The book develops concepts and a methodology for a rational description of the organization of three-dimensional flows considering especially the case where the flow is the detachment place. The descriptive analysis based on the singular points theory of Poincaré develops conventional but rather unfamiliar considerations from aerodynamicists, who face the understanding of complex flows including separation lines and many vortices. These problems concern the industrial sectors where aerodynamics plays a key role: aerospace, ground vehicles, buildings, etc.
Introduction to the physics of complex three-dimensional flows and brief history. Structure of the book.
Detachment in three-dimensional flows and vortices. Reminder of the properties of the three-dimensional boundary layer. Spectrum of the wall friction line. Separation lines and separation surfaces. Formation of vortex structures. Horseshoe vortex and tornado vortex.
Separated flow on a body. Appearance of collar singular points and associated separation lines. Rigorous definition of the concept of separated (or detached) flow. Singular points on an isolated body and Poincaré formula. Field associated with a detached configuration.
Wake vortex of slender bodies and wings. Case of the delta-wing Formation of apex vortices and vortex lift. Case of the classical wing. Extremity vortices. Slender body, such as impact missile.
Detachment in front of an obstacle or on a rounded (blunt) body. Formation of the vortices upstream of an obstacle facing upwind (like a building for example). Detachment caused by a body of finite height (or protuberance). Associated back tornado vortices. Detachment downstream of a propelled back-body. Analysis of the vortex system created by a car.
Two-dimensional detachment. Two-dimensional approximation discussed in the framework of the singular point theory. Specific situations and corresponding topological structures. Disturbances and edge effect affecting flows in two-dimensional devices. Reconsideration of the concept of two-dimensional flow.