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Through the Looking Glass Observations in the Early Childhood Classroom,9780130420800
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Through the Looking Glass Observations in the Early Childhood Classroom

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780130420800

ISBN10:
0130420808
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/30/2001
Publisher(s):
Pearson

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Summary

Taking a strong developmental focus, this book ensures that teachers understand the close relationship between observing, understanding what has been observed, and improving the educational curriculum and environment. This edition is the result of a continued commitment to produce a book on observation that unites solid methodological instruction with a broad understanding of children's development.Chapter 1 now covers information on professional development such as the reader's responsibilities and an introduction to professional organizations, developmentally appropriate practice, and ethical conduct in early childhood education. A new Chapter 2 details the practical issues of finding the time to observe, learning the basics of observation, and minimizing subjectivity. Highlights of development during preschool and primary grades serve as a common ground of information for both novice and knowledgeable readers to respond sensitively to children's individualities and cultures. Each chapter incorporates an ethic from the National Association for the Education of Young Children's (NAEYC) "Code of Ethical Conduct" and presents a concrete application to connect daily work with professional valuesFor early childhood educators.

Table of Contents

PART I PREPARING THE LOOKING GLASS 1(110)
The Educated Observer
2(14)
Ambitions and Organization of This Book
4(2)
Professional Development
6(4)
Take Charge of Your Education: Active Reading and Active Learning
6(1)
Learn About Professional Organizations
7(1)
Developmentally Appropriate Practice
8(1)
Ethical Conduct in Early Childhood Education
9(1)
The Educated Observer
10(3)
Commitment to All Children
10(2)
Reasons for Observing
12(1)
Authentic Assessment
12(1)
Quick Review
13(1)
Take a Moment to Reflect
14(2)
Personal Reflection
14(1)
Ethical Reflection
14(2)
On the Road to Sound Observations
16(16)
Taking the First Steps
18(5)
The Teacher's Role in Observation
18(2)
Observational Topics
20(3)
Moving Down the Path
23(6)
Guidelines for Observation
23(2)
Observer Subjectivity
25(4)
Quick Review
29(2)
Take a Moment to Reflect
31(1)
Personal Reflection
31(1)
Ethical Reflection
31(1)
Highlights of Development During the Preschool Years
32(44)
Selected Highlights of Physical Development
34(10)
Body Growth
34(1)
Brain Development
34(1)
Motor Development
35(2)
Gross Motor Skills
37(3)
Fine Motor Skills
40(4)
Selected Highlights of Cognitive Development
44(14)
Representational Abilities
45(2)
Language
47(3)
Reasoning
50(1)
Social Cognition
51(2)
Classification
53(1)
Seriation
54(1)
Number Development
55(1)
Memory
56(2)
Selected Highlights of Psychosocial Development
58(9)
Expanding Relationships with Adults and Peers
58(1)
Self-Concept
59(2)
Play
61(1)
Fears
62(1)
Aggression
63(2)
Impulse Control
65(2)
Selected Highlights of Creative Development
67(8)
Quick Review
75(1)
Take a Moment to Reflect
75(1)
Personal Reflection
75(1)
Ethical Reflection
75(1)
Highlights of Development During the Primary Grades Years
76(35)
Selected Highlights of Physical Development
78(7)
Body Growth
78(1)
Motor Development
78(1)
Gross Motor Skills
79(2)
Fine Motor Skills
81(2)
Elements Affecting Motor Development
83(2)
Selected Highlights of Cognitive Development
85(11)
Representational Abilities
85(1)
Language
86(3)
Logical Thought
89(2)
Metacognition
91(1)
Classification
92(1)
Number Development
92(2)
Memory
94(2)
Selected Highlights of Psychosocial Development
96(8)
Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
96(1)
Advances in Play
97(1)
Moral Reasoning and Prosocial Behavior
98(3)
Relationships with Peers
101(2)
Managing Stress
103(1)
Selected Highlights of Creative Development
104(5)
Quick Review
109(1)
Take a Moment to Reflect
110(1)
Personal Reflection
110(1)
Ethical Reflection
110(1)
PART II OBSERVING INDIVIDUAL CHILDREN 111(142)
Observing the Development of Individual Children by Using Running Records
112(22)
Overview of Observing Using Running Records
114(8)
Description
114(1)
Purpose
115(1)
Guidelines for Writing Running Records
115(7)
Integration of Developmental Theory and Observation
122(7)
Preschool Example
122(4)
Primary Grade Example
126(3)
Applications
129(2)
Strengths and Limitations
129(2)
Quick Review
131(1)
Take a Moment to Reflect
132(2)
Personal Reflection
132(1)
Ethical Reflection
133(1)
Observing the Development of Individual Children by Using Anecdotal Records
134(24)
Overview of Observing Using Anecdotal Records
136(8)
Description
136(2)
Purpose
138(2)
Guidelines for Writing Anecdotes
140(4)
Integration of Developmental Theory and Observation
144(6)
Preschool Example
145(2)
Primary Grade Example
147(3)
Anecdotes and Other Forms of Recording
150(1)
Applications
151(4)
Strengths and Limitations
151(4)
Quick Review
