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In response to the ever-changing challenges of teaching the survey course, Understanding the American Promisecombines a newly abridged narrative with an innovative chapter architecture to focus students' attention on what's truly significant. Each chapter is fully designed to guide students' comprehension and foster their development of historical skills. Brief and affordable but still balanced in its coverage, this new textbook combines distinctive study aids, a bold new design, and lively art to give your students a clear pathway to what's important.
JAMES L. ROARK (Ph.D., Stanford University) is the Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of History at Emory University. He has written and edited four books, including, with Michael P. Johnson, Black Masters: A Free Family of Color in the Old South (1984).
MICHAEL P. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Stanford University) is a professor of history at the Johns Hopkins University. He has written or edited six books, including No Chariot Let Down: Charleston's Free People of Color on the Eve of the Civil War (1984) and Reading the American Past.
PATRICIA CLINE COHEN (Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley) is professor of history at the University of California at Santa Barbara. She has written three books including The Murder of Helen Jewett: The Life and Death of a Prostitute in Nineteenth-Century New York (1998).
SARAH STAGE (Ph.D., Yale University) is professor of women's studies at Arizona State University West. She has written three books, including Rethinking Women and Home Economics in the Twentieth Century (1997).
ALAN LAWSON (Ph.D., University of Michigan) is professor of history at Boston College. He has written or edited three books, including From Revolution to Republic (1976).
SUSAN M. HARTMANN (Ph.D., University of Missouri) is professor of history at The Ohio State University. She has written five books, including The Other Feminists: Activists in the Liberal Establishments (1998).
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Understanding Ancient America before 1492 What Is the Connection between Archaeology and History? Who Were the First Americans? African and Asian Origins Paleo-Indian Hunters How Did Archaic Americans Adapt to Changing Conditions
Great Plains Bison Hunters
Great Basin Cultures
Pacific Coast Cultures Eastern Woodland Cultures What Kinds of Settlements and Societies Did Native Americans Form? Southwestern Cultures Woodland Burial Mounds and Chiefdoms How Were Native Societies Organized in the 1490s? What Were the Characteristics of Mexica Culture? Conclusion: How Do We Understand the Worlds of Ancient Americans?
Chapter 2 Encountering the New World 1492-1600 What Factors Led to European Expansion in the Fifteenth Century? Mediterranean Trade and European Expansion A Century of Portuguese Exploration What Was the Impact of Spanish Exploration in the Western Atlantic? The Explorations of Columbus The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange How Can We Characterize Spanish Exploration and Conquest? The Conquest of Mexico The Search for Other Mexicos New Spain in the Sixteenth Century The Toll of Spanish Conquest and Colonization Spanish Outposts in Florida and New Mexico What Impact Did Exploration Have on Sixteenth-Century Europe? The Protestant Reformation and the European Order New World Treasure and Spanish Ambitions Europe and the Spanish Example Conclusion: What was the Promise of the New World for Europeans?
Chapter 3 Founding the Southern Colonies 1601-1700 What Were the Challenges Faced by the Early English Colonists to the Chesapeake? The Protestant Reformation and the European Order New World Treasure and Spanish Ambitions Europe and the Spanish Example How Did a Tobacco Society Form in the Southern Colonies? Tobacco Agriculture A Servant Labor System Cultivating Land and Faith How and Why Did Chesapeake Society Change in the Late Seventeenth Century? Social and Economic Polarization Government Policies and Political Conflict Bacon's Rebellion What Role Did Religion Play in Creating Tensions in the Spanish Borderland? When and Why Did the Americas Move Toward a Slave Labor System? The West Indies: Sugar and Slavery Carolina: A West Indian Frontier Slave Labor Emerges in the Chesapeake
Conclusion: What Was the Significance of Export Crops and Slave Labor in the Growth of the English Colonies? Global Comparison: Migration to the New World from Europe and Africa, 1492-1700
Chapter 4 Establishing the Northern Colonies 1601-1700 Why Did the English Reformation Give Rise to the Puritans? What Was Distinctive About the Puritan Settlement of New England? The Pilgrims and Plymouth Colony The Founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony How Did New England Society Evolve in the Seventeenth Century? Church, Covenant, and Conformity Government by Puritans for Puritanism The Splintering of Puritanism Religious Controversies and Economic Changes How Did Settlement Vary in the Middle Colonies? From New Netherland to New York New Jersey and Pennsylvania Toleration and Diversity in Pennsylvania What Was the Relationship between the American Colonies and the English Empire? Royal Regulation of Colonial Trade King Philip's War and the Consolidation of Royal Authority Conclusion: Was There a Single English Model of Colonization in North America?
