9780130814197

Transportation Engineering and Planning

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780130814197

  • ISBN10:

    0130814199

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 5/26/2000
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

This detailed, interdisciplinary introduction to transportation engineering is ideal as both a comprehensive tutorial and reference.Begins with the basic sciences, mathematics, and engineering mechanics, and gradually introduces new concepts concerning societal context, geometric design, human factors, traffic engineering, and simulation, transportation planning, evaluation.For prospective and practicing transportation engineers.

Author Biography

Dr. Constantinos S. Papacostas is Professor of Civil Engineering and Director of the Hawaii Local Technical Assistance Program at the University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Table of Contents

Preface
Introduction and Background
1(12)
The Transportation System
1(3)
Definition and Scope
1(1)
Fixed Facilities
1(1)
Flow Entities and Technology
2(1)
Control System
2(1)
Transportation Demand
2(1)
Quantification versus Valuation
3(1)
Transportation System Classification
4(1)
Classification Schemes
4(1)
Private and Public Transportation
5(1)
The Role of Government
5(3)
Governmental Participation
5(1)
Instruments of Governmental Involvement
6(1)
Argument for and against Governmental Intervention
6(2)
Tools and Applications
8(4)
Background
8(1)
Mathematical Models
8(2)
Components of Mathematical Models
10(1)
Transportation Models
11(1)
Summary
12(1)
References
12(1)
Part 1: Design and Operation 13(218)
Roadway Design
13(87)
Introduction
14(1)
Equations of Motion
14(15)
Rectilinear Motion
14(5)
Braking Distance
19(3)
Curvilinear Motion
22(4)
Relative Motion
26(3)
Human Factors
29(14)
Perception-Reaction
29(3)
Dilemma Zones
32(7)
Visual Acuity
39(2)
Lateral Displacement
41(2)
Geometric Design of Highways
43(39)
Background
43(1)
Functional Classification of Highways
43(2)
Cross-Section Design
45(1)
Horizontal Alignment
46(4)
Determination of Design Radius
50(1)
Superelevation Design
51(3)
Vertical Alignment
54(4)
Stopping and Passing Sight Distance
58(2)
Geometrics of Sight Distance
60(2)
Discussion of Alignment Design
62(3)
Delineation of Vehicular Paths
65(1)
Design Vehicles
65(2)
Channelization of At-Grade Intersections
67(8)
Modern Roundabouts
75(3)
Traffic-Calming Devices
78(4)
Pavement Structures
82(11)
Background
82(1)
Pavement Materials and Types
83(2)
Pavement Structure
85(3)
Pavement Design
88(1)
Design Methods
89(1)
Life-Cycle Economic Analysis
89(1)
Pavement Management Systems
90(1)
High Performance Concrete, Superpave, and LTPP
91(2)
Summary
93(7)
Exercises
94(3)
References
97(3)
Traffic Stream Flow Models
100(33)
Introduction
100(1)
Vehicular Stream Models
100(4)
Vehicular Following
100(2)
Safety Considerations
102(2)
Stream Variables
104(5)
Spacing and Concentration
104(1)
Headway and Flow
104(1)
Average or Mean Speed
104(2)
Time-Distance Diagrams of Flow
106(3)
Vehicular Stream Equations and Diagrams
109(8)
The Fundamental Equation of a Vehicular Stream
109(1)
The Case of Uniform Flow
109(5)
The Case of Highway Traffic Flow
114(3)
Stream Measurements: The Moving-Observer Method
117(6)
Background
117(1)
The Moving-Observer Method
118(5)
Shock Waves in Traffic
123(6)
Background
123(2)
The Shock Wave Equation
