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This brief rhetoric introduces the essential reading and writing strategies students need to succeed in courses across the curriculum. Taking the transition from high school to college as his starting point, Hjortshoj speaks directly and honestly to students, offering them practical strategies to shed ineffective habits and move toward a more mature, flexible understanding of how to respond to academic challenges. Distilling information about writing assignments from across the curriculum, Hjortshoj shows students how to decode these assignments and approach them effectively.The second edition offers more advice on how to meet the difficult challenge of synthesizing and integrating sources, and the text has been streamlined to be a better reference.
KEITH HJORTSHOJ (Cornell University) is the Director of Writing in the Majors in the Knight Institute for Writing in the Disciplines at Cornell University. He is also a senior lecturer in the Writing Workshop, which offers courses and services for students who encounter difficulty with writing and reading, especially in the first year of college. He has worked extensively with faculty development and teacher training across the curriculum. Currently, Hjortshoj is developing courses, workshops, and a book on writing for graduate students.
Table of Contents
Preface 1. Orientation Are You Prepared for College? Eduardo and Marie Mythical Colleges, Mythical High Schools Some Basic Differences between High School and College Take Charge of Your Own Transition to College, as Active Learners Guidelines 2. Language and Learning The Vital Connections between Language and Learning Consider Note Taking Forms and Functions of a College Writing Class Guidelines 3. Reading: How to Stay on Top of It Amanda’s Question Becoming a Predatory Reader Reading and Memory Ways of Reading Passive, Linear Reading
Reading with Two Minds
Notes, Outlines, and Summaries
Some Other Ways of Reading
Overcoming Resistance to Strategic Reading Guidelines 4. How Good Writing Gets Written Patterns of Discontent Process and Product
Prewriting or Planning
Revising or Rewriting
Editing or Proofreading
The Choices Student Writers Make Cost/Benefit Analysis Alternatives Guidelines 5. Rules and Errors What are the Correct Rules for Writing? Two Kinds of Rules and Knowledge Proofreading by Ear False Rules How to Use a Handbook A Note to Nonnative Speakers of English
What You Can (and Can’t) Expect from Teachers
Special Resources for Nonnative Speakers of English
Guidelines 6. Footstools and Furniture: Variations of Form and Flow in College Writing What’s Wrong with the Footstool Essay? What Remains True of Good Writing Workshop Figuring Out What Assignments Are Asking You to Do Structuring Comparisons and Arguments
Organizational Options for Comparison
The Academic Meanings of Argument
The Form and Flow of a Scientific Report
The Form of a Scientific Report
Narrative Flow through Categorical Sections
The Broader Uses of Scientific Narration
Variations and Preferences
A Brief Summary Guidelines 7. Writing in Reference to Others A Bubble of Solitude, Abuzz with Conversation The Familiar Principles of Referring to Others Misconceptions of Reference and Documentation Integrating References: the Importance of Voice Why and How We Use Documentation Systems
Why Doesn’t Everyone Use the Same System?
When Should You Use a Documentation Format?
Which Format Should You Use?
Where Can You Find These Formats?
How and When to Cite Electronic Sources Guidelines 8. Research Papers What Is a Research Paper? The Standard Method (and Why It Rarely Works) Revising and Adapting Your Strategies
Choose a Topic
Locate Sources of Information on the Topic
Read Sources and Take Notes
Construct an Outline
Write the Paper, Incorporating Source Material
Document References and Add a Bibliography
Check for Errors and Typos, and Turn It In
Theft, Fraud, and the Loss of Voice
Theft and Fraud
Unauthorized Assistance and Collaboration
Lazy Citation and Paraphrase
Loss of Voice
Guidelines Conclusion: The Whole Point of Writing Works Cited Index