The comprehensive, unified, up-to-date guide to transport and separation processes Today, chemical engineering professionals need a thorough understanding of momentum, heat, and mass transfer processes, as well as separation processes. "Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles, Fourth Edition" offers a unified and up-to-date treatment of all these topics. Thoroughly updated to reflect the field's latest methods and applications, it covers both fundamental principles and practical applications. Part 1 covers the essential principles underlying transport processes: momentum transfer; steady-state and unsteady-state heat transfer; and mass transfer, including both unsteady-state and convective mass transfer. Part 2 covers key separation processes, including evaporation, drying, humidification, absorption, distillation, adsorption, ion exchange, extraction, leaching, crystallization, dialysis, gas membrane separation, reverse osmosis, filtration, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, settling, centrifugal separation, and more. This edition's extensive updates and enhancements include: A more thorough coverage of momentum, heat, and mass transport processesDetailed new coverage of separation process applicationsGreatly expanded coverage of momentum transfer, including fluidized beds and non-Newtonian fluids More detailed discussions of mass transfer, absorption, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, and crystallization Extensive new coverage of membrane separation processes and gas-membrane theory"Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles, Fourth Edition "also features more than 240 example problems andover 550 homework problems reflecting the field's current methods and applications.
CHRISTIE JOHN GEANKOPLIS is a Professor of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Minnesota. His current research interests involve transport processes, biochemical reactor engineering, mass transfer in liquid solutions, and diffusion and/or reaction in porous solids. He holds a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Pennsylvania.
Table of Contents
I. TRANSPORT PROCESSES: MOMENTUM, HEAT, AND MASS. 1. Introduction to Engineering Principles and Units.
Classification of Transport Processes and Separation Processes (Unit Operations). SI System of Basic Units Used in This Text and Other Systems. Methods of Expressing Temperatures and Compositions. Gas Laws and Vapor Pressure. Conservation of Mass and Material Balances. Energy and Heat Units. Conservation of Energy and Heat Balances. Numerical Methods for Integration. 2. Principles of Momentum Transfer and Overall Balances.
Introduction. Fluid Statics. General Molecular Transport Equation for Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer. Viscosity of Fluids. Types of Fluid Flow and Reynolds Number. Overall Mass Balance and Continuity Equation. Overall Energy Balance. Overall Momentum Balance. Shell Momentum Balance and Velocity Profile in Laminar Flow. Design Equations for Laminar and Turbulent Flow in Pipes. Compressible Flow of Gases. 3. Principles of Momentum Transfer and Applications.
Flow Past Immersed Objects and Packed and Fluidized Beds. Measurement of Flow of Fluids. Pumps and Gas-Moving Equipment. Agitation and Mixing of Fluids and Power Requirements. Non-Newtonian Fluids. Differential Equations of Continuity. Differential Equations of Momentum Transfer or Motion. Use of Differential Equations of Continuity and Motion. Other Methods for Solution of Differential Equations of Motion. Boundary-Layer Flow and Turbulence. Dimensional Analysis in Momentum Transfer. 4. Principles of Steady-State Heat Transfer.
Introduction and Mechanisms of Heat Transfer. Conduction Heat Transfer. Conduction Through Solids in Series. Steady-State Conduction and Shape Factors. Forced Convection Heat Transfer Inside Pipes. Heat Transfer Outside Various Geometries in Forced Convection. Natural Convection Heat Transfer. Boiling and Condensation. Heat Exchangers. Introduction to Radiation Heat Transfer. Advanced Radiation Heat-Transfer Principles. Heat Transfer of Non-Newtonian Fluids. Special Heat-Transfer Coefficients. Dimensional Analysis in Heat Transfer. Numerical Methods for Steady-State Conduction in Two Dimensions. 5. Principles of Unsteady-State Heat Transfer.
