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Transforming the School Counseling Profession,9780130273420
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Transforming the School Counseling Profession

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780130273420

ISBN10:
0130273422
Media:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $88.00
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Summary

Written by more than 20 experts in the counseling field, this new book examines the full spectrum of issues involved in the school counseling profession, with an emphasis on a comprehensive developmental school counseling approach supplemented by responsive interventions. Each of the contributing authors is a key practitioner/researcher in the area about which he/she writes; and, together, they advocate transforming the role of the professional school counselor from its traditional focus on guidance to a larger role that more accurately reflects the needs of today's students, educators, parents, and communities. The book outlines ten roles the professional school counselor plays in today's educational system and discusses becoming a competent multicultural counselor. It covers counseling individuals and groups, students with special needs, students at-risk, and students with mental and emotional disorders and examines the prevalence of such conditions in school populations and reviews the professional school counselor's position in regard to these children. For professionals in the field of school counseling.

Table of Contents

Transforming the School Counseling Profession
1(20)
Bradley T. Erford
Reese House
Pat Martin
The Changing Needs of Students and Families
1(2)
Keeping Pace with a Changing Society
2(1)
Twenty-First-Century Vision for School Counselors
3(8)
The Context of Professional School Counseling
3(1)
Understanding the Context of Schools Today
3(1)
Where Do Professional School Counselors Fit into Educational Reform?
4(1)
A Call for Change
5(3)
Designing Accountable School Counseling Programs
8(1)
New Vision Practice
8(1)
What Prevents Professional School Counselors from Changing?
9(1)
A Sense of Urgency
10(1)
Traditional and Emerging Roles and Practices
11(8)
Realizations Guiding the Transformation of the Professional School Counselor's Role
12(2)
The School Counselor as a Professional
14(1)
The Professional School Counselor as a Developmental Classroom Guidance Specialist
15(1)
The Professional School Counselor as a Career Development and Educational Planning Specialist
15(1)
The Professional School Counselor as a School and Community Agency Collaboration Specialist
16(1)
The Professional School Counselor as a Provider of Individual and Group Counseling Services
16(1)
The Professional School Counselor as a Safe Schools, Violence Prevention, At-Risk Specialist
17(1)
The Professional School Counselor as an Agent of Diversity and Multicultural Sensitivity
17(1)
The Professional School Counselor as an Advocate for Students with Special Needs
18(1)
The Professional School Counselor as an Advocate for Social Justice
18(1)
The Professional School Counselor as a School Reform and Accountability Expert
19(1)
On Becoming a Professional School Counselor
19(2)
Historical Roots and Future Issues
21(18)
Edwin L. Herr
The Rise of Professional School Counseling in the United States
21(4)
The Role of the Professional School Counselor in the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s
25(5)
Student Personnel Administration Psychologists, Working as Researchers and Clinicians
26(1)
Personnel Work in Industry
26(1)
Social Work
26(1)
Mental Health and Psychiatry
27(1)
Guidance as the Personalization of Education
27(1)
Guidance as the Integration of Education
28(1)
Guidance as the Coordination of Student Personnel Services
28(2)
School Counseling Comes into Its Own: the 1950s and 1960s
30(3)
The National Defense Education Act, 1958--1968
31(2)
The Great Society Legislation of the 1960s
33(1)
The Years of Consolidation and Refinement: the 1970s and Beyond
33(1)
Future Issues for the School Counseling Profession
34(4)
Conclusions
38(1)
Ethical, Legal, And Professional Issues in School Counseling
39(24)
Lynn Linde
Professional Associations and Credentialing Organizations
40(1)
Ethical Standards and Laws
41(2)
ACA Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice
42(1)
ASCA Ethical Standards for School Counselors
43(1)
Sources of Information and guidance
43(2)
The Court System
43(1)
Statutory Law
44(1)
State and Local Agencies
44(1)
Making Decisions
45(1)
Additional Legal Considerations
46(4)
Professional Competence
46(1)
``Can I Be Sued?'' and ``What Is Malpractice?''
