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Understanding