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Trusted Criminals : White Collar Crime in Contemporary Society,9780534535629

Trusted Criminals : White Collar Crime in Contemporary Society

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780534535629

ISBN10:
0534535623
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/5/2003
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $50.33

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This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 8/5/2003.
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Summary

This comprehensive text helps students understand the problems involved in studying white collar crime, explanations for crime, the principal focus of the crimes, and the character of the legal and criminal justice response to the crime.

Author Biography

David O. Friedrichs is professor of sociology/criminal Justice at the University of Scranton.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
Acknowledgments xxix
The Discovery of White Collar Crime
1(31)
Edwin H. Sutherland and the Discovery of White Collar Crime
2(2)
E. H. Sutherland: The ``Father`` of White Collar Crime Studies
3(1)
Defining White Collar Crime
4(8)
Some Issues of Debate on the Meaning of White Collar Crime
5(1)
A Multistage Approach to Defining White Collar Crime
5(3)
Trust and White Collar Crime
8(1)
Respectability and White Collar Crime
9(1)
Risk and White Collar Crime
10(2)
Comparing White Collar Crime and Conventional Crime Offenders
12(4)
Cross--Cultural and International Dimensions of White Collar Crime
13(3)
The Social Movement against White Collar Crime
16(1)
The National White Collar Crime Center
17(1)
Images of White Collar Crime: The Role of the Media
17(3)
The Media as Entertainment: White Collar Crime in Films and on TV
19(1)
Exposing White Collar Crime
20(10)
Informers and Whistle-Blowers
20(3)
Muckrakers and Investigative Reporters
23(3)
The Food Lion/ABC Primetime Live Case
26(1)
The Consumer Movement, Public Interest Groups, and Labor Unions
26(1)
The Internet and White Collar Crime
27(1)
Ralph Nader and the Consumer Movement
28(1)
The Role of Politicians and Political Institutions
28(1)
Criminal Justice Professionals and Academics (Including Criminologists)
29(1)
Discovering White Collar Crime, in Sum
30(1)
Key Terms
30(1)
Discussion Questions
31(1)
Studying White Collar Crime and Assessing Its Costs
32(25)
Underlying Assumptions and Different Perspectives
32(1)
Specific Challenges in the Study of White Collar Crime
33(2)
The Complex Nature of White Collar Crime
33(1)
Gaining Access for Research
34(1)
Obtaining Statistics
34(1)
Obtaining Research Support
34(1)
A Case Study: The Revco Medicaid Fraud Case
35(1)
Research Methods for Studying White Collar Crime
35(1)
Scholarly Research and White Collar Crime
36(6)
Case Studies
36(1)
Experiments
37(1)
Surveys
38(1)
Observational Research
38(1)
Secondary Data Analysis and Event Historical Analysis
39(1)
Archival Data Analysis and Historical Ethnography
39(1)
Content Analysis
40(1)
Comparative Studies of White Collar Crime
40(1)
Students' Role as Researchers
40(1)
Public Perception of White Collar Crime: How Serious Is It?
41(1)
Measuring White Collar Crime: How Prevalent Is It?
42(4)
Conventional Crime and White Collar Crime Rates
43(1)
Victimization Surveys and Self-Report Studies
44(1)
Measuring Specific Forms of White Collar Crime
45(1)
The Need for Reliable Data
45(1)
The Cost and Consequences of White Collar Crime
46(3)
Direct Costs
46(2)
Indirect Costs
48(1)
Physical Costs
49(1)
Other Costs
49(1)
Victims of White Collar Crime
49(6)
The Roles of Victims
51(1)
Organizations as Victims of White Collar Crime
52(1)
Specific Forms of Suffering of White Collar Crime Victims
53(1)
Studying White Collar Crime and Assessing Its Costs, in Sum
54(1)
Psychological Consequences of Fraud Victimization
55(1)
Key Terms
55(1)
Discussion Questions
55(2)
Corporate Crime
57(32)
The Historical Development of the Corporation and Corporate Crime
57(1)
The Corporation in Society Today
58(2)
A Typology of Corporate Crime
60(1)
Corporate Violence
61(12)
Corporate Violence against the Public: Unsafe Environmental Practices
61(2)
The Exxon Valdez and Prince William Sound
63(1)
Legal Challenges Continue
64(1)
Corporate Destruction of a Community
65(1)
Corporate Violence against Consumers: Unsafe Products
65(3)
The Ford Pinto Case
68(1)
Confronting a Far-Reaching Problem
69(1)
Corporate Violence against Workers: Unsafe Working Conditions
69(1)
The Production and Sale of Tobacco: Corporate Crime?
