Over the past 20 years, the use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has dramatically increased as the benefits of this imaging approach have been recognized. Initially used primarily in the operating room by anesthesiologists, the technique has evolved into a diagnostic and monitoring modality frequently used by cardiologists, anesthesiologists and surgeons in patients with heart disease, both in the outpatient and inpatient setting. Accompanying this growth, a number of textbooks have been written about TEE, primarily in the adult setting, and focusing almost exclusively on "adult" forms of heart disease (i.e coronary artery, aortic and valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy). During the past decade, refinements in TEE probe technology have also enabled application of this technique for the evaluation of congenital and acquired heart disease in infants and children mainly as an intraoperative tool, and employed primarily by pediatric cardiologists and anesthesiologists. However, comparatively little educational material (in the form of textbooks or manuals) is available regarding the use of TEE in congenital heart disease (CHD).
Pierre C Wong is Director of Echocardiography and Transplant Cardiology at the Childrens Hospital Los Angeles.Wander C Miller-Hanse is an attending Cardiovascular Anesthesiologist, Director of Intraoperative Transesophageal Echocardiography for Anesthesiology and Cardiology, Director of Clinical Research for Cardiovascular Anesthesiology and Associate Professor of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics (Cardiology), Baylor College of Medicine. She has written numerous articles and currently has two books in-print with Hanley & Belfus.Norman H Silverman is Professor of Pediatrics (Cardiology) at Standford University. He has written numerous articles and chapters and edited or authored four books.
Table of Contents
Introduction.-Instrumentation and Technique.-Indications and Guidelines for Performance of TEE in Patients with Congenital Heart Disease.-Method of Congenital Heart Disease Evaluation by TEE.Basic views and sweeps.Evaluation of situs.Evaluation of cardiac malpositions.-Evaluation of Systemic and Pulmonary Venous Anomalies.-Atrial Abnormalities and Atrial Septal Defects.-Atrioventricular Valve Evaluation.Mitral valve disease.Tricuspid valve abnormalities.AV septal defects.Prosthetic AV valve evaluation.-Ventricular Septal Defects.-Single Ventricle Evaluation.Hypoplastic left heart syndrome.Double inlet left ventricle.Tricuspid atresia.Other forms of single ventricle.-Assessment of the Outflow Tracts.Conotruncal abnormalities.Tetralogy of Fallot.Transposition of the great arteries.Truncus arteriosus.Double outlet right ventricle.Other complex malpositions.Semilunar valve abnormalities.Aortic.Aortic valve pathology.Aortic valve stenosis.Aortic insufficiency.Pulmonary.Pulmonary valve pathology.Pulmonary valve stenosis.Pulmonary valve insufficiency.Pulmonary atresia/intact ventricular septum.Subvalvar obstruction/double chamber right ventricle.Supravalvar pulmonary stenosis.-Evaluation of Great Arteries.Patent ductus arteriosus.Aortopulmonary window.Pulmonary artery abnormalities.Aortic arch abnormalities.-Congenital Coronary Artery abnormalities.Anomalous origin of left coronary artery from main pulmonary artery (ALCAPA).Aberrant origins of right and left coronary arteries.Other coronary artery abnormalities.-Intraoperative and postoperative TEE in congenital heart disease big chapter, could include:Considerations for intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography.Mustard repair.Atrioventricular valve repair.Fontan procedure.Rastelli procedure.Ross procedure.Prosthetic valves.-Other topics.Functional assessment by TEE.Evaluation of myocardial dysfunction.Evaluation of infective endocarditis.TEE in the ICU.Usage.Evaluation of mechanical support.-TEE in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory.Closure of atrial septal defects.Closure of ventricular septal defects.Implantation of semilunar valves.