47(2)
Subpoenas
49(1)
Confidentiality
50(2)
Limits to Confidentiality
50(2)
Confidentiality and Privileged Communication
52(1)
Minor Consent Laws
52(5)
Records and Personal Notes
57(3)
Educational Records
57(2)
Personal Notes
59(1)
Child Abuse
60(1)
Suicide
60(1)
The Challenge Continues
61(2)
Planning and Implementing a 21st-Century Comprehensive Developmental School Counseling Program
63(58)
Vivian Ripley
Bradley T. Erford
Carol Dahir
LeeAnn Eschbach
Transforming Perception and Focus
63(9)
Impact of Educational and Societal Change
65(1)
Essential Ideological Shifts
66(1)
Joining Forces: Content and Process
66(1)
What Students Should Know and Be Able to Do
67(3)
Looking at Results: Expectations and Accountability
70(1)
Professional School Counseling: A Partner in Student Achievement
71(1)
Planning and Implementing a Comprehensive Developmental School Counseling Program
72(1)
Program Overview
73(12)
Mission
73(1)
Program Definition
74(1)
Program Rationale
75(1)
Needs Assessment
76(1)
Design Issues in an Efficient Needs Assessment
77(5)
Converting Needs to Program Goals and Objectives
82(1)
The Guidance Advisory Committee
83(1)
Program Goals
84(1)
Professional Foundations
85(2)
Ethical and Legal guidelines
85(1)
District and School Policies
85(1)
The Contemporary Professional School Counselor Role
86(1)
Roles of Other School Personnel in the Comprehensive School Counseling Program
87(2)
Teachers
87(1)
Resource Teachers
88(1)
Principals and Assistant Principals
88(1)
School Psychologists
88(1)
School Social Workers (Visiting Teachers, Pupil Personnel Workers)
89(1)
School Nurses
89(1)
School Secretaries
89(1)
Theoretical Foundations and Student Competencies
89(7)
Developmental Theory as a Foundation for the Program
89(3)
Student Competencies
92(1)
Developmental theories, Student Competencies, and Programming
92(1)
Application of Counseling theory
93(1)
Counseling Theory Shapes Program Content
94(2)
Program Components
96(5)
Guidance Curriculum
97(1)
Individual Planning
98(1)
Responsive Services
98(2)
System Support
100(1)
Assessing Outcomes and Evaluating Programs
101(18)
Program Evaluation
102(1)
Performance Appraisal
102(1)
Service Assessment
103(13)
Results Evaluation
116(3)
Developing a Program Manual
119(2)
Developmental Classroom Guidance
121(32)
Gary Goodnough
Rachelle Perusse
Bradley T. Erford
The Scope and Responsibility of the Professional School Counselor as Developmental Classroom Guidance Specialist
122(1)
The Effect of Classroom Guidance on Student Development
123(1)
Developmental Theory
123(1)
Role of the Professional School Counselor in Delivering the Curriculum
124(1)
Setting Up and Managing a Classroom Environment
125(4)
Arranging the Classroom
125(1)
Working with the Teacher's Rules
126(1)
Preventing Discipline Issues in the Classroom
127(1)
Managing Disruptive Behaviors as a Counselor and Educator
127(2)
Crafting a Curriculum
129(3)
Creating Units and Lessons
132(9)
Scope and Sequence
132(4)
Conceptualizing a Unit
136(1)
Learning Considerations for Planning Units and Lessons
136(3)
Learning Objectives
139(2)
Constructing Developmental Lessons and Activities
141(9)
Introducing Lessons
141(1)
Developmental Activities
142(1)
Conclusion, Assessment, and Follow-up
143(7)
Conclusions
150(3)
Fostering Educational and Career Planning in Students
153(18)
Spencer G. Niles
Patrick Akos
Background for Educational and Career Planning Interventions in Schools
153(1)
Educations and Career Planning Today
154(1)
Implementing Systematic and Well-Coordinated Educational and Cazreer Planning Programs
155(2)
Elementary School
157(2)
Career Development Guidelines in Elementary School
158(1)
Middle or Junior High School
159(2)
Career Development Guidelines in Middle or Junior High School
160(1)
High School
161(4)
Career Development Guidelines in High School
165(1)
Developing Life-Role Readiness
165(5)
Fostering Life-Role Readiness
166(1)
Life-Role Salience
166(1)
Contextual Factors Influencing Life-Role Salience
167(1)
The Influence of Culture of Origin
168(1)
Activities to Foster Life-Role Readiness
169(1)
Conclusions
170(1)
Consultation and Collaboration
171(20)
Susan G. Keys
Alan Green
Estes Lockhart
Peter F. Luongo
The counselor as Consultant: Case Examples
171(1)
Background
172(1)
Consultation Models
173(9)
Triadic-Dependent
173(2)
Collaborative-Dependent
175(2)
Collaborative-Interdependent
177(5)
Consultation Process
182(7)
Step One: Entering the System
182(2)
Step Two: Joining the System