70(2)
Asbestos and the Manville Corporation
72(1)
The Complexity of Determining Culpability
72(1)
The Film Recovery Systems Case
73(1)
Corporate Abuse of Power, Fraud, and Economic Exploitation
73(10)
Crimes against Citizens and Taxpayers: Defrauding the Government and Corporate Tax Evasion
74(2)
Crimes against Consumers: Price Fixing, Price Gouging, False Advertising, and Misrepresentation of Products
76(2)
Crimes against Employees: Economic Exploitation, Corporate Theft, Unfair Labor Practices, and Surveillance of Employees
78(2)
The Enron Case and the Devastation of Employee Retirement Accounts
80(1)
Crimes against Competitors: Monopolistic Practices and Theft of Trade Secrets
80(2)
The Case against Microsoft
82(1)
Crimes against Owners and Creditors: Managerial Fraud, Self-Dealing, and Strategic Bankruptcy
83(3)
Are Universities and Colleges Corporate Criminals?
86(1)
Corporate Crime, in Sum
87(1)
Key Terms
87(1)
Discussion Questions
88(1)
Occupational Crime and Advocational Crime
89(27)
Crimes by Small Businesses: Retail Crime and Service Fraud
90(3)
Retail Crime
90(1)
The Pharmacist and Drug Dilution: Occupational Crime as Violence
91(1)
Defrauding Vulnerable People
91(1)
Service Business Fraud
92(1)
Crimes by Professionals: Medical, Legal, Academic, and Religious Crime
93(11)
Medical Crime
94(2)
Legal Crime
96(2)
The Case of Roy Cohn: Corrupt Lawyer
98(1)
Academic Crime: Professors, Scientists, and Students
98(1)
Lawyers and the Abuse of Political Power
99(4)
Religious Crime
103(1)
Crimes by Professionals, in Sum
104(1)
Employee Crime
104(6)
The Case of Televangelist Jim Bakker
105(1)
Forms of Employee Theft
106(1)
Employers' Responses to Employee Theft
107(1)
Alternative Forms of Employee Crime
107(1)
Union Leaders Who Steal from Their Union Members
108(1)
Some Factors in Employee Theft
108(1)
Conditions in the Workplace and Employee Crime
109(1)
Donkeys, Wolfpacks, Vultures, and Hawks: A Typology of Employee Theft
110(1)
Employee Crime, in Sum
110(1)
Occupational Crime, in Sum
110(1)
Advocational Crime and White Collar Crime
111(3)
Income Tax Evasion
111(2)
A Case of Sales Tax Evasion
113(1)
Other Forms of Advocational Crime
114(1)
Key Terms
114(1)
Discussion Questions
115(1)
Governmental Crime: State Crime and Political White Collar Crime
116(28)
Governmental Crime: Some Basic Terms
118(1)
Governmental Criminality on an Epic Scale
119(2)
The Threat of Nuclear War as Crime and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction
120(1)
The Vietnam War
120(1)
U.S. Military Activity in the ``New World Order''
121(1)
Forms of State Criminality
121(8)
The 9/11 Attack on America and Rogue States
122(1)
The Criminal State
122(2)
Adolf Hitler: The Greatest White Collar Criminal of the 20th Century?