125(4)
Summary
129(4)
Exercises
129(2)
References
131(2)
Capacity and Level of Service Analysis
133(98)
Introduction
133(1)
Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities
134(4)
Background
134(1)
Pedestrian-Flow Models
134(2)
Pedestrian Level of Service
136(1)
Bicycle Level of Service
136(2)
Transit Systems: Uninterrupted Flow
138(6)
Background
138(1)
Uninterrupted Speed-Flow Relationships
139(2)
Fleet Size
141(1)
Transit Network Fleet Size
142(2)
Transit Systems: Interrupted Flow
144(3)
Background
144(1)
Transit Stations
145(1)
Single-Platform Capacity
145(2)
Other Designs
147(1)
Highways: Uninterrupted Flow
147(10)
Background
147(1)
Level of Service
148(2)
Freeway-Base Conditions
150(2)
Freeway Capacity and Level of Service
152(3)
Freeway Congestion Quantification
155(1)
Capacity Restrictions
156(1)
Highways: Interrupted Flow
157(22)
Background
157(1)
Types of Signals
157(1)
Signal Detectors and Controllers
158(9)
Signal Timings
167(8)
Time-Distance Diagram of Interrupted Flow
175(1)
Pretimed Signal Coordination
176(3)
Actuated Signal Coordination
179(1)
Capacity of Signalized Intersections
179(24)
Background
179(1)
Capacity and Performance Analysis
180(8)
Planning Analysis
188(1)
Case Studies
189(1)
Simple Signalized Intersection
190(3)
Complex Signalized Intersection
193(4)
Planning a Signalized Intersection
197(3)
Arterial Street LOS and Congestion Quantification
200(3)
Traffic Data Collection Methods
203(4)
Capacity Analysis of Unsignalized Intersections
207(12)
Background
207(1)
Two-Way Stop-Controlled Intersections
208(4)
All-Way Stop-Controlled Intersections
212(4)
Roundabouts
216(2)
Signalization Warrants
218(1)
Summary
219(12)
Exercises
220(9)
References
229(2)
Part 2: Transportation Systems 231(224)
Transportation Modes
232(31)
Introduction
232(1)
Modes
233(16)
Motor Carriers
235(2)
Railroads
237(2)
Pipelines
239(1)
Water Transportation
240(3)
Air Carriers
243(4)
Express Package Carriers
247(2)
Intercity Passenger Travel
249(6)
Major Modes
249(1)
Choice of Mode
250(3)
Emerging Intercity Modes
253(2)
Summary and Comparisons among Modes and Countries
255(8)
Exercises
257(4)
References
261(2)
Urban and Intelligent Transportation Systems
263(55)
Introduction
263(1)
Development of Cities and Transportation Modes
263(5)
Urban Transportation Modes
268(4)
Roadway Modes
268(1)
Fixed Guideway Modes
269(2)
Demand-Responsive, Dual Mode, and Other Modes
271(1)
Urban Transportation Issues
272(9)
General
272(1)
Traffic Congestion
273(4)
Supply Strategies
277(2)
Demand Strategies
279(2)
Intelligent Transportation Systems
281(30)
User Services
283(5)
Architecture Components and Standards
288(4)
ITS in Europe and Japan
292(3)
Mature ITS Applications
295(1)
Detectors
295(3)
Traffic Signal Systems
298(3)
Freeway Management
301(6)
Electronic Road Pricing and Automatic Vehicle Classification
307(3)
Safety and Liability
310(1)
Summary
311(7)
Exercises
312(2)
References
314(4)
Transportation Planning
318(30)
Introduction
318(2)
Historical Development in the United States
320(7)
Colonial Era
320(1)
Turnpikes and Canals
320(1)
Railroads
321(2)
Rural Highways
323(2)
Urban and Regional Transportation Planning
325(2)
Development of a Formal Planning Process
327(8)
Housing Policies
327(1)
The 3C Process
328(1)
Social Concerns
329(1)
National Environmental Legislation
330(1)
Toward Planning Coordination
331(2)
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991