184(2)
Step Three: Initiating Problem Solving
186(1)
Step Four: Framing Change
187(1)
Step Five: Evaluating Change
188(1)
Step Six: Facilitating Closure
189(1)
Collaborative Consultation: Reaching out to the Broader community
189(1)
Conclusions
190(1)
Parental Involvement, Outreach, and the Emerging Role of the Professional School Counselor
191(18)
Gayle Cicero
Pat Barton
Collaboration: The Key to the Success of School-Community Programs
193(1)
Traditional School Outreach and Changing Family Needs
194(6)
The Importance of Home Visits
200(2)
Case Example: Prevention Home Visit
201(1)
Case Example: Intervention Home Visit
201(1)
A Structure for Involving All Families in Their Children's Education: Epstein's Six Types of Parental Involvement
202(1)
The Family Resource Center: A Collaborative Response to the Changing Needs of Families
202(5)
Parent Workshops
205(1)
Needs Assessment and Design
205(2)
Evaluation and Follow-up
207(1)
Conclusions
207(2)
Counseling Individuals and Groups in School
209(22)
Debbie W. Newsome
Samuel T. Gladding
Individual Counseling in Schools
209(1)
Conseling in Schools Defined
210(1)
Developmental Considerations
211(3)
Early Childhood
211(2)
Middle Childhood
213(1)
Adolescence
213(1)
A Counseling Model for Children and Adolescents
214(8)
Building a Counseling Relationship
214(3)
Assessing Specific Counseling Needs
217(1)
Designing and Implementing Interventions
218(4)
Conducting Evaluation and Closure
222(1)
Group Counseling in Schools
222(1)
Types of Groups
223(1)
Psychoeducational (Guidance) Groups
223(1)
Counseling Groups
223(1)
Groups at the Elementary and Middle School Level
224(2)
Setting UP Groups in Elementary and Middle Schools
224(1)
Session Length and Group Size
225(1)
Sex and Age Issues
225(1)
Advantages and Limitations of Using Groups in Elementary and Middle Schools
226(1)
Groups at the High School Level
226(3)
Setting Up Groups in High Schools
227(1)
Session Length and Group Size
227(1)
Sex and Age Issues
228(1)
Advantages and Limitations of Using Groups in High Schools
228(1)
Conclusions
229(2)
Counseling Interventions Using Expressive Arts
231(18)
Debbie W. Newsome
Interventions Using Visual Arts
232(6)
Introductory Activities for Building Rapport
233(1)
Dealing with Feelings
234(1)
Past, Present, and Future
235(1)
Problem Solving and Goal Setting
236(2)
Music Interventions
238(2)
Listening to Music
238(1)
Performing and Composing
239(1)
Therapeutic Writing and Storytelling
240(7)
Scriptotherapy
240(5)
Storytelling
245(1)
Considerations for Therapeutic Writing and Storytelling
246(1)
Conclusions
247(2)
Helping Students With Mental and Emotional Disorders
249(36)
Carol J. Kaffenberger
Linda Seligman
Prevalence of Mental Disorders and Mental Health Issues in Children and Adolescents
250(1)
Factors Contributing to High Incidence of Emotional Disturbance
250(2)
The Professional School Counselor's Role
252(5)
Barriers to Providing Mental Health Services in Schools
253(1)
History of the Professional School Counselor's Clinical Role
254(1)
Current and Future Trends in the Way Services Are Provided
255(2)
What Professional School Counselors Need to Know About Mental and Emotional Disorders
257(1)
Mental Disorders in Infants, Children, and Adolescents
258(18)
Mental Retardation
258(2)
Learning, Motor Skills, and Communication Disorders
260(2)
Pervasive Developmental Disorder
262(2)
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD)
264(2)
Disruptive Behavior Disorders
266(2)
Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents
268(2)
Tic Disorders
270(2)
Elimination Disorders: Encopresis and Enuresis
272(1)
Separation Anxiety Disorder
272(1)
Selective Mutism
273(1)
Reactive Attachment Disorder
274(1)
Stereotypic Movement Disorder
275(1)
Other Disorders Diagnosed in Children and Adolescents
276(6)
Mood Disorders
276(1)
Substance-Related Disorders
277(1)
Psychotic Disorders
278(1)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
279(1)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
280(1)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
281(1)
Adjustment Disorders
282(1)
Conclusions
282(1)
Further Reading
283(2)
A New Perspective on Counseling at-Risk Youth
285(12)
Fred Bemak
Rita Chi-Ying Chung
C. Sally Murphy
Who Are Youth at Risk?
286(1)
Problems Categorizing At-Risk Youth
287(1)
Approaches to Working with At-Risk Youth
288(1)
Demographics
289(1)
Working with All Youth
290(1)
Systems Failures: Who Is to Blame?