Chapter 5 The Changing World of Colonial America 1701-1770 How and Why Did British North America Change in the Eighteenth Century? What Were the Changes in New England Life and Culture? Natural Increase and Land Distribution Farms, Fish, and Atlantic Trade How Were the Middle Colonies Distinctive? German and Scots-Irish Immigrants Pennsylvania: “The Best Poor [White] Man's Country” How did Slavery Become the Defining Feature of the Southern Colonies? The Atlantic Slave Trade and the Growth of Slavery Slave Labor and African American Culture Tobacco, Rice, and Prosperity What Were the Unifying Experiences for British American Colonists? Commerce and Consumption Religion, Enlightenment, and Revival Borderlands and Colonial Politics in the British Empire Conclusion: How Did Most British North American Colonists Understand Themselves? Global Comparison: Large Warships in European Navies, 1660-1760
Chapter 6 The Making of an American Revolution 1754-1775 How Did the Seven Years' War Lay the Groundwork for Colonial Crisis? French-British Rivalry in the Ohio Country The Albany Congress and Intercolonial Defense The War and Its Consequences British Leadership, Pontiac's Uprising, and the Proclamation of 1763 Grenville's Sugar Act The Stamp Act Resistance Strategies and Crowd Politics Liberty and Property Why Did the American Colonists Oppose the Sugar and Stamp Acts? British Leadership, Pontiac's Uprising, and the Proclamation of 1763 Grenville's Sugar Act The Stamp Act Resistance Strategies and Crowd Politics Liberty and Property The Townshend Duties Nonconsumption and the Daughters of Liberty Military Occupation and “Massacre” in Boston Which Were the Colonial Reponses to the Townshend Duties? The Townshend Duties Nonconsumption and the Daughters of Liberty Military Occupation and “Massacre” in Boston What Led to the Escalation of Tensions after 1772? The Calm before the Storm Tea in Boston Harbor The Coercive Acts Beyond Boston: Rural Massachusetts The First Continental Congress What Were the Varieties of Domestic Insurrections in 1774-1775? Lexington and Concord Rebelling against Slavery Conclusion: What Changes Did Americans Want in 1775?
Forming the New Nation 1789-1800 Why Did the Americans Declare Their Independence? Assuming Political and Military Authority Pursuing Both War and Peace Thomas Paine, Abigail Adams, and the Case for Independence The Declaration of Independence What Initial Challenges Did the Opposing Armies Face? The American Military Forces The British Strategy Quebec, New York, and New Jersey What Role Did the Home Front Play in the War? Patriotism at the Local Level The Loyalists Who Is a Traitor? Financial Instability and Corruption How Did Native Americans and the French Impact the American Revolution? Burgoyne's Army and the Battle of Saratoga The War in the West: Indian Country The French Alliance How Did the Southern Strategy Lead to the End of the War? Georgia and South Carolina Guerrilla Warfare in the South Surrender at Yorktown The Losers and the Winners Conclusion: Why Did the British Lose the American Revolution? Global Comparison: How Tall Were Eighteenth-Century Men on Average?