124(1)
The Repressive State
124(2)
Suharto and the Looting of Indonesia
126(1)
The Corrupt State
126(1)
State Negligence
127(1)
State Criminality, in Sum
128(1)
State-Organized Crime
129(1)
The White House and State-Organized Crime
130(4)
State-Organized Crime and Federal Investigative Agencies
131(2)
Police Crime
133(1)
Political White Collar Crime
134(9)
Political System Corruption
134(1)
Corruption in the Electoral Financing Process
134(1)
The Watergate Affair
135(1)
Political White Collar Crime in the Executive Branch
136(3)
Political White Collar Crime in the Legislative Branch
139(2)
Political White Collar Crime in the Judicial Branch
141(1)
Governmental Crime, in Sum
141(1)
Police Corruption as a Form of ``Political`` White Collar Crime
142(1)
Key Terms
143(1)
Discussion Questions
143(1)
State-Corporate Crime, Crimes of Globalization, and Finance Crime
144(24)
State--Corporate Crime
144(2)
State-Corporate Crime, Nazi Germany, and the Holocaust
145(1)
Crimes of Globalization
146(5)
Sweatshops in Developing Countries: Criminal Enterprises or Economic Opportunities?
148(1)
The Role of the World Bank in a Global Economy
148(1)
The International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the Case of Zaire
149(1)
The Dam at Pak Moon: A Case of Global Crime Jessica Friedrichs
149(1)
The World Bank and Crimes of Globalization
150(1)
Finance Crime
151(16)
Banking/Thrifts Crime: The Savings and Loan Mess
151(2)
Banks and Investment Fraud
153(3)
The Charles Keating Case
156(1)
The BCCI Case
157(1)
Insider Trading
157(3)
The Corporate Takeover Controversy
160(3)
Finance Crime and Financial Markets
163(1)
Derivatives and Bankruptcy of Orange County
164(2)
The Martin Frankel Case
166(1)
Hybrid White Collar Crimes, in Sum
166(1)
Key Terms
167(1)
Discussion Questions
167(1)
Enterprise Crime, Contrepreneurial Crime, and Technocrime
168(23)
Enterprise Crime: Organized Crime and White Collar Crime
168(7)
The Relation between Governmental Crime and Syndicated Crime
170(1)
Historical Roots of Organized Crime
171(1)
The Relation between Syndicated Crime and White Collar Crime
172(1)
Joe Valachi of Cosa Nostra and Carl Kotchian of Lockheed
173(1)
Hazardous Waste Disposal
173(1)
Arson as a Form of Enterprise Crime
174(1)
The Relation between Syndicated Crime and Finance Crime
174(1)
The Looting of the Thrifts and Syndicated Crime
175(1)
Contrepreneurial Crime: Professional Criminals and White Collar Crime
175(9)
Joseph ``Yellow Kid'' Weil and the Big Con
176(1)
Historical Origins of Professional Crime
176(1)
The Relation between Professional Crime and White Collar Crime
176(1)
Fraudulent Businesses: Swindles, Scams, and Rackets
177(1)
The Fence
178(1)
Fraud
178(1)
A Contrepreneur's Advice to Potential Victims
179(1)
Charity as Fraud
180(2)
Pump and Dump: The Jonathan Lebed Case
182(2)
When Fraud Leads to Violence
184(1)
Technocrime
184(5)
Technocrime Defined
185(1)
Computer Crime
185(2)
Identity Theft as White Collar Crime
187(1)
The Law and Computer Crime
188(1)
The Pursuit of Computer Crime Cases
188(1)
Other Types of Technocrime
189(1)
Key Terms
189(1)
Discussion Questions
190(1)
Explaining White Collar Crime: Theories and Accounts
191(27)
Underlying Assumptions and Points of Departure
192(1)
What Do We Want to Explain?
192(1)
Explaining White Collar Criminality
193(4)
The Biogenetic Explanation
193(1)
The Demonic Explanation
194(1)
Psychological Explanations
194(3)
Mental Illness, Drug Addiction, and Intellectual Aptitude: Factors in White Collar Crime?
