9781555582272

Tru64 UNIX File System Administration Handbook

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781555582272

  • ISBN10:

    1555582273

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2000-12-19
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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Summary

This unique and authoritative book helps systems administrators and other technical professionals understand and master perhaps the most critical part of Tru64 UNIX: the file system by which the operating system stores and manipulates all of the information that enables both it and other applications to function. File system administration thus is one of the most important, complex, and time-consuming tasks Tru64 system administrators must perform. If Tru64 UNIX is an automobile engine, then the file system is the microprocessor that keeps all of the engine components working together efficiently, and this book explains how to manage, tune, and troubleshoot this processor. Steve Hancock is an ideal author for this book. As a file systems support engineer within Compaq's Tru64 UNIX group, he trains and consults with systems administrators and engineers within large corporations who are designing, managing, and troubleshooting Tru64 UNIX file systems. Tru64 UNIX File Systems Administration Handbook covers all of the newest and advanced Tru64 UNIX features, including Compaq's TruCluster technology, which enables organizations to grow their systems by integrating many individual computers. Complements Digital UNIX System Administrator's Guide by Cheek Only book dedicated to this topic, one vital to Tru64 UNIX system administrators Explains how to deploy Compaq's TruCluster clustering technology on Tru64 UNIX

Table of Contents

List of Figures
xv
List of Tables
xvii
Preface xxi
Intended Audience xxii
A Note on Versions xxii
On the Tru64 UNIX Name xxii
Conventions Used in this Book xxiii
The Organization of this Book xxiii
Acknowledgments xxvii
Introduction
1(48)
What is File Systems Administration?
1(2)
Design
2(1)
Management
2(1)
Why a Book Dedicated to File Systems Administration?
3(2)
Managing Growth
3(1)
Optimization
4(1)
Developing Good Practice
4(1)
Definitions and Terminology
5(3)
File System
5(1)
File System Type
6(1)
Root
7(1)
Domain
7(1)
Volume
8(1)
Group
8(1)
Organization of the Tru64 UNIX I/O Subsystem
8(3)
UNIX File Types
11(5)
Regular Files
12(1)
Directories
12(1)
Symbolic Links
12(1)
Device Special Files
13(1)
Named Pipes
14(1)
Local Sockets
15(1)
Some Useful UNIX Commands
16(11)
Where Have My Blocks Gone?
16(6)
File Statistics
22(5)
Access Control Lists (ACLs)
27(5)
Discretionary Access Algorithm
28(1)
Examining a File's ACL
29(1)
Setting an ACL on a File or Directory
30(2)
Backups
32(7)
Btcreate
32(7)
Adding New File Systems to Your Environment
39(8)
Mounting File Systems
40(4)
Mounting File Systems at Boot Time
44(2)
Unmounting File Systems
46(1)
Summary
47(2)
Storage and Device Management
49(38)
Storage Systems Concepts
49(6)
Disk Drive Terminology
50(1)
Controller Technology
51(1)
SCSI Bus Concepts
52(2)
Caching Techniques
54(1)
Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)
55(5)
RAID Terminology
55(1)
RAID Levels