155(1)
Take a Moment to Reflect
156(2)
Personal Reflection
156(1)
Ethical Reflection
157(1)
Observing the Development of Individual Children by Using Checklists
158(20)
Overview of Observing Using Checklists
160(5)
Description
160(1)
Purpose
161(2)
Guidelines for Constructing a Checklist
163(2)
Integration of Developmental Theory and Observation
165(7)
Preschool Example
165(4)
Primary Grade Example
169(3)
Applications
172(2)
Strengths and Limitations
172(2)
Quick Review
174(2)
Take a Moment to Reflect
176(2)
Personal Reflection
176(1)
Ethical Reflection
176(2)
Observing the Development of Individual Children by Using Rating Scales
178(22)
Overview of Observing Using Rating Scales
180(6)
Description
180(5)
Purpose
185(1)
Guidelines for Constructing Rating Scales
185(1)
Integration of Developmental Theory and Observation
186(8)
Preschool Example
186(4)
Primary Grade Example
190(4)
Applications
194(2)
Strengths and Limitations
194(2)
Quick Review
196(2)
Take a Moment to Reflect
198(2)
Personal Reflection
198(1)
Ethical Reflection
198(2)
Observing the Development of Individual Children by Using ABC Narrative Event Sampling
200(22)
Overview of Observing Using ABC Narrative Event Sampling
202(5)
Sampling
202(1)
Description
203(2)
Purpose
205(1)
Guidelines for ABC Narrative Event Sampling
205(2)
Integration of Developmental Theory and Observation
207(9)
Preschool Example
207(4)
Primary Grade Example
211(5)
Applications
216(2)
Strengths and Limitations
217(1)
Quick Review
218(2)
Take a Moment to Reflect
220(2)
Personal Reflection
220(1)
Ethical Reflection
221(1)
Classroom Portfolios and Parent Conferences
222(31)
Overview of Child Portfolios
224(11)
Portfolio System Description
225(1)
Storage Choices for Teachers' Observations
226(6)
Storage Choices for Children's Work
232(2)
Guidelines for Designing a Portfolio System
234(1)
Overview of Parent Conferences
235(8)
Conference Preparation and Content
235(3)
Getting Started
238(2)
Supporting Documentation
240(1)
Guidelines for Parent Conferences
241(2)
Guidelines for Using Videotapes During Parent Conferences
243(1)
Applications
243(7)
Quick Review
250(2)
Take a Moment to Reflect
252(1)
Personal Reflection
252(1)
Ethical Reflection
252(1)
PART III OBSERVING CHILDREN, TEACHERS, INTERACTIONS, AND ENVIRONMENTS 253(110)
Observing Children and Teachers at Work by Using Tally Event Sampling
254(24)
Overview of Observing Using Tally Event Sampling
256(4)
Description
256(3)
Purpose
259(1)
Recording Time
259(1)
Guidelines for Constructing Tally Event Sampling Instruments
260(1)
Integration of Classroom Situations and Observation
260(13)
Preschool Example
260(10)
Primary Grade Example
270(3)
Applications
273(2)
Strengths and Limitations
273(2)
Quick Review
275(1)
Take a Moment to Reflect
276(2)
Personal Reflection
276(1)
Ethical Reflection
277(1)
Observing Children and Teachers at Work by Using Time Sampling
278(26)
Overview of Observing Using Time Sampling
280(6)
Description
280(1)
Purpose
281(1)
Guidelines for Constructing Time Sampling Instruments
281(5)
Integration of Classroom Situations and Observation
286(13)
Preschool Example
286(6)
Primary Grade Example
292(7)
Applications
299(3)
Strengths and Limitations
299(3)
Quick Review
302(1)
Take a Moment to Reflect
303(1)
Personal Reflection
303(1)
Ethical Reflection
303(1)
Designing Observational Instruments to Use in the Early Childhood Classroom
304(34)
Select an Appropriate Topic, and Formulate an Observational Question
306(2)
Classroom Example
307(1)
Select an Appropriate Method of Observation
308(1)
Classroom Example
308(1)
Research the Topic in Libraries and Classrooms
309(1)
Classroom Example
309(1)
Identify Clear, Distinct Categories
309(1)
Classroom Example
309(1)
Design a Recording Form
310(1)
Classroom Example
311(1)
Pilot Test the Instrument
311(1)
Classroom Example
311(1)
Establish Inter-Rater Reliability
311(4)
Classroom Example
313(2)
Collect Data
315(2)
Classroom Example
315(2)
Analyze and Present the Data
317(4)
Frequencies
317(1)
Classroom Example
317(1)
Percentages
317(1)
Classroom Example
318(2)
Visual Presentations
320(1)
Classroom Example
320(1)
Conclusion
321(1)
Interpret the Data
321(2)
Classroom Example
321(2)
Formulate Follow-Through Plans
323(2)
Classroom Example
324(1)
Quick Review
325(1)
Take a Moment to Reflect
326(12)
Personal Reflection
326(1)
Ethical Reflection
327(11)
Selecting Methods to Observe, Plan, and Enrich the Physical Environment
338(25)
Indoor Environment
330(17)
Room Arrangement
332(7)
Lighting
339(2)
Visual Appeal
341(6)
Outdoor Environments
347(6)
Developmental Benefits
347(1)
Outdoor Design Factors
348(2)
Teacher's Role
350(1)
Outdoor Materials and Equipment Selection
350(3)
Observing the Physical Environment
353(7)
Classroom Example
354(6)
Quick Review
360(1)
Take a Moment to Reflect
361(2)
Personal Reflection
361(1)
Ethical Reflection
361(2)
PART IV OBSERVING CLEARLY 363(9)
Through the Looking Glass
364(8)
The Teacher's Commitment to Observation
368(1)
The Benefits of Observation in the Early Childhood Classroom
369(1)
Take a Moment to Reflect
370(2)
Personal Reflection
370(1)
Ethical Reflection
371(1)
Appendix A Growth Indicators 372(4)
Appendix B Quick Review Answers 376(3)
Glossary 379(5)
References 384(10)
Index 394

