Over the past decade, significant advances in the fields of stem cell biology, bioengineering, and animal models have converged on the discipline of regenerative medicine. Significant progress has been made leading from pre-clinical studies through phase 3 clinical trials for some therapies. This volume provides a state-of-the-art report on tissue engineering toward the goals of tissue and organ restoration and regeneration. Examples from different organ systems illustrate progress with growth factors to assist in tissue remodeling; the capacity of stem cells for restoring damaged tissues; novel synthetic biomaterials to facilitate cell therapy; transplantable tissue patches that preserve three-dimensional structure; synthetic organs generated in culture; aspects of the immune response to transplanted cells and materials; and suitable animal models for non-human clinical trials.The chapters of this book are organized into six sections: Stem Cells, Biomaterials and the Extracellular Environment, Engineered Tissue, Synthetic Organs, Immune Response, and Animal Models. Each section is intended to build upon information presented in the previous chapters, and set the stage for subsequent sections. Throughout the chapters, the reader will observe a common theme of basic discovery informing clinical translation, and clinical studies in animals and humans guiding subsequent experiments at the bench.