Chapter 8 Building a Republic 1775-1789 What Kind of Government Did the Articles of Confederation Create? Congress, Confederation, and the Problem of Western Lands Running the New Government How Did the States Define Freedom and Citizenship? The State Constitutions Who Are “the People”? Equality and Slavery Why Were the Articles of Confederation Unequal to the Challenges of the 1780s? Financial Chaos and Paper Money The Treaty of Fort Stanwix Land Ordinances and the Northwest Territory Shays's Rebellion, 1786-1787 How Did the United States Constitution Increase Federal Power? From Annapolis to Philadelphia The Virginia and New Jersey Plans Democracy versus Republicanism What Were the Obstacles to Ratification of the Constitution? The Federalists The Antifederalists The Big Holdouts: Virginia and New York Conclusion: The “Republican Remedy”
Chapter 9 The New Nation Takes Form 1789-1800 What Were the Sources of Political Stability in Federalist America? Washington Inaugurates the Government The Bill of Rights The Republican Wife and Mother What Was Hamilton's Plan to Solidify the Government's Fiscal Position? Agriculture, Transportation, and Banking The Public Debt and Taxes The First Bank of the United States and the Report on Manufactures The Whiskey Rebellion What External Threats Did the United States Face in the 1790s? To the West: The Indians Across the Atlantic: France and Britain To the South: The Haitian Revolution How Did Partisan Rivalries Shape the Politics of the Late 1790s? The Election of 1796 The XYZ Affair The Alien and Sedition Acts Conclusion: Why Did the New Nation Ultimately Form Political Parties?
A Maturing Republic 1800-1824
How Did Thomas Jefferson Transform the Presidency? Turbulent Times: Election and Rebellion The Jeffersonian Vision of Republican Simplicity The Judiciary and the Midnight Judges The Promise of the West: The Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark Expedition Challenges Overseas: The Barbary Wars More Transatlantic Troubles: Impressment and Embargo What Were the Challenges and Successes of the Madison Presidency? Women in Washington City Indian Troubles in the West The War of 1812 Washington City Burns: The British Offensive To What Extent Did Women's Status Change in the Early Republic? Women and the Law Women and Church Governance Female Education Why Did Partisan Conflict Increase During the Administrations of Monroe and Adams? From Property to Democracy The Missouri Compromise The Monroe Doctrine The Election of 1824 The Adams Administration Conclusion: How Did Republican Simplicity Become Complex?
Chapter 11 The Expanding Republic 1815-1840 What Caused the Market Revolution? Improvements in Transportation Factories, Workingwomen, and Wage Labor Bankers and Lawyers Booms and Busts What Changes in National Politics Were Reflected in the Election of 1828? Popular Politics and Partisan Identity The Election of 1828 and the Character Issue Jackson's Democratic Agenda What Was Andrew Jackson's Impact on the Presidency? Indian Policy and the Trail of Tears The Tariff of Abominations and Nullification The Bank War and Economic Boom How Did the Market Revolution Transform Social and Cultural Life? The Family and Separate Spheres The Education and Training of Youths The Second Great Awakening The Temperance Movement and the Campaign for Moral Reform Organizing against Slavery Why Was Martin Van Buren a One-Term President? The Politics of Slavery The Election of 1836 Two Panics and the Election of 1840 Conclusion: The Age of Jackson or the Era of Reform?
Global Comparison: Changing Trends in Age at First Marriage for Women
Chapter 12 The New West and Free North 1840-1860 What Factors Contributed to America's “Industrial Evolution”? Agriculture and Land Policy Manufacturing and Mechanization Railroads: Breaking the Bonds of Nature Who Benefited the Most from America's Economic Growth? The Free-Labor Ideal: Freedom plus Labor Economic Inequality Immigrants and the Free-Labor Ladder What Factors Spurred Westward Expansion? Manifest Destiny Oregon and the Overland Trail The Mormon Exodus The Mexican Borderlands Why Did the United States Go to War with Mexico? The Politics of Expansion The Mexican-American War, 1846-1848 Victory in Mexico Golden California How Did Reform Efforts Change after 1840? The Pursuit of Perfection: Transcendentalists and Utopians Woman's Rights Activists Abolitionists and the American Ideal Conclusion: What Were the Limits of the Ideology of Free Labor, Free Men? Global Comparison: Nineteenth-Century School Enrollment and Literacy Rates
