9789814287524

Traps Embraced or Escaped : Elites in the Economic Development of Modern Japan and China

by
  • ISBN13:

    9789814287524

  • ISBN10:

    9814287520

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2/11/2011
  • Publisher: World Scientific Pub Co Inc
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Summary

This book explores economic development in East Asia between 1870 and 1953 in terms of escaping or succumbing to four interrelated traps: demographic; political; economic; and cultural. Demographic traps include Malthusian traps and poor health and longevity (measured by anthropometric indicators and life expectancy). Political traps include both domestic traps — corruption, internal conflict — and external traps, namely geopolitical traps involving foreign powers. Economic traps include poor infrastructure (banks, harbors, roads, railroads, steam shipping, hydroelectric power) or raw materials, or glaring regional variation in per capita income – all significant barriers to industrialization. Cultural traps include restrictions on permissible knowledge”, and linguistic barriers to the culture of discourse in science and engineering which restrained the absorbing and diffusion of knowledge from foreign sources. Using Japan and China as examples, this book demonstrates how the four types of traps dynamically interact with one another, and how one of the two countries — Japan — was able to escape from the traps earlier than the other country, China. The book also explores the implications of the argument for post-1950 economic development in East Asia.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. vii
A Note on Transcriptionp. ix
List of Charts and Tablesp. xv
Introduction
The Argumentp. 3
Elites and Trapsp. 17
The Fundamental Transformation of Labor Surplus Economiesp. 17
Elites Competing and cooperatingp. 23
Trapsp. 33
The Erosion of Elite Statusp. 39
Co-evolutionp. 41
Appendix: The Fundamental Growth Equationp. 43
Coping with the Western Challenge, 1840-1911
Qing China, 1840-1911p. 47
Elites in Qing Chinap. 47
The western Challengep. 56
Qing Responsep. 62
Tokugawa and Meiji Japanp. 70
In Two Mirrosp. 70
Elites in Tokugawa Japanp. 72
The Meiji Restorationp. 79
Traps, 1910-1955
Growth Acceleration in Japan, 1910-1938p. 89
Agriculture and the Decline of a Rural Elitep. 89
Infrastructure and Urbanizationp. 92
Manufacturingp. 95
The Demographic Transition Commencesp. 97
The Disintegration of the fukoku kyohei Consensusp. 100
Agriculture and Industrialization in Republican China, 1911-1935p. 108
A Divided Elitep. 108
Landlordism and Surplus Labor in Rural Chinap. 113
Manufacturing Expansion in Shanghai and Manchuriap. 116
Regional Fissuresp. 119
Militarism, 1930-1945p. 126
A Changing Geopolitical Environmentp. 126
Nationalism and Anti-Imperialism in Chinap. 129
Japan's Drive to Hegemony in Asiap. 132
Surrenderp. 136
Consequences, 1945-2005
Elites in Declinep. 143
Elites Disappearing and Emerging in Japan, 1945-1960p. 143
Elites Disappearing and Emerging in China, 1945-1960p. 147
China in the Japanese Mirror: Similarities and Dissimilaritiesp. 149
Miracle Growth and Its Aftermath in japanp. 156
The Main Characteristics of Miracle Growthp. 156
Productivity Gain in Agriculturep. 162
Productivity Gain in Manufacturingp. 163
Struggling with the Legacy of Miracle Growth, 1975-2005p. 169
Commond and Control and Its Aftermath in Chinap. 176
The Main Characteristics of Command and Control in Chinap. 176
Productivity Gain in Agriculturep. 181
Productivity Gain in Manufacturingp. 185
Struggling with the Legacy of the Command and Control Periodp. 187
Conclusionsp. 191
Statistical Appendixp. 195
Bibliographyp. 245
Indexp. 255
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