Derivation of Basic Equation. Simplified Case for Systems with Negligible Internal Resistance. Unsteady-State Heat Conduction in Various Geometries. Numerical Finite-Difference Methods for Unsteady-State Conduction. Chilling and Freezing of Food and Biological Materials. Differential Equation of Energy Change. Boundary-Layer Flow and Turbulence in Heat Transfer. 6. Principles of Mass Transfer.
Introduction to Mass Transfer and Diffusion. Molecular Diffusion in Gases. Molecular Diffusion in Liquids Molecular Diffusion in Biological Solutions and Gels. Molecular Diffusion in Solids. Numerical Methods for Steady-State Molecular Diffusion in Two Dimensions. 7. Principles of Unsteady-State and Convective Mass Transfer.
Unsteady-State Diffusion. Convective Mass-Transfer Coefficients. Mass-Transfer Coefficients for Various Geometries. Mass Transfer to Suspensions of Small Particles. Molecular Diffusion Plus Convection and Chemical Reaction. Diffusion of Gases in Porous Solids and Capillaries. Numerical Methods for Unsteady-State Molecular Diffusion. Dimensional Analysis in Mass Transfer. Boundary-Layer Flow and Turbulence in Mass Transfer.
II. SEPARATION PROCESS PRINCIPLES (INCLUDES UNIT OPERATIONS).
Introduction. Types of Evaporation Equipment and Operation Methods. Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficients in Evaporators. Calculation Methods for Single-Effect Evaporators. Calculation Methods for Multiple-Effect Evaporators. Condensers for Evaporators. Evaporation of Biological Materials. Evaporation Using Vapor Recompression. 9. Drying of Process Materials.
Introduction and Methods of Drying. Equipment for Drying. Vapor Pressure of Water and Humidity. Equilibrium Moisture Content of Materials. Rate-of-Drying Curves. Calculation Methods for Constant-Rate Drying Period. Calculation Methods for Falling-Rate Drying Period. Combined Convection, Radiation, and Conduction Heat Transfer in Constant-Rate Period. Drying in Falling-Rate Period by Diffusion and Capillary Flow. Equations for Various Types of Dryers. Freeze-Drying of Biological Materials. Unsteady-State Thermal Processing and Sterilization of Biological Materials. 10. Stage and Continuous Gas-Liquid Separation Processes.
Types of Separation Processes and Methods. Equilibrium Relations Between Phases. Single and Multiple Equilibrium Contact Stages. Mass Transfer Between Phases. Continuous Humidification Processes. Absorption in Plate and Packed Towers. Absorption of Concentrated Mixtures in Packed Towers. Estimation of Mass-Transfer Coefficients for Packed Towers. Heat Effects and Temperature Variations in Absorption. 11. Vapor-Liquid Separation Processes.
Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Relations. Single-Stage Equilibrium Contact for Vapor-Liquid System. Simple Distillation Methods. Distillation with Reflux and McCabe-Thiele Method. Distillation and Absorption Efficiencies for Tray and Packed Towers. Fractional Distillation Using Enthalpy-Concentration Method. Distillation of Multicomponent Mixtures. 12. Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes.
Introduction to Adsorption Processes. Batch Adsorption. Design of Fixed-Bed Adsorption Columns. Ion-Exchange Processes. Single-Stage Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes. Types of Equipment and Design for Liquid-Liquid Extraction. Continuous Multistage Countercurrent Extraction. Introduction and Equipment for Liquid-Solid Leaching. Equilibrium Relations and Single-Stage Leaching. Countercurrent Multistage Leaching. Introduction and Equipment for Crystallization. Crystallization Theory. 13. Membrane Separation Processes.
Introduction and Types of Membrane Separation Processes. Liquid Permeation Membrane Processes or Dialysis. Gas Permeation Membrane Processes. Complete-Mixing Model for Gas Separation by Membranes. Complete-Mixing Model for Multicomponent Mixtures. Cross-Flow Model for Gas Separation by Membranes. Derivation of Equations for Countercurrent and Cocurrent Flow for Gas Separation for Membranes. Derivation of Finite-Difference Numerical Method for Asymmetric Membranes. Reverse-Osmosis Membrane Processes. Applications, Equipment, and Models for Reverse Osmosis. Ultrafiltration Membrane Processes. Microfiltration Membrane Processes. 14. Mechanical-Physical Separation Processes.