56(3)
Hardware vs. Software RAID
59(1)
Tru64 UNIX Device Management
60(12)
Devices in Tru64 UNIX
61(6)
Partition Table and Disk Label
67(4)
Boot Process
71(1)
Useful Storage Tools
72(13)
The SCSI CAM Utility
73(3)
Gathering I/O Statistics with iostat(8)
76(1)
The disklablel(8) Command
77(1)
The file(1) Command
78(1)
The Device Special File Manager [dsfmgr(8)]
79(3)
The Hardware Manager Utility [hwmgr(8)]
82(3)
Summary
85(2)
Logical Storage Manager
87(68)
Logical Storage Manager Concepts
88(13)
LSM Architecture
88(7)
LSM Command Structure
95(2)
Installing and Setting Up LSM
97(4)
LSM Versions and History
101(1)
Creating Logical Volumes
101(18)
Concatenated Plex
102(2)
Striped Plex
104(6)
RAID 5 Plex
110(1)
Creating Mirrored Volumes
111(8)
Managing Logical Volumes
119(23)
Gathering Information
119(9)
Backing Up LSM Volumes
128(6)
Growing and Shrinking LSM Volumes
134(3)
Keeping an Eye on Things
137(1)
Saving and Restoring LSM Configurations
138(2)
Changing Volume and Plex Attributes
140(1)
LSM Startup
141(1)
Undocumented volprivutil(8) Tool
142(7)
Tuning LSM
149(5)
The volstat(8) Tool
149(3)
Improving Mirror Synchronization Performance
152(1)
Enhanced Round-Robin Scheduling
153(1)
Summary
154(1)
Tru64 UNIX File Systems Architecture
155(52)
Introduction
155(1)
The Virtual File System
156(21)
The Virtual Node
156(7)
Vnode Operations
163(4)
The Mount Table
167(7)
VFS Operations
174(1)
VFS Tuning Parameters
175(2)
The File System Caches
177(12)
The Unified Buffer Cache
177(6)
The File Name to Vnode Translation (namei) Cache
183(4)
The Vnode Cache
187(2)
The System Call Interface
189(12)
Opening, Closing, and Creating Files
189(6)
Removing Files
195(2)
Gathering File Statistics
197(3)
Reading and Writing Files
200(1)
New Features of VFS
201(4)
The Cluster File System
202(1)
Leveling Cache Flush Performance
203(2)
Summary
205(2)
UNIX File System
207(46)
Brief History of UFS
207(2)
The Traditional UNIX File System
207(1)
The Berkeley Fast File System
208(1)
Layout of UFS On-Disk Structure
209(8)
The Inode
209(3)
Superblocks
212(2)
Cylinder Groups
214(1)
Fragments
215(1)
Boot Blocks
216(1)
In-Memory vs. On-Disk Structures
217(1)
Tools and Techniques
217(13)
Creating a New UNIX File System
218(5)
Tuning the On-Disk Structure of a UNIX File System
223(3)
Examining UFS On-Disk Structures
226(4)
Detecting and Correcting Problems
230(16)
The UFS Structure Checker
230(2)
Miscellaneous File System Checker Tools
232(3)
Removing a UFS File By Its Inode Number
235(3)
The UFS Debugger
238(4)
Improving UFS Performance
242(4)
Backing Up and Restoring UFSs
246(1)
The dump(8) and restore(8) Commands
247(1)
The vdump(8) and vrestore(8) Commands
247(1)
Quotas
247(2)
How Quotas Work
248(1)
Enabling Quotas
248(1)
Setting Quotas
249(1)
UFS Tuning Parameters
249(1)
Memory-Based UFS
250(1)
Summary
251(2)
Advanced File System: The Basics
253(72)
AdvFS Features and Concepts
253(5)
File Domain and Fileset
254(1)
Transaction Log
255(1)
Extent-Based Allocation
256(1)
Fragments
257(1)
File Storage Allocation
257(1)
Getting Started with AdvFS
258(10)
Installing AdvFS
258(1)
Setting Up an AdvFS
258(6)
Removing an AdvFS
264(4)
Managing Advanced File Systems
268(34)
Getting Information About AdvFS
268(8)
