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Understanding 12-Lead EKGs : A Practical Approach,9780131707894
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Understanding 12-Lead EKGs : A Practical Approach

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780131707894

ISBN10:
0131707892
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/18/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
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Summary

EKG interpretation is often a difficult subject for students to learn and understand. With this in mind, Brenda Beasley and Michael West have created Understanding 12-Lead EKGs, a straightforward approach to EKG interpretation that presents all the essential concepts students need to know to master the basics of this challenging field. This comprehensive, reader-friendly book is ideal for self-study or classroom use, making it the perfect resource for both students and practicing health care professionals. Chapter topics include cardiovascular anatomy and physiology; basic electrophysiology; the electrical conduction system; the electrocardiogram; interpretation of an EKG strip; acute myocardial infarction; iscemia, injury and necrosis; interpretation of: inferior MIs, anterior MIs, septal MIs, lateral MIs, and posterior MIs; bundle branch blocks and axis deviations; therapeutic modalities; and cardiovascular pharmacology.For pre-hospital care and nursing providers, cardiac care monitor technicians, medical students, physicians, and ACLS candidates.

Table of Contents

Foreword xi
Preface xiii
The Anatomy of the Heart (Structure)
1(14)
Objectives
1(1)
Introduction
2(9)
Anatomy of the Heart
2(1)
Location, Size, and Shape of the Heart
3(1)
Layers of the Heart
4(1)
Valves of the Heart
5(2)
Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries
7(4)
Summary
11(1)
Key Points to Remember
11(1)
Review Questions
12(3)
Cardiovascular Physiology (Function)
15(10)
Objectives
15(1)
Introduction
16(5)
Blood Flow Through the Heart
16(1)
Cardiac Cycle
17(1)
Stroke Volume
18(1)
Cardiac Output
18(1)
Autonomic Nervous System
19(1)
Receptors and Neurotransmitters
19(2)
Summary
21(1)
Key Points to Remember
21(1)
Review Questions
22(3)
Basic Electrophysiology
25(10)
Objectives
25(1)
Introduction
26(5)
Basic Cell Groups
26(1)
Primary Cardiac Cell Characteristics
27(1)
Major Electrolytes That Affect Cardiac Function
27(1)
Movement of Ions
28(1)
Cardiac Depolarization
28(1)
Cardiac Repolarization
29(1)
Refractory Periods
30(1)
Summary
31(1)
Key Points to Remember
31(1)
Review Questions
32(3)
The Electrical Conduction System
35(9)
Objectives
35(1)
Introduction
36(4)
SA Node
36(1)
Internodal Pathways
37(1)
AV Node
37(2)
AV Junction
39(1)
Bundle of His
39(1)
Bundle Branches
39(1)
Purkinje's Network
39(1)
Summary
40(1)
Key Points to Remember
40(1)
Review Questions
41(3)
The Electrocardiogram
44(20)
Objectives
44(1)
Introduction
45(14)
Electrical Basis of the EKG
45(2)
EKG Leads
47(5)
EKG Graph Paper
52(2)
EKG Waveforms
54(3)
Standard 12-Lead EKG Waveforms
57(2)
Summary
59(1)
Key Points to Remember
60(1)
Review Questions
61(3)
Interpretation of EKG Strips
64(15)
Objectives
64(1)
Introduction
65(10)
General Rules
65(1)
The Five-Step Approach
65(5)
The 5 + 3 Approach
70(1)
ST Segment Depression
71(1)
ST Segment Elevation
72(1)
Q Wave
73(2)
Summary
75(1)
Key Points to Remember
75(1)
Review Questions
76(3)
Acute Myocardial Infarction
79(11)
Objectives
79(1)