Understanding the Slave South 1820-1860
Why and How Did the South Become So Different from the North? Cotton Kingdom, Slave Empire The South in Black and White The Plantation Economy What Was Plantation Life Like for Masters and Mistresses? Plantation Masters Plantation Mistresses What Was Plantation Life Like for Slaves? Work Family, Religion, and Community Resistance and Rebellion What Place Did Free Blacks Occupy in Southern Society? Precarious Freedom Achievement despite Restrictions How Did Non-slaveholding Southern Whites Work and Live? Plantation Belt Yeomen Upcountry Yeomen Poor Whites The Culture of the Plain Folk How Did Slavery Shape Southern Politics? The Democratization of the Political Arena Planter Power Conclusion: A Slave Society
Chapter 14 The House Divided 1846-1861 How Did the Mexican War Contribute to Sectional Tensions? The Wilmot Proviso and the Expansion of Slavery The Election of 1848 Debate and Compromise What Factors Helped Unravel the Balance between Slave and Free States? The Fugitive Slave Act Uncle Tom's Cabin The Kansas-Nebraska Act How Did the Party System Change in the 1850s? The Old Parties: Whigs and Democrats The New Parties: Know-Nothings and Republicans The Election of 1856 Why Did Northern Fear of “Slave Power” Intensify in the 1850s? “Bleeding Kansas” The Dred Scott Decision Prairie Republican: Abraham Lincoln The Lincoln-Douglas Debates Why Did Some Southern States to Secede after the Election of 1860? The Aftermath of John Brown's Raid Republican Victory in 1860 Secession Winter Conclusion: Why Did Political Compromise Fail?
Chapter 15 The Crucible of War 1861-1865 How Did the War Begin? Attack on Fort Sumter The Upper South Chooses Sides What Were the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Combatants? How They Expected to Win Lincoln and Davis Mobilize How Did Each Side Fare in the Early Years of the War? Stalemate in the Eastern Theater Union Victories in the Western Theater The Atlantic Theater International Diplomacy Why Did the Fight to Save the Union Become a Fight for Black Freedom? From Slaves to Contraband From Contraband to Free People War of Black Liberation What Problems Did the Confederacy Face at Home? Revolution from Above Hardship Below The Disintegration of Slavery How Did the War Affect the North? The Government and the Economy Women and Work on the Home Front Politics and Dissent How Did the Union Finally Win the War? Vicksburg and Gettysburg Grant Takes Command The Election of 1864 The Confederacy Collapses Conclusion: In What Ways was the Civil War a Second American Revolution? Global Comparison: European Cotton Imports, 1860-1870
Chapter 16 Reconstructing a Nation 1863-1877 What Were Lincoln's Plans for Wartime Reconstruction? “To Bind Up the Nation's Wounds” Land and Labor The African American Quest for Autonomy What Vision Did Andrew Johnson Have for Presidential Reconstruction? Johnson's Program of Reconciliation White Southern Resistance and Black Codes Expansion of Federal Authority and Black Rights How Radical Was Congressional Reconstruction? The Fourteenth Amendment and Escalating Violence Radical Reconstruction and Military Rule Impeaching a President The Fifteenth Amendment and Women's Demands How Was the Battle Over Reconstruction Fought in the South? Freedmen, Yankees, and Yeomen Republican Rule White Landlords, Black Sharecroppers Why Did Reconstruction Collapse? Grant's Troubled Presidency Northern Resolve Withers White Supremacy Triumphs An Election and a Compromise Conclusion: Where Were the Achievements and Failures of Reconstruction?
Chapter 17 Contesting West 1870-1900 What Did the Conquest of the West Mean for Native Americans? Indian Removal and the Reservation System The Decimation of the Great Bison Herds and the Fight for the Black Hills The Dawes Act and Indian Land Allotment Indian Resistance and Survival How Did Mining Motivate and Shape American Expansion in the West? Mining on the Comstock Lode Territorial Government The Diverse Peoples of the West Who Controlled the Land and Resources of the American West? Moving West: Homesteaders and Speculators Ranchers and Cowboys Tenants, Sharecroppers, and Migrants Commercial Farming and Industrial Cowboys Conclusion: Why Was the Mythic West So Enduring?