Backup and Restore
276(9)
Managing Quotas
285(1)
Working with /etc/fdmns
286(4)
Additional AdvFS Tasks
290(12)
Using AdvFS Advanced Utilities
302(21)
Installing the Advanced Utilities
303(1)
Managing AdvFS Volumes
303(9)
Backups Revisited
312(4)
Manging Trashcans
316(3)
Defragmenting AdvFS Domains
319(4)
Summary
323(2)
Advanced File System: Advanced Topics
325(70)
Troubleshooting
325(18)
File Tags
326(7)
Advfs_err(4) man page
333(1)
AdvFS Metadata
334(7)
AdvFS On-Disk Structure
341(2)
Recovery
343(23)
Domain Panics
343(3)
Interpreting AdvFS I/O Errors
346(2)
Detecting and Correcting AdvFS Corruption
348(3)
Salvaging Corrupted AdvFS Domains
351(4)
BMT Exhaustion
355(11)
Tuning
366(26)
Gathering AdvFS Statistics
366(15)
AdvFS Tuning Parameters
381(7)
The chvol(8) Command
388(1)
File Striping
389(1)
Log Placement
390(1)
Use AdvFS Direct I/O to Speed Up Data Access
390(1)
Defragmenting
391(1)
Large Directory Speed Improvement
391(1)
Summary
392(3)
File Systems Configuration and Tuning
395(12)
Configuring Tru64 UNIX File Systems for Performance
395(2)
Usenet News/Mail Server
397(2)
A Database Server
399(2)
Internet or E-Commerce Server
401(2)
Network File System Server
403(2)
Summary
405(2)
File System Troubleshooting and Recovery
407(40)
Fixing a Corrupted AdvFS Directory
407(5)
Detecting and Correcting Subtle AdvFS Metadata Corruption
412(5)
Recovering a Medium-Complexity AdvFS and LSM Configuration
417(5)
Troubleshooting and Correcting a Complex LSM Configuration
422(18)
A Performance Improvement Case Involving AdvFS and LSM
440(2)
Fsck Fails on a Large File System
442(3)
Summary
445(2)
Appendix A Freeware Tools 447(4)
A.1 The Isof Utility
447(1)
A.2 The monitor Utility
448(1)
A.3 The vmubc Utility
448(1)
A.4 The collect Utility
448(1)
A.5 The top Utility
448(1)
A.6 The recover Tool
449(2)
Appendix B Advanced AdvFS Commands 451(46)
B.1 Tag2name(8) Command
452(1)
B.2 Metadata Examination Commands
452(4)
B.2.1 The vfile(8) Command
453(1)
B.2.2 The vbmtchain(8) Command
454(2)
B.3 The ``Old'' Metadata Examination Commands
456(3)
B.3.1 The vlogpg(8) Command
456(3)
B.4 The vbmtpg(8) Command
459(7)
B.4.1 The vfragpg(8) Command
462(1)
B.4.2 The vtagpg(8) Command
463(1)
B.4.3 The vlsnpg(8) Command
464(1)
B.4.4 The shfragbf(8) Command
465(1)
B.5 The ``New'' Metadata Examination Commands
466(18)
B.5.1 The nvbmtpg(8) Command
468(9)
B.5.2 The nvfragpg(8) Command
477(1)
B.5.3 The nvlogpg(8) Command
478(3)
B.5.4 The nvtagpg(8) Command
481(1)
B.5.5 The vsbmpg(8) Command
482(2)
B.5.6 The savemeta(8) Command
484(1)
B.6 Undocumented Commands
484(10)
B.6.1 The msfsck(8) Command
485(5)
B.6.2 The vchkdir(8) Command
490(1)
B.6.3 The vods(8) Command
491(1)
B.6.4 The logread(8) Command
492(2)
B.7 The shblk(8) Command
494(3)
Appendix C The fsck(8) Command Operation 497(8)
C.1 Data Structures and Concepts
497(1)
C.2 Setup Phase: Check Superblock Consistency
498(1)
C.3 Phase 1: Check Blocks and Sizes
499(2)
C.4 Phase 2: Check Pathnames
501(1)
C.5 Phase 3: Check Connectivity
502(1)
C.6 Phase 4: Check Reference Counts
503(1)
C.7 Phase 5: Check Cylinder Groups
503(1)
C.8 Phase 6: Salvage Cylinder Groups
504(1)
Glossary 505(14)
Bibliography 519(2)
Index 521

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