Introduction and Classification of Mechanical-Physical Separation Processes. Filtration in Solid-Liquid Separation. Settling and Sedimentation in Particle-Fluid Separation. Centrifugal Separation Processes. Mechanical Size Reduction. Appendices. Appendix A.1. Fundamental Constants and Conversion Factors. Appendix A.2. Physical Properties of Water. Appendix A.3. Physical Properties of Inorganic and Organic Compounds. Appendix A.4. Physical Properties of Foods and Biological Materials. Appendix A.5. Properties of Pipes, Tubes, and Screens. Notation. Index.
Preface The title of this text has been changed fromTransport Processes and Unit Operations toTransport Processes and Separation Process Principles(Includes Unit Operations). This was done because the term "unit operations" has been largely superseded by the term "separation processes," which better reflects the modern nomenclature being used. In this fourth edition, the main objectives and the format of the third edition remain the same. The sections on momentum transfer have been greatly expanded, especially the sections on fluidized beds, flow meters, mixing, and non-Newtonian fluids. Material has been added to the chapters on mass transfer. The chapters on absorption, distillation, and liquid-liquid extraction have also been enlarged. More new material has been added to the sections on ion exchange and crystallization. The chapter on membrane separation processes has been greatly expanded, especially for gas-membrane theory. The field of chemical engineering involved with physical and physical-chemical changes of inorganic and organic materials and, to some extent, biological materials is overlapping more and more with the other process-engineering fields of ceramic engineering, process metallurgy, agricultural food engineering, wastewater-treatment (civil) engineering, and bioengineering. The principles of momentum, heat, and mass transport and the separation processes are widely used in these processing fields. The principles of momentum transfer and heat transfer have been taught to all engineers. The study of mass transfer has been limited primarily to chemical engineers. However, engineers in other fields have become more interested in mass transfer in gases, liquids, and solids. Since chemical and other engineering students must study so many topics today, a more unified introduction to the transport processes of momentum, heat, and mass transfer and to the applications of separation processes is provided. In this text the principles of the transport processes are covered first, and then the separation processes (unit operations). To accomplish this, the text is divided into two main parts. PART 1: Transport Processes: Momentum, Heat, and Mass This part, dealing with fundamental principles, includes the following chapters: 1. Introduction to Engineering Principles and Units; 2. Principles of Momentum Transfer and Overall Balances; 3. Principles of Momentum Transfer and Applications; 4. Principles of Steady-State Heat Transfer; 5. Principles of Unsteady-State Heat Transfer; 6. Principles of Mass Transfer; and 7. Principles of Unsteady-State and Convective Mass Transfer. PART 2: Separation Process Principles (Includes Unit Operations) This part, dealing with applications, covers the following separation processes: 8. Evaporation; 9. Drying of Process Materials; 10. Stage and Continuous Gas-Liquid Separation Processes (humidification, absorption); 11. Vapor-Liquid Separation Processes (distillation); 12. Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes (adsorption, ion exchange, extraction, leaching, crystallization); 13. Membrane Separation Processes (dialysis, gas separation, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, microfiltration); 14. Mechanical-Physical Separation Processes (filtration, settling, centrifugal separation, mechanical size reduction). In Chapter 1 elementary principles of mathematical and graphical methods, laws of chemistry and physics, material balances, and heat balances are reviewed. Many readers, especially chemical engineers, may be familiar with most of these principles and may omit all or parts of this chapter. A few topics, primarily those concerned with the processing of biological materials, may be omitted at the discretion of the reader or instructor; these include Sections 5.5, 6.4, 8.7, 9.11, and 9.12. Over 240 example or sample problems and over 550 homework problems on all topic