Defining the Gilded Age of Business and Politics 1870-1895 How Did America's First Big Businesses Arise? Railroads: America's First Big Business Andrew Carnegie, Steel, and Vertical Integration John D. Rockefeller, Standard Oil, and the Trust New Inventions: The Telephone and Electricity How Did Big Business Change at the End of the Nineteenth Century? J. P. Morgan and Finance Capitalism Social Darwinism, Laissez-Faire, and the Supreme Court What Factors Influenced Political Life? Political Participation and Party Loyalty Sectionalism and the New South Gender, Race, and Politics Women's Activism What Issues Shaped Presidential Politics in the 1870s and 1880s? Corruption and Party Strife Garfield's Assassination and Civil Service Reform Reform and Scandal: The Campaign of 1884 What Role did Economic Issues Play in the Politics of the 1880s and 1890s? The Tariff and the Politics of Protection Railroads, Trusts, and the Federal Government The Fight for Free Silver
Panic and Depression Conclusion: Why Was Business So Dominate in the Gilded Age? Global Comparison: Railroad Track Mileage, 1890
The Growth of American Cities 1870-1900 Why Did American Cities Grow So Fast in the Late Nineteenth Century? The Urban Explosion, a Global Migration Racism and the Cry for Immigration Restriction The Social Geography of the City What Kinds of Work Did People Do in Industrial America? America's Diverse Workers The Family Economy: Women and Children White Collar Workers: Managers, ““Typewriters,” and Salesclerks Why Steps Did Workers Take to Organize in the 1870s and 1880s? The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 The Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor Haymarket and the Specter of Labor Radicalism How Did Urban Industrialization Transform Home Life and Leisure? Domesticity and “Domestics” Cheap Amusements How Did Cities Respond to the Challenges of Growth? Building Cities of Stone and Steel City Government and the “Bosses” White City or City of Sin? Conclusion: Who Built the Cities? Global Comparison: European Emigration, 1870-1890
A Decade of Dissent, Depression, and War 1890-1900
Why Did Farmers Organize in the 1880s and 1890s? The Farmers' Alliance The Populist Movement What Led to the “Labor Wars” of the 1890s? The Homestead Lockout The Cripple Creek Miners' Strike of 1894 Eugene V. Debs and the Pullman Strike How Did Women Get Involved in Late-Nineteenth Century Politics? Frances Willard and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and the Movement for Woman Suffrage How Did Economic Problems Shape American Politics in the 1890s? Coxey's Army The People's Party and the Election of 1896 Why Did U.S. Foreign Police Change in the 1890s? Markets and Missionaries The Monroe Doctrine and the Open Door Policy Why Did America Go To War With Spain in 1898? “A Splendid Little War” The Debate over American Imperialism Conclusion: Rallying around the Flag
Progressivism from the Grass Roots Up 1890-1916 How Did Grassroots Progressives Address the Problems of Industrial America? Civilizing the City Progressives and the Working Class What Were the Foundations of Progressive Theory? Reform Darwinism and Social Engineering Progressive Government: City and State How Did Theodore Roosevelt Advance the Progressive Agenda? The Square Deal Roosevelt the Reformer Roosevelt and Conservation The Big Stick How Did Progressivism Fare During the Taft Administration? The Troubled Presidency of William Howard Taft Progressive Insurgency and the Election of 1912 How Did Woodrow Wilson Advance Progressivism? Wilson's Reforms: Tariff, Banking, and the Trusts Wilson, Reluctant Progressive What Were the Limits of Progressive Reform? Radical Alternatives Progressivism for White Men Only Conclusion: How Did the Liberal State Transform during the Progressive Era?