Introduction
80(6)
Coronary Anatomy
80(2)
Pathology
82(2)
Standard Treatment Modalities
84(1)
Noncardiac Causes of Chest Pain
84(1)
Clinical Significance
85(1)
Patient Assessment
85(1)
Summary
86(1)
Key Points to Remember
86(1)
Review Questions
87(3)
Myocardial Ischemia, Injury, and Necrosis
90(9)
Objectives
90(1)
Introduction
91(4)
Time Is Muscle (Myocardium)
91(1)
Infarct Regions and Definitions
91(4)
Clinical Significance
95(1)
Summary
95(1)
Key Points to Remember
95(1)
Review Questions
96(3)
Interpretation of Inferior MIs
99(13)
Objectives
99(1)
Introduction
100(8)
Anatomy and Physiology Review
100(2)
Transmural Versus Subendocardial Infarctions
102(1)
Lead-Specific ST Elevation
102(3)
EKG Changes Related to an Inferior Infarction
105(1)
Clinical Significance of Inferior MIs
106(2)
Summary
108(1)
Key Points to Remember
108(1)
Review Questions
109(3)
Interpretation of Anterior MIs
112(12)
Objectives
112(1)
Introduction
113(7)
Anatomy of the Coronary Arteries
113(1)
``Widowmaker''
114(1)
Lead-Specific ST Segment Elevation
114(3)
EKG Changes Commonly Associated with Anterior MIs
117(1)
Clinical Significance of Anterior MIs
117(3)
Summary
120(1)
Key Points to Remember
120(1)
Review Questions
121(3)
Interpretation of Septal MIs
124(10)
Objectives
124(1)
Introduction
125(5)
Anatomy of the Interventricular Septum and the Coronary Arteries
125(1)
Lead-Specific ST Segment Elevation
125(3)
EKG Changes Commonly Associated with Septal MIs
128(1)
Clinical Significance of Septal MIs
129(1)
Summary
130(1)
Key Points to Remember
130(1)
Review Questions
130(4)
Interpretation of Lateral MIs
134(10)
Objectives
134(1)
Introduction
135(5)
Anatomy of the Left Ventricle and the Circumflex Branch of the Left Coronary Artery
135(1)
Lead-Specific ST Segment Changes
135(2)
EKG Changes Commonly Associated with Lateral MIs
137(1)
Clinical Significance of Lateral MIs
138(2)
Summary
140(1)
Key Points to Remember
140(1)
Review Questions
141(3)
Interpretation of Posterior MIs
144(13)
Objectives
144(1)
Introduction
145(8)
Coronary Artery Anatomy Review
145(1)
Lead-Specific ST Segment Changes
145(1)
The Mirror Test
146(1)
Another Trick for Identifying Posterior MIs
146(1)
Posterior V Leads
147(4)
EKG Changes Related to Posterior MIs
151(1)
Clinical Significance of Posterior MIs
151(2)
Summary
153(1)
Key Points to Remember
154(1)
Review Questions
154(3)
Axis Deviation and Bundle Branch Blocks
157(16)
Objectives
157(1)
Introduction
158(11)
EKG Leads
158(1)
The Hexaxial Reference System
159(1)
Axis Deviation
159(3)
Bundle Branch Blocks
162(5)
Clinical Significance of Bundle Branch Blocks
167(2)
Summary
169(1)
Key Points to Remember
169(1)
Review Questions
170(3)
Therapeutic Modalities
173(16)
Objectives
173(1)
Introduction
174(11)
Fibrinolytics
174(4)
Emergency External Cardiac Pacing
178(1)
Defibrillation
179(4)
Cardioversion
183(2)
Summary
185(1)
Key Points to Remember
185(1)
Review Questions
185(4)
Cardiovascular Pharmacology
189(27)
Objectives
189(1)
Introduction
190(22)
Oxygen
191(1)
Sympathomimetics
192(6)
Sympatholytics
198(2)
Antidysrhythmics
200(7)
Analgesics
207(2)
Antianginals
209(1)
Alkalinizing Agents
210(1)
Anticoagulants
210(2)
Summary
212(1)
Key Points to Remember
212(1)
Review Questions
212(4)
More Review Questions
216(23)
12-Lead EKG Review Strips
239(78)
Appendix 1 Answers to Review Questions 317(6)
Appendix 2 Answers to Review Strips 323(32)
Glossary 355(8)
Index 363


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