9780130811288

Tonality and Design in Music Theory, Volume I

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780130811288

  • ISBN10:

    0130811289

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Spiral Bound
  • Copyright: 2004-09-27
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

This book emphasizes Western musical art, with ample material on the music of both men and women, differing styles, various cultures, and examples drawn from popular and ethnic sources.Following the well-established tradition of comprehensive musicianship, this book presents lessons and assignments not only in basic tonal harmony, but also in fundamentals, concepts of melody, counterpoint, form, analysis, composition, written essays, and a survey of 20th and 21st century music.For music enthusiasts interested in understanding the development of music.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
Using the Text x
UNIT 1 REVIEW OF FUNDAMENTALS
1(114)
Fundamentals of Pitch and Rhythm
5(34)
The Notation of Pitch
5(8)
The Clef
5(2)
The Octave
7(2)
Octave Designations
9(1)
The Keyboard
9(1)
Accidentals
10(1)
Enharmonic Equivalents
10(3)
The Notation of Rhythm and Meter
13(11)
Traditional Note Symbols
13(3)
Meter
16(4)
Beat Division
20(2)
Meter Signatures
22(2)
Additional Rhythmic Resources
24(13)
Beat Subdivision
25(1)
Borrowed Division
25(3)
Irregular Groups
28(1)
Asymmetrical and Mixed Meters
29(2)
Musical Accent
31(1)
Syncopation
32(5)
Projects
37(2)
Scales and Intervals
39(38)
Major Scales
40(9)
Diatonic and Chromatic
42(1)
Mode
43(1)
Transposed Major Scales
44(1)
Key Signatures
44(3)
Major Keys
47(2)
Intervals
49(10)
Interval Type
50(1)
Interval Quality
51(3)
Constructing Intervals Below a Given Pitch
54(1)
Consonance and Dissonance
55(4)
Minor Scales
59(9)
Variations in the Minor Scale
60(2)
Relationships in Major and Minor
62(6)
Other Modes and Scales
68(7)
The Church Modes
68(2)
Pentatonic Scale
70(1)
Other Scales
71(4)
Projects
75(2)
Diatonic Triads and Chords
77(38)
Triads
78(9)
Triad Quality
79(1)
Inverted Triads
80(1)
Triad Construction and Identification
81(2)
Triad Construction
83(4)
Diatonic Triads in Major
87(7)
Constructing Diatonic Triads
87(2)
Identifying Diatonic Triads
89(1)
Analytic Symbols
89(5)
Diatonic Triads in Minor
94(3)
The Dominant Seventh Chord
97(5)
The Root-Position Dominant Seventh
97(1)
Inverted Dominant Sevenths
98(1)
Constructing Dominant Seventh Chords
98(4)
Four-Part Format
102(9)
Spacing in Four Voices
102(1)
Doubling in Major and Minor Triads
103(2)
Constructing Triads in Four Parts
105(1)
Dominant Seventh Chords in Four Parts
105(2)
Identifying Diatonic Chords in Four Parts
107(4)
Projects
111(4)
UNIT 2 INTRODUCTION TO TONAL PRINCIPLES
115(82)
Melodic Structure
119(38)
Pitch Centricity
119(11)
Tendency Tones
121(4)
Melodic Goals
125(1)
Melodic Cadences
125(5)
Motivic Construction
130(11)
Motives
131(2)
Motivic Phrases
133(1)
Sequence
134(7)
Melodic Style
141(3)
Melodic Motion
141(1)
Range and Tessitura
142(1)
Contour
143(1)
Linear Analysis
144(9)
Melodic Reduction
145(4)
Prolongation
149(1)
Arpeggiation
149(1)
Step Progression
150(3)
Projects
153(4)
Harmonic Function
157(40)
Texture
158(8)
Polyphony
158(8)
Tonal Harmony
166(5)
Major and Minor
166(1)
Root Movement
167(4)
Cadences
171(12)
Authentic Cadence
171(4)
Plagal Cadence
175(1)
Half Cadence
176(2)
Deceptive Cadence
178(5)
Harmonic Function
183(5)
Tonal Context
183(1)
Functional Roles
184(4)
Harmonic Rhythm
188(5)
Projects
193(4)
UNIT 3 FOUNDATIONS OF TONAL HARMONY
197(112)
Dissonance
201(36)
Consonance and Dissonance in Tonal Music
201(1)
Melodic Dissonance
202(1)
Resolution by Step
203(13)
Neighboring and Passing Tones
204(2)
The Appoggiatura
206(1)
The Suspension
207(9)
Oblique Resolution
216(8)
The Anticipation
216(2)
Pedal Point
218(1)
Resolution by Leap
219(1)
Escape Tone
219(1)
The Free Tone
220(4)
Introduction to Harmonic Dissonance: Dominant Seventh Chord
224(9)
Preparation and Resolution
225(8)
Projects
233(4)
The Soprano-Bass Framework
237(32)
Punctus Contra Punctum
237(1)
Importance of Soprano-Bass Framework
238(2)
Maintaining Tonality and Style
240(11)
Voice Independence
251(14)
Composing the Bass
259(6)
Projects
265(4)
Voice Leading
269(40)
Contrapuntal Motion
269(4)
Contrapuntal Motion in the Four-Voice Style
270(3)
Melodic Style
273(3)
Guidelines for Chord Connection
276(7)
Six-Four Chords
283(10)
Cadential Six-four
284(2)
The Passing Six-four
286(3)
The Neighboring Six-four
289(1)
The Arpeggiated Six-Four
289(4)
Nondominant Seventh Chords
293(3)
Diatonic Seventh Chords as Fundamental Materials
294(2)
Voice Leading in Seventh Chords
296(8)
The Supertonic Seventh
296(2)
The Leading-Tone Seventh
298(2)
Other Diatonic Seventh Chords
300(4)
Projects
304(5)
UNIT 4 SYMMETRY AND EMBELLISHMENT
309(90)
Melody Forms
315(42)
Periodic Design
315(15)
Parallel Period
316(4)
Variation
320(2)
Contrasting Period
322(5)
Phrase Group
327(3)
The Double Period
330(6)
Sectional Double Period
332(4)
Alternate Melody Forms
336(4)
Phrase Structure
337(1)
Asymmetrical Period and Phrase-Group Structure
337(2)
Less Common Double-Period Structure
339(1)
Shaping Complete Musical Works
340(12)
Bar Form
340(1)
Verse and Refrain
341(4)
Strophic Design
345(1)
Through Composition
346(6)
Projects
352(5)
Secondary Function
357(42)
Secondary Function
358(11)
Tonicization
359(2)
Secondary Dominants and Tonics
361(2)
Analyzing Secondary Dominants
363(2)
Constructing Secondary-Dominant Progressions
365(4)
Function in Chromatic Progressions
369(15)
Tonicization with New Leading Tone
370(4)
Tonicization with the Fourth Scale Degree
374(4)
Extended Tonicization
378(2)
Constructing Secondary Progressions with Subdominant and Submediant
380(4)
Secondary Leading-Tone Chords
384(8)
Ornamented and Atypical Resolutions
387(1)
Voice Leading in Secondary Progressions
388(4)
Projects
392(7)
UNIT 5 MUSICAL SHAPE AND GROWTH
399(78)
Modulation
403(36)
Modulation
403(8)
Modulation and Tonicization
405(2)
Closely Related and Distant Keys
407(4)
Common-Chord Modulation
411(11)
Modal Shift
415(2)
Planning Common-Chord Modulations
417(5)
Chromatic Modulation
422(4)
Descending Chromatic Line
425(1)
Phrase Modulation
426(7)
Projects
433(6)
Binary and Ternary Designs
439(38)
The Classical Style
439(1)
Formal Principles
440(1)
The Binary Principle
440(12)
Simple binary
440(1)
Baroque Binary
441(5)
Rounded Binary
446(6)
The Ternary Principle
452(18)
Simple Ternary
453(4)
Da Capo Aria Form
457(5)
Compound Ternary Form
462(3)
Two- and Three-part Forms
465(5)
Projects
470(7)
Appendix A Ranges and Instrumentation
477(8)
Orchestral and Band Instruments
478(5)
Instrument Ranges
483(2)
Appendix B Popular Music Chord Symbols
485(4)
Credits 489(2)
Indexes 491