The United States in World War I 1914-1920 What Characterized America's Foreign Policy under Woodrow Wilson? Taming the Americas The European Crisis The Ordeal of American Neutrality The United States Enters the War What Role Did The United States Play in World War I? The Call to Arms The War in France What Impact Did the War Have On the Home Front? The Progressive Stake in the War Women, War, and the Battle for Suffrage Rally around the Flag-or Else What Part Did Woodrow Wilson Play in the Paris Peace Conference? Wilson's Fourteen Points The Paris Peace Conference The Fight for the Treaty Why Was America's Transition from War to Peace So Turbulent? Economic Hardship and Labor Upheaval The Red Scare The Great Migrations of African Americans and Mexicans Postwar Politics and the Election of 1920 Conclusion: What Was the Domestic Cost of Victory? Global Comparison: Casualties of the First World War
Chapter 23 From New Era to Great Depression 1920-1932 How Did Big Business Shape the New Era of the 1920s? A Business Government Promoting Prosperity and Peace Abroad Automobiles, Mass Production, and Assembly-Line Progress Consumer Culture How Did the Culture of the 1920s Challenge Traditional Values and Practices? Prohibition The New Woman The New Negro Mass Culture The Lost Generation Why Did the Divide Between Rural and Urban America Grow in the 1920s? Rejecting the Undesirables The Rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan The Scopes Trial Al Smith and the Election of 1928 What Brought the Economic Growth of the 1920s to an End? Herbert Hoover: The Great Engineer The Distorted Economy The Crash of 1929 Hoover and the Limits of Individualism What Was Life Like in the Early Years of the Depression? The Human Toll Denial and Escape Working-Class Militancy Conclusion: Why Did the Hope of the 1920s Turn to Despair?
Chapter 24 Forging the New Deal 1932-1939 How Did Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Democrats Win the 1932 Election? The Making of a Politician The Election of 1932 What Were the Goals and Achievements of the First New Deal? The New Dealers Banking and Finance Reform Relief and Conservation Programs Agricultural Initiatives Industrial Recovery Who Opposed the New Deal and Why? Resistance to Business Reform Casualties in the Countryside Politics on the Fringes How Did the Second Phase of the New Deal Differ from the First? Relief for the Unemployed Empowering Labor Social Security and Tax Reform Neglected Americans and the New Deal Why Did Support for the New Deal Decline in the Late 1930s? The Election of 1936 Court Packing Reaction and Recession The Last of the New Deal Reforms Conclusion: What Were the Achievements and Limitations of the New Deal? Clobal Comparison: National Populations and Economies, circa 1938
Chapter 25 The United States and the Second World War 1939-1945 How Did America Respond to International Developments in the 1930s? Roosevelt and Reluctant Isolation The Good Neighbor Policy The Price of Noninvolvement What Led to the Outbreak of War in Europe and the Pacific? Nazi Aggression and War in Europe From Neutrality to the Arsenal of Democracy Japan Attacks America How Did the United States Prepare for War? Home-Front Security Building a Citizen Army Conversion to a War Economy How Did the Allies Turn the Tide in Europe and the Pacific? Turning the Tide in the Pacific The Campaign in Europe How Did the War Change Life for Americans on the Home Front? Women and Families, Guns and Butter The Double V Campaign Wartime Politics and the 1944 Election Reaction to the Holocaust How Did the Allies Achieve Final Victory in World War II? From Bombing Raids to Berlin The Defeat of Japan Atomic Warfare Conclusion: Why Did America Emerge as a Superpower at the End of the War? Global Comparison: Weapons Production by the Axis and Allied Powers during World War II
Chapter 26 Cold War Politics in the Truman Years 1945-1953 What Led to the Cold War? The Cold War Begins The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan Building a National Security State Superpower Rivalry around the Globe What Was Truman's Domestic Agenda? Reconverting to a Peacetime Economy Blacks and Mexican Americans Push for Their Civil Rights The Fair Deal Flounders The Domestic Chill: McCarthyism What Led to the Korean War? Korea and the Military Implementation of Containment From Containment to Rollback to Containment Korea, Communism, and the 1952 Election Conclusion: What Were the Costs and Consequences of the Cold War?