291(1)
Why Haven't Needs of At-Risk Students Been Addressed?
292(1)
Policy Implications
293(1)
Beyond Schools: Interdisciplinary Responses to Complex Problems
294(1)
Recommendations for Professional School Counselors: Generating Effective Programs
294(2)
Conclusions
296(1)
Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation in Schools
297(20)
Vivian V. Ripley
Concepts and Constructs
298(2)
Peer Mediation Program Format
300(3)
Student Club Model
301(1)
Elective Course Model
301(1)
Schoolwide Core Curriculum Infusion Model
302(1)
Program Development
303(3)
Assessing Climate
303(2)
Creating Systemic Change
305(1)
Diversity Considerations in Recruitment, Selection, and Training
306(3)
Recuritment
307(1)
Selection
307(1)
Training
308(1)
Program Implementation
309(3)
Introductory Stage
309(1)
Training Stage
309(3)
Operational Stage
312(1)
Program Evaluation and Research
312(1)
Ethical Issues
313(1)
Training and Competency
313(1)
Program Supervision
314(1)
Student Access to Services
314(1)
Peer Mediation and Comprehensive School Counseling Programs
314(1)
Conclusions
315(2)
Multicultural Competence
317(14)
Cheryl Holcomb-McCoy
Multicultural Terminology
318(2)
Multicultural Competence: What Is It?
320(4)
Dimensions of Multicultural Competence
321(1)
Multicultural Counseling Competencies
322(1)
Multicultural Competence of Professional School Counselors
323(1)
Becoming a Multiculturally Competent Professional School Counselor
324(2)
Investigate One's Own Cultural or Ethnic Heritage
324(1)
Attend Workshops, Seminars, and Conferences on Multicultural and Diversity Issues
325(1)
Join Organizations That Focus on Cultural Sensitivity
325(1)
Read Literature Written by Ethnic Minority Authors or About Ethnic Cultures
325(1)
Become Familiar with Multicultural Education Literature
326(1)
Professional School Counselor Multicultural Competence Questionnaire
326(1)
Case Studies of Multicultural Issues in Professional School Counseling
326(4)
Conclusions
330(1)
Assessment
331(26)
Mary H. Guindon
Past as Prologue
332(3)
The Early Psychometric Movement and Vocational Guidance
332(1)
World War I Developments Through Post-World War II Refinements
333(1)
Reevaluation in the 1960s and 1970s
334(1)
Refinement in the 1980s and 1990s
334(1)
Purposes of Appraisal
335(2)
Counseling Goal Identification and Achievement
335(1)
Counseling Goal Identification and Achievement
335(1)
Student Development and Enhancement
335(1)
Placement and Classification Decisions
335(1)
Diagnostic Assessment
336(1)
Curriculum and Program Evaluation and Accountability
336(1)
An Assessment and Testing Primer
337(9)
Quantitative Versus Qualitative Methods
337(1)
Types of Assessment
337(1)
Standardized Measures
338(5)
Nonstandardized Measures
343(2)
Desirability of Multiple Measures
345(1)
Factors Influencing Performance
345(1)
The Future Is Here: Computer-Based Appraisal
346(1)
Computer-Assisted Carrer Guidance (CACG) Assessment
346(1)
Computer-Based Testing
346(1)
Ethical Dilemmas Resulting from Technology
347(1)
The Professional School Counselor's Roles and Responsibilities
347(1)
The Professional School Counselor's Role
347(5)
Professional School Counselor Competencies in Assessment and Evaluation
348(1)
Management and Administration of School Testing Programs
349(1)
Interpretation of Assessment Results
350(2)
Collaboration and Consultation
352(1)
Trends in the Professional School Counselor Appraisal Function
352(3)
Changing Role of the Professional School Counselor
352(1)
Increased Use of Multiple Measures
352(1)
Increased Emphasis on the Contextual Perspective
353(1)
New Methods of Reliability
353(1)
Educational Reform Issues
353(1)
School-to-Work Initiatives and Appraisal
354(1)
Expansion of Assessment Options via Technology
354(1)
Adaptive Testing Models
354(1)
Conclusions
355(2)
Students with Disabilities
357(54)
Estes J. Lockhart
Understanding the Professional School Counselor's Connection to the Special Education and Section 504 Processes
359(11)
Differences Between IDEA and Section 504
360(1)
Simple Case Application of Section 504 and IDEA: Cases of Cindy and Mary
361(1)
Complex Case Application of Section 504 and IDEA: Cases of Three Students
361(2)
Eligibility Under IDEA
363(1)
Eligibility Under Section 504
364(4)
Conditions That May Qualify for Section 504
368(1)
Related Services for Students with Disabilities Under IDEA and Section 504
368(1)
Inclusion of and Least Restricted Environment for Students with Disabilities
369(1)
