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"Tutorials in Introductory Physics" is based on extensive teaching experience and more than twenty years of research in which the Physics Education Group has sought to identify and address common difficulties that students encounter in studying physics. Development of the tutorials was motivated by the conviction that in order to develop a functional understanding of the material students need more assistance than they can obtain through listening to lectures, reading the textbook, and solving standard quantitative problems. "Tutorials in Introductory Physics" is intended to supplement these traditional forms of instruction by providing a structure that promotes the active mental engagement of students in the process of learning physics. The materials are equally appropriate for algebra-based and calculus-based courses. Working together in small collaborative groups, students help one another go through the steps in reasoning necessary for the construction and application of important concepts and principles. The tutorials have been rigorously class-tested at the University of Washington, at other research universities, and at two-year and four-year colleges. This First Edition of "Tutorials in Introductory Physics" builds upon the Preliminary Edition. In addition to new and revised tutorials on mechanics, electricity and magnetism, and waves and optics, the First Edition also includes tutorials on selected topics from hydrostatics, thermodynamics, and modern physics. In all cases, , a complete tutorial sequence consists of a pretest, worksheet, homework assignment, and examination questions that serve as cost-tests. The student texts consist of the tutorial worksheets andhomework assignments. Pretests are included in the Instructors Guides: For these instructional materials to be most effective, it is important that course examinations include qualitative questions that emphasize the concepts and re
Table of Contents
Energy and Momentum.
Velocity. Representations of Motion. Acceleration in One Dimension. Motion in Two Dimensions. Relative Motion.
Forces. Newton's Second and Third Laws. Tension.
Energy and Momentum.
Work and the Work-Energy Theorem. Changes in Energy and Momentum. Conservation of Momentum in One Dimension. Conservation of Momentum in Two Dimensions.
Rotational Motion. Dynamics of Rigid Bodies. Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies.
II. ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM.
Charge. Electric Field and Flux. Gauss' Law. Electric Potential Difference. Capacitance.
A Model for Circuits Part 1: Current and Resistance. A Model for Circuits Part 2: Potential Difference. RC Circuits.
Magnets and Magnetic Fields. Magnetic Interactions.
Lenz' Law. Faraday's Law and Applications.
Superposition and Reflection of Pulses. Reflection and Transmission. Propagation and Refraction of Periodic Waves. Electromagnetic Waves.
Light and Shadow. Plane Mirrors. Curved Mirrors and Multiple Reflections. Interpretation of Ray Diagrams. Convex Lenses. Magnification.
Two-Source Interference. Wave Properties of Light. Multiple-Slit Interference. A Model for Single-Slit Diffraction. Combined Interference and Diffraction. Thin-Filmed Interference. Polarization.
V. SELECTED TOPICS.
Pressure in a Liquid. Buoyancy.
Ideal Gas Law. First Law of Thermodynamics.
Wave Properties of Matter. Photoelectric Effect.
Tutorials in Introductory Physicsis a set of instructional materials intended to supplement the lectures and textbook of a standard introductory physics course. The emphasis in the tutorials is on the development of important physical concepts and scientific reasoning skills, not on solving the standard quantitative problems found in traditional textbooks. There is increasing evidence that after instruction in a typical course, many students are unable to apply the physics formalism that they have studied to situations that they have not expressly memorized. In order for meaningful learning to occur, students need more assistance than they can obtain through listening to lectures, reading the textbook, and solving standard quantitative problems. It can be difficult for students who are studying physics for the first time to recognize what they do and do not understand and to learn to ask themselves the types of questions necessary to come to a functional understanding of the material. Tutorials in Introductory Physicsprovides a structure that promotes the active mental engagement of students in the process of learning physics. Questions in the tutorials guide students through the reasoning necessary to construct concepts and to apply them in real-world situations. The tutorials also provide practice in interpreting various representations ( e.g.,verbal descriptions, diagrams, graphs, and formulas) and in translating back and forth between them. For the most part, the tutorials are intended to be used after concepts have been introduced in the lectures and the laboratory, although most can serve to introduce the topic as well. The tutorials comprise an integrated system of pretests, worksheets, homework assignments, and post-tests. The tutorial sequence begins with a pretest. These are usually on material already presented in lecture or textbook but not yet covered in tutorial. The pretests help students identify what they do and not understand about the material and what they are expected to learn in the upcoming tutorial. They also inform the instructors about the level of student understanding. The worksheets, which consist of carefully sequenced tasks and questions, provide the structure for the tutorial sessions. Students work together in small groups, constructing answers for themselves through discussions with one another and with the tutorial instructors. The tutorial instructors do not lecture but ask questions designed to help students find their own answers. The tutorial homework reinforces and extends what is covered in the worksheets. For the tutorials to be most effective, it is important that course examinations include questions that emphasize the concepts and reasoning skills developed in the tutorials. The tutorials are primarily designed for a small class setting but have proved to be adaptable to other instructional environments. The curriculum has been shown to be effective for students in regular and honors sections of calculus-based and algebra-based physics. The tutorials have been developed through an iterative cycle of: research on the learning and teaching of physics, design of curriculum based on this research, and assessment through rigorous pretesting and post-testing in the classroom. Tutorials in Introductory Physicshas been developed and tested at the University of Washington and pilot-tested at other colleges and universities. Comments on the First Edition Ongoing research has led to modifications to the tutorials and associated homework in the Preliminary Edition of Tutorials in Introductory Physics.The First Edition incorporates these changes and also includes several new tutorials on topics covered in the Preliminary Edition. In addition, the First Edition contains a new section with tutorials on topics in hydrostatics, thermal physics, and modern physics.