Chapter 27 The Politics and Culture of Abundance 1952-1960 What Approach Did Eisenhower Take to Domestic Issues? Modern Republicanism Termination and Relocation of Native Americans The 1956 Election and the Second Term How Did Eisenhower's Foreign Policy Differ from Truman's? The “New Look” in Foreign Policy Applying Containment to Vietnam Interventions in Latin America and the Middle East The Nuclear Arms Race What Accounts for the Prosperity of the 1950s? Technology Transforms Agriculture and Industry Burgeoning Suburbs and Declining Cities The Rise of the Sun Belt The Democratization of Higher Education How Did Prosperity Affect American Culture? Consumption Rules the Day The Revival of Domesticity and Religion Television Transforms Culture and Politics Countercurrents How Did African Americans Fight for Their Rights in the 1950s? African Americans Challenge the Supreme Court and the President Montgomery and Mass Protest Conclusion: What Unmet Challenges Did Peace and Prosperity Mask? Global Comparison: The Baby Boom in International Perspective
Chapter 28 Reform, Rebellion, and Reaction 1960-1974 What Reforms Were Enacted Under President Johnson? The Unrealized Promise of Kennedy's New Frontier Johnson Fulfills the Kennedy Promise Policymaking for a Great Society Assessing the Great Society The Judicial Revolution How Did the Civil Rights Movement Evolve in the 1960s? The Flowering of the Black Freedom Struggle The Response in Washington Black Power and Urban Rebellions What Movements Were Inspired By Black Activism? Native American Protest Latino Struggles for Justice Student Rebellion, the New Left, and the Counterculture Gay Men and Lesbians Organize A New Movement to Save the Environment What Were Goals of the New Wave of Feminism? A Multifaceted Movement Emerges Feminist Gains Spark a Countermovement How Did the Liberal Reform Agenda Fare Under President Nixon? Extending the Welfare State and Regulating the Economy Responding to Demands for Social Justice Conclusion: What Were the Achievements and Limitations of Liberalism?
Chapter 29 Vietnam and the Limits of Power 1961-1975 How Did American Foreign Policy Change Under Kennedy? Meeting the “Hour of Maximum Danger” New Approaches to the Third World The Arms Race and the Nuclear Brink A Growing War in Vietnam Why Did Johnson Escalate American Involvement in Vietnam? An All-Out Commitment in Vietnam Preventing Another Castro in Latin America The Americanized War How Did the War in Vietnam Polarize the Nation? The Widening War at Home 1968: Year of Upheaval How Did American Foreign Policy Change Under Nixon? Moving toward Détente with the Soviet Union and China Shoring Up Anticommunism in the Third World Vietnam Becomes Nixon's War The Peace Accords and the Legacy of Defeat Conclusion: Was Vietnam an Unwinnable War?
Chapter 30 The Conservative Turn 1969-1989 How Did the Nixon Presidency Contribute to the Rise of Conservatism? Emergence of a Grassroots Movement Nixon Courts the Right Why Was the Watergate Scandal Significant? The Election of 1972 Watergate The Ford Presidency and the 1976 Election Why Did the “Outsider” Presidency of Jimmy Carter Fail to Gain Broad Support? Retreat from Liberalism Energy and Environmental Reform Promoting Human Rights Abroad The Cold War Intensifies How Did the Reagan Administration Change the American Economy? Appealing to the New Right and Beyond Unleashing Free Enterprise Winners and Losers in a Flourishing Economy What Strategies Did Liberals Use to Fight the Conservative Turn? Battles in the Courts and Congress Feminism on the Defensive The Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement How Did Ronald Reagan's Views Shape His Foreign Policy? Militarization and Interventions Abroad The Iran-Contra Scandal A Thaw in Soviet-American Relations Conclusion: What Was the Long-term Impact of the Conservative Turn? Global Comparison: Energy Consumption per Capita, 1980
Facing the Challenges of a Changing World Since 1989
How Did the World Change During the Presidency of George H. W. Bush?
Gridlock in Government Going to War in Central America and the Persian Gulf The End of the Cold War The 1992 Election
What Explains the Clinton Administration's Move to the Right? Clinton's Promise of Change The Clinton Administration Moves Right Impeaching the President The Booming Economy of the 1990s How Did President Clinton Respond to the Challenges of Globalization? Defining America's Place in a New World Order Debates over Globalization The Internationalization of the United States How Did President George W. Bush Change American Politics and Foreign Policy? The Disputed Election of 2000 The Domestic Policies of a “Compassionate Conservative” The Globalization of Terrorism Unilateralism, Preemption, and the Iraq War Conclusion: How has the Government's Role at Home and Abroad Changed? Global Comparison: Countries with the Highest Military Expenditures, 2005