333(1)
Transportation Equity Act for the Twenty-First Century
334(1)
Planning Studies and Methods
335(4)
Background
335(1)
Antecedents to Planning Studies
335(1)
Planning for Future Needs
336(1)
Large-Scale Urban Travel Surveys
336(1)
Travel-Demand Forecasts
336(3)
Other Planning Issues
339(5)
Background
339(1)
Transportation and Land Use
339(2)
Operational Land-Use Models
341(2)
Project, System, and Operational Planning
343(1)
Planning at the Statewide Level
344(1)
Summary
344(4)
Exercises
345(1)
References
346(2)
Travel-Demand Forecasting
348(107)
Introduction
348(2)
Trip Generation
350(11)
Background
350(1)
Trip Purpose
351(1)
Zone-based versus Household-Based Models
351(2)
Productions and Attractions
353(1)
Regression Models
354(1)
Trip-Rate Analysis
355(1)
Cross-Classification Models
356(2)
The FHWA-Simplified Trip-Production Procedure
358(3)
Summary
361(1)
Trip Distribution
361(20)
Background
361(1)
The Gravity Model
362(7)
Calibration of the Gravity Model
369(7)
Limitations of the Gravity Model
376(1)
The Fratar Model
377(3)
Limitations of the Fratar Model
380(1)
Summary
381(1)
Mode Choice
381(19)
Background
381(1)
Utility and Disutility Functions
382(3)
The Multinomial Logit (MNL) Model
385(3)
The Incremental (or Pivot-Point) Logit Model
388(1)
Independence of Irrelevant Alternatives (IIA) Property
389(1)
The Nested Logit Model
390(8)
Estimation of Logit Models
398(1)
Summary
399(1)
Trip Assignment
400(22)
Background
400(1)
Person-Trips and Vehicle-Trips
401(1)
Diurnal (Time-of Day) Patterns of Demand
401(1)
Trip Direction
402(1)
Historical Context
402(2)
Highway Network Description
404(4)
Link Flows and Interzonal Flows
408(1)
Route Choice Behavior
409(1)
Minimum Path Algorithms
409(1)
A Minimum Tree-Seeking Procedure
410(4)
Free/All-or-Nothing Traffic Assignment
414(1)
Free/Multipath Traffic Assignment
414(2)
Capacity-Restrained Traffic Assignment
416(4)
Transit Assignment
420(1)
Summary
421(1)
Transport Behavior of Individuals and Households
422(11)
Background
422(1)
Conceptual Models
422(3)
Demand Models with Behavioral Content
425(6)
Trip-, Journey-, and Tour-Based Models
431(2)
Other Demand-Forecasting Models
433(8)
Background
433(1)
Demand-Model Consistency
433(1)
Simultaneous or Direct Demand Formulations
433(2)
Combined Modeling Strategies
435(1)
Models of Demand Elasticity
436(5)
Summary
441(14)
Exercises
442(8)
References
450(5)
Part 3: Transportation Impacts 455(102)
Traffic Impact and Parking Studies
456(42)
Introduction
456(1)
Traffic Impact Studies
456(23)
Background
456(1)
Basic Characteristics
457(1)
Overview of Steps
458(1)
Major Components of Traffic Impact Studies
459(9)
Site and Network Improvement Alternatives
468(1)
Comprehensive Example
469(10)
Parking Studies
479(12)
Background
479(1)
Types of Parking
480(1)
Types of Parking Studies
481(5)
Parking Measurements and Analysis
486(3)
Design, Operation, and Other Considerations
489(2)
Summary
491(7)
Exercises
492(5)
References
497(1)
Air Quality Noise, and Energy Impacts
498(31)
Introduction
498(1)
Air Pollution
499(7)
Background
499(1)
Problem Dimensions
500(1)
Emission Levels
501(3)
Air Pollution Dispersion
504(1)
The Box Model
504(2)
Noise Generation
506(9)
Background
506(1)
Noise Measurement
507(2)
Noise Propagation and Mitigation Strategies
509(1)
Noise Measures
509(3)
Mathematical Models of Transportation Noise
512(3)
Energy Consumption