197(1)
White Collar Delinquency
197(1)
Sociogenic Explanations
197(1)
Organizational Criminality and the Crimes of Organizations
197(5)
Organizational Responsibility
198(2)
The Various Dimensions of Organizational Criminality
200(2)
Explaining Organizational Crime, in Sum
202(1)
Explaining White Collar Crime: Theories and Perspectives
202(6)
General Theories of Crime and White Collar Crime Theories
202(1)
Classical Criminology and Rational Choice
203(1)
A General Theory of Crime and Rational Choice
204(1)
Alternative Dimensions of Crime and Choice
204(1)
Social Control and Bonds
205(1)
Social Process and Learning
205(1)
The Moral and Sensual Attractions of White Collar Crime
206(1)
Interactionism and Labeling
206(1)
The ``Presentation of Self'' and White Collar Crime
207(1)
Neutralization, Rationalization, and Accounts
207(1)
Structural Strain and the Structure of Opportunity
208(1)
Conflict Theory and Criminogenic Societies
209(3)
The Structure of Contemporary Capitalist Society and White Collar Crime
210(1)
Economic Wilding, Capitalism, and White Collar Crime
211(1)
Radical and Critical Perspectives on White Collar Crime
211(1)
White Collar Crime in a Postmodern World
212(1)
Explaining Criminalization and White Collar Crime
212(2)
Women as a Special Class of Victims of White Collar Crime
213(1)
Integrated Theories of White Collar Crime
214(1)
An Integrated, Multilevel Approach to Understanding the Enron et al. Cases
214(2)
Explaining White Collar Crime, in Sum
215(1)
Key Terms
216(1)
Discussion Questions
217(1)
Law and the Social Control of White Collar Crime
218(24)
Social Control and White Collar Crime
218(1)
Formal Law and White Collar Crime
219(1)
The Historical Origins of White Collar Crime Laws
220(1)
The Carrier's Case and the Law of Employee Theft
221(1)
Contemporary Legislative Lawmaking and White Collar Crime
221(4)
The Dialectical Perspective of Lawmaking
222(1)
The Influence of Business on the Lawmaking Process
223(1)
The Sarbanes--Oxley Act
224(1)
Alternative Sources and Forms of Law and Lawmaking
225(4)
The Constitution and Constitutional Law
225(1)
Case Law
226(1)
Executive Lawmaking
226(1)
Administrative Law
227(2)
A Selective Review of Substantive White Collar Crime Lawmaking
229(6)
Antitrust Law
229(2)
Occupational Safety and Health Laws
231(1)
Environmental Protection Laws
231(2)
The RICO Law
233(1)
White Collar Crime Law and the Legal Curriculum
234(1)
Civil and Criminal Law and White Collar Crime
235(1)
Law, Corporations, and the Concept of Criminal Liability
236(4)
Corporate Criminal Liability
236(2)
A Comparative Perspective on Corporate Criminal Responsibility
238(1)
Corporate Personhood and Corporate Decision Making
239(1)
The Corporate Criminal Liability Controversy
240(1)
Law and the Social Control of White Collar Crime, in Sum
240(1)
Key Terms
240(1)
Discussion Questions
241(1)
Policing and Regulating White Collar Crime
242(27)
Criminal Justice System Policing: Law Enforcement
242(5)
State and Federal Enforcement Agencies
243(1)
The FBI
244(1)
The Inspectors General
245(1)
The U.S. Postal Inspection Service
245(1)
The U.S. Secret Service, U.S. Customs Service, and U.S. Marshals Service
246(1)
The Internal Revenue Service's Criminal Investigative Division
246(1)
The Regulatory System Response
247(12)
The Origins and Evolution of Regulation
248(1)
The Creation and Operation of Federal Regulatory Agencies
249(1)
The Contemporary Debate on Regulation
250(2)
The Regulatory Agency's Philosophy: Compliance versus Deterrence
252(1)
Criticisms of Regulatory Agencies
253(1)
Other Factors in Regulatory Response
254(1)
Prominent Regulatory Agencies and Their Functions
254(1)
Agency Capture
255(2)
The SEC in Recent Years
257(2)
Private Policing
259(2)
Forensic Accountants as Fraud Detectives
261(1)