Role and Function of the Professional School Counselor in the Education of Students with Disabilities
370(2)
Professional School Counselor Concerns with Role in Serving Students with Disabilities
372(6)
The Collaborative Process When Counseling Students with Disabilities
372(1)
Providing Assessment Services When Serving Students with Disabilities
373(5)
Providing School Counseling Case Management for Students with Disabilities
378(4)
Confidentiality in Counseling and Case Management of Students with Disabilities
379(2)
Medication Issues for the Professional School Counselor Serving Students with Disabilities
381(1)
Professional School Counselor Advocacy for Students with Disabilities
382(1)
Serving on Multidisciplinary Teams: Determining Eligibility and Planning Services for Students with Disabilities
382(16)
Referral Process
383(1)
Decision Making
383(1)
Individualized Education Plans (IEPs)
384(1)
Present Levels of Functioning
384(1)
Levels of Functioning Example for the Case of Bill
384(1)
Annual and Short-Term Goals
385(2)
Individual Treatment Plans
387(1)
Section 504 Plan
387(2)
Counselor Concerns About Providing Related Services
389(2)
Transdisciplinary Meetings
391(1)
Manifestation Hearings
392(1)
Manifestation Case Example of Jim
393(1)
Individual Agendas of Participants in Meetings for Students with Disabilities
394(2)
Chairing the Multidisciplinary Meeting for Students with Disabilities
396(2)
Providing School Counseling Services for Students with Disabilities
398(10)
Six-Step Crisis Intervention Process for Professional School Counselors Serving Students with Disabilities
398(1)
Counseling for Loss with Students with Disabilities
399(1)
Professional School Counselor Response to Crisis with Students with Disabilities
399(3)
Individuals School Counseling with Students with Disabilities
402(2)
Social Skills Training for Students with Disabilities
404(1)
Carrer Counseling for Students with Disabilities
404(1)
Transition Program Planning
405(1)
Brief Family Counseling Services
405(1)
Separation Issues
405(1)
Cultural Considerations
406(1)
Grief Work in Families of Students with Disabilities
407(1)
Boundary Issues
407(1)
Information About the Special Needs Process and the Right of Appeal
408(1)
Conclusions
408(3)
Professional School Counselors as Social And Academic Advocates
411(24)
Deryl F. Bailey
Yuette Q. Getch
Stuart Chen-Hayes
What Is Advocacy?
413(1)
History of Social Advocacy
414(1)
Why Is Social Advocacy So Important?
415(2)
Who Needs a Social Advocate, and Why?
417(3)
Students Need Social Advocates
417(1)
African American, Latino/a, and Low-Income Students Need Advocates
418(2)
How Can Professional School Counselors Teach Others to Become Advocates?
420(9)
How to Teach Students
420(3)
How to Teach Parents
423(2)
How to Teach Teachers
425(2)
When Working with School Systems
427(1)
When Working with Communities
428(1)
The Professional School Counselor as Academic and Public Awareness Advocate
429(3)
From Gatekeepers of the Status Quo to Promoting Advocacy for Systemic Change and Leadership in Schools
430(1)
Savy Ways to Send the Message of Professional School Counselors as Academic Success Advocates
431(1)
Conclusions
432(1)
Reflection Questions
433(1)
Case Study
434(1)
Outcomes Research On School Counseling Services
435(14)
Susan C. Whiston
Is Professional School Counseling Effective?
437(1)
Which Students Benefit from School Counseling Interventions?
438(1)
What Are the Effective Methods for Delivering Services?
439(5)
Individual Versus Groups Approaches
440(1)
Guidance Curriculum
440(2)
Carrer Guidance and Counseling
442(1)
Peer Mediation
442(1)
Parent Education and Family Counseling
443(1)
Consultations Activities
443(1)
What Are the Characteristics of Effective School Counseling Programs?
444(2)
Conclusions
446(3)
Living the Transformed Role
449(6)
Stuart Chen-Hayes
Bradley T. Erford
Living the Transformed Role
450(1)
Pulling It All Together: Examples from the Field
451(3)
Transforming the School Counseling Profession: Your Destiny
454(1)
Appendix A American Counseling Association Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice 455(27)
Appendix B American School Counselor Association Ethical Standards for School Counselors 482(5)
Appendix C National Standards for School Counseling Programs 487(7)
Appendix D Comprehensive School Counseling Program Manual Outline 494(5)
References 499(24)
Name Index 523(8)
Subject Index 531


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