515(8)
Background
515(1)
National Response to the Energy Embargo
516(1)
Transportation-User Reactions
516(1)
Energy-Related Transportation Actions
517(1)
Vehicle-Propulsion Energy
518(5)
Indirect Energy Consumption
523(1)
Summary
523(6)
Exercises
524(3)
References
527(2)
Evaluation and Choice
529(28)
Introduction
529(1)
Feasibility and Impact Enumeration
530(2)
Measures of Feasibility
530(1)
Impact Trade-Offs
531(1)
Generalized Impact Matrices
531(1)
Engineering Economic Analysis
532(11)
Background
532(1)
Project Evaluation
532(6)
Independent and Mutually Exclusive Alternatives
538(2)
Evaluation of Mutually Exclusive Alternatives
540(1)
Identification and Valuation of Benefits and Costs
541(1)
Limitations of Economic Evaluation
542(1)
Effectiveness Analysis
543(10)
Background
543(1)
Cost-Effectiveness
543(2)
Rank-Ordering Techniques
545(5)
Scoring Techniques
550(3)
Group Consensus
553(1)
Summary
553(4)
Exercises
554(1)
References
555(2)
Part 4: Supporting Elements 557(96)
Elements of Engineering Economy
558(13)
Money and Its Time Value
558(1)
Interest and Discount
559(1)
Simple and Compound Interest
560(2)
Nominal and Effective Interest Rates
562(1)
Discrete and Continuous Compounding
562(1)
Cash Flows
563(2)
Equal Series of Payments
565(2)
Superposition of Cash Flows
567(4)
Exercises
569(2)
Probability and Statistics
571(40)
Introduction
571(1)
Elements of Probability Theory
572(16)
Background
572(1)
Definition of Probability
572(2)
Conditional Probability and Independence
574(1)
Discrete Distributions
575(3)
Some Common Discrete Distributions
578(5)
Continuous Random variables
583(1)
Some Common Continuous Distributions
584(4)
Experimental Data and Model Parameters
588(1)
Linear and Nonlinear Regression
589(12)
Simple Linear Regression
589(5)
Correlation
594(2)
Multiple Linear Regression
596(1)
Direct Nonlinear Regression
596(2)
Linear Regression with Transformed Variables
598(1)
Selection of Explanatory variables
599(2)
Hypothesis Testing and Model Evaluation
601(6)
Single-Parameter Test
602(1)
Test of a Linear Model
603(1)
Test of Equality of Segmented Linear Models
604(1)
Comprehensive Judgement of a Linear Model
605(2)
Summary
607(4)
Exercises
607(3)
References
610(1)
Queuing and Simulation
611(15)
Introduction
611(1)
Queuing Models
612(4)
Background
612(1)
Single-Server FIFO Systems
613(1)
Multiserver FIFO Systems
614(2)
Computer Simulation
616(8)
Background
616(1)
Monte Carlo Simulation
616(3)
Simulation of the Outcomes of a Continuous Random Variable
619(1)
Generation of Random Numbers
620(1)
The Simulation Model
621(3)
Summary
624(2)
Exercises
624(1)
References
625(1)
Transportation Software
626(27)
Introduction
626(1)
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
627(5)
GIS Fundamentals
627(3)
GIS Products
630(1)
GIS and GPS
631(1)
Traffic Simulation Software
632(14)
Traffic Simulation Model Characteristics
632(1)
Classification
632(2)
Traffic Simulation Models
634(1)
Urban Street Networks
634(6)
Freeways and Freeway Corridors
640(2)
Mixed Networks
642(2)
Model Selection, Output Variability, and Other Limitations
644(2)
Capacity Software: HCS, SIDRA, and Others
646(1)
Planning Software: EMME/2, QRS II, TRANPLAN, MINUTP TP+, TRANSCAD, TRANSIMS
646(7)
References
560(93)
Appendix A 1982 Guidelines for the Preparation of Environmental Documents 653(26)
Index 679

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