial Issue
372(5)
Overall Format
373(1)
Research Preparation
373(1)
Instructions for the Argument Analysis Assignment
373(1)
Outline Form Used in This Assignment
373(3)
Arguments, Not Reports
376(1)
Length and Viewpoints of Arguments Selected
376(1)
Second Option: An Argumentative Research Essay
Preparation Instructions
377(1)
Writing the First Draft
378(1)
Final Touches
378(2)
Student Model Paper
Analysis of Two Arguments on the Issue: Is Job Outsourcing Good for America?
380(5)
Claire Frey
APPENDIX TWO: Media Literacy
385(11)
On Being Well-Informed
385(2)
Media Literacy Skills for Assessing News Reliability
386(1)
Some Guiding Principles
387(1)
Journalism in the Role of the Fourth Estate
388(3)
Suggestions for Further Study
391(1)
Some Recent Books on the Media
391(1)
Steps for Assessing Information Reliability
392(1)
Sample Websites for Studying the News
393(3)
Directories for News from International Sources
393(1)
Samples of Online Foreign News Sources in English
393(1)
Some U.S. Newspaper Sites
393(1)
Some U.S. Think Tanks
394(1)
Media Critique Sites
395(1)
Independent Voter Information Sites
395(1)
Some Political Activism Sites
395(1)
Index 396(10)
Credits 406


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