Excerpts

In the fall of 1988, we taught a course on observation in the early childhood classroom, and therein we sowed the seeds of the first edition ofThrough the Looking Glass.The third edition you hold in your hands is the product of our continued commitment to write a book on observation that unites solid methodological instruction with a broad understanding of children's development. We have found that learninghowto observe while also paying close attention towhatto observe encourages educational practitioners to use their skills to full potential. This book maintains a close relationship between observing, understanding what one observes, and improving the educational curriculum and environment. NEW TO THIS EDITIONBecause our goal inThrough the Looking Glassis to integrate observation and child development within a professional context, we have included several helpful features in the text. As the material we wanted to include in Chapter 1 grew, we decided to develop it into two chapters for more manageable digestion. We are excited about the information about professional development in Chapter 1, including the reader's responsibilities and an introduction to professional organizations, developmentally appropriate practice, and ethical conduct in early childhood education. The second chapter turns to the more nuts-and-bolts issues of finding the time to observe, learning the basics of observation, and minimizing subjectivity. All our chapters now end with two reflections: one personal and one ethical. We hope these reflections will help our readers integrate information into their personal storehouses of knowledge and connect their daily work with our professional values as early childhood educators. Chapters 3 and 4, describing highlights of development during the preschool and primary grade years, have been updated and serve to establish a common ground of information for both knowledgeable and novice readers in the field of child development. Our "Growth Indicators" of child development from these two chapters are concrete guides towhatto observe and are reprinted in Appendix A for easy access. In each chapter presenting an observational method, we offer two detailed examples, one preschool and one primary grade, to model how educators effectively study issues in classrooms, interpret the data, and initiate follow-through plans. Brief vignettes at the beginning of each chapter ask the reader to ponder a question or problem that anticipates the chapter's content. "Practice Activities" and "Off on Your Own" provide abundant opportunities to add to the reader's expertise in the observational process, and our new "Quick Reviews" at the ends of most chapters serve to underscore the major points.On completion of the original manuscript, we flipped a coin to determine the first author's name. We hope our readers remember that the order was set by chance and is a fair reflection of the teamwork that producedThrough the Looking Glass.


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