Excerpts

Music Theory is the study of how and why music works. This suggests that understanding the subject consists of something more than data bits, definitions, or a body of prescribed knowledge. While this set of textbooks offers plenty of instruction about names, labels, and an appropriate vocabulary for effective communication among musicians, we have designed the series to offer a good deal more. Without being dangerously speculative, we have tried to propose, where possible, thereasonswhich lie behind principles and procedures of aesthetically stimulating musical constructions--that is, an explanation for just how the rules came about and how they have influenced changing musical styles.We have also approached theoretical study from the listener's perspective, so that our discussions and analyses refer not only to the printed notation of scores, but also to the reactions of educated audiences to the individual sounds and larger patterns of music. By alluding frequently to the aesthetic involvement of music and the psychological manipulation of master composers, for example, we have endeavored to enrich cognitive and perceptual experiences; these are simultaneously the byproducts of informed listening and the foundation of performing, composing, and teaching music.Presented in proper manner and spirit, these books can enable theory teachers to not only foster intellectual development and aural growth for their students, but also to advance beyond that stage into the ambitious realms of changing opinions and attitudes, reworking beliefs and habits, judging sides of a controversy, and refining a set of values. Students may come to develop a sense of wonder about the mysteries and forces of music itself. In other words, training in music theory can support learning how to think and learning how to respond--the twin sides of a true musical education.We draw from the well-established tradition of Comprehensive Musicianship in choosing and organizing topics for these books. Lessons and assignments are presented not only in basis tonal harmony, but also in fundamentals, concepts of melody, counterpoint, form, analysis, composition, writing essays, and various aspects of contemporary music--all within a stylistic and historical context. Although our emphasis is on Western musical art, text material is amplified by the music of both men and women, differing styles, various cultures, and examples drawn from popular and ethnic sources. Distinctive features as well as commonalities and universals are identified in comparing works.The methodology ofTonality and Design in Music Theoryis intentionally eclectic. We present a wide variety of analytic techniques, including both traditional approaches (harmony and form, for example) and also a generous representation of linear analysis. We introduced the latter topic without any formal or restrictive adherence to Schenkerian principles because we feel that these topics are a worthy subject for advanced study in their own right, but only after a beginning groundwork has been established. Our book will not, for example, teach students to draw elaborate graphs. Instead, it will enable them to not only appreciate the long-range attractions and links that pitches have for one another, but also to understand and create graphic representations of these relationships in a variety of ways. Single-line melodic study is covered along with selective representations of structural reductions (as simplified notation) in both harmonic and contrapuntal settings in order to clarify the skeleton and scaffolding of music. These reductions permit distinctions to be made between events that give meaning and those that take meaning.One of the most challenging aspects of writing the actual words, sentences, and paragraphs for an introductory theory course is to establish an appropriate tone, style, and level of readability for students of varying

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