The Role of Lawyers and Accountants Policing White Collar Crime
261(4)
Lawyers and Professional Ethics
261(2)
Accountants and Auditing Responsibilities
263(2)
Self-Regulation: Internal Controls and Professional Associations
265(3)
The Role of Corporate Boards in Self-Regulation
266(1)
Self-Regulation in Financial Firms
266(1)
Self-Regulation and the Professions
267(1)
Policing and Regulating White Collar Crime, in Sum
268(1)
Key Terms
268(1)
Discussion Questions
268(1)
Prosecuting, Defending, and Adjudicating White Collar Crime
269(27)
Prosecution at the Local, State, and Federal Levels
269(7)
Local Prosecutors
269(2)
The Pinto Case: Prosecuting the Ford Motor Company
271(1)
New York Attorney General Eliot Spitzer and Wall Street
272(1)
State Attorney Generals
272(1)
Federal Prosecutors
272(2)
The Prosecution of Antitrust Cases
274(1)
The Prosecution of Environmental Crime
274(1)
Special Prosecutors (Independent Counsel)
275(1)
The Role of the Grand Jury in White Collar Crime Cases
276(1)
``Perp Walks'' for White Collar Crime Defendants
277(1)
Defending White Collar Criminals
277(3)
David Boies and White Collar Crime Cases
278(2)
Adjudicating White Collar Crime: Plea Bargaining and Trial
280(1)
The Role of the Trial Jury
281(1)
Jurors and Punitive Damages
282(1)
Judges and the Sentencing of White Collar Criminals
282(6)
Sentencing
283(1)
Explaining Disparity in Sentences for White Collar Offenders
284(2)
Sentencing Organizational Offenders
286(1)
Sentencing Guidelines and White Collar Offenders
287(1)
White Collar Criminals in the Correctional System
288(2)
House Arrest as Punishment
290(1)
Civil Suits
290(5)
SLAPPS: Strategic Lawsuits Against Political Participation
292(1)
Citizen Suits and Class Action Suits
292(1)
William Lerach: Shareholder Hero or Economic Terrorist?
293(1)
The Role of Mediators and Arbitrators in the Settlement of Complaints
294(1)
Collateral Civil Suits
294(1)
Prosecuting and Adjudicating White Collar Crime, in Sum
295(1)
Key Terms
295(1)
Discussion Questions
295(1)
Responding to the Challenge of White Collar Crime
296(23)
Raising Consciousness of White Collar Crime
296(1)
Policy Options for Responding to White Collar Crime
297(1)
Responding to White Collar Crime as a Moral Issue
297(4)
Do Moral Appeals Work?
298(1)
Business Ethics Courses in the Curriculum
298(1)
Business Ethics within the Business World
299(1)
Shaming as a Response to White Collar Crime
300(1)
Securing Compliance and Sanctioning White Collar Crime
301(1)
Law and the Coercive Response to White Collar Crime
302(3)
Civil Suits and Penalties
302(1)
Cooperative versus Punitive Approaches to Corporate Crime
303(1)
``Just Deserts'' and Corporate Crime
304(1)
Deterrence and White Collar Crime
305(1)
Rehabilitation, Probation, and Enforced Self-Regulation
306(3)
Probation
307(1)
Enforced Self-Regulation
307(2)
The ``Devil's Advocate'' and Corporate Probation
309(1)
Fines, Restitution, and Community Service
309(2)
Sentencing Guidelines for Fines
309(1)
Restitution
310(1)
Community Service
311(1)
Occupational Disqualification
311(1)
Incarceration
311(2)
Contractual Disqualification for Corporations
312(1)
Organizational Reform and Corporate Dissolution
313(1)
Responding to Residual Forms of White Collar Crime
314(1)
Controlling Governmental Crime
314(2)
Responding to White Collar Crime Internationally
315(1)
Structural Transformation as a Response to White Collar Crime
316(2)
Responding to the Challenge of White Collar Crime, in Sum
317(1)
A Concluding Note: Trusted Criminals and White Collar Crime in the 21st Century
317(1)
Key Terms
318(1)
Discussion Questions
318(1)
Appendix A: White Collar Crime Films 319(3)
Appendix B: White Collar Crime and the World Wide Web 322(3)
References 325(70)
Subject Index 395(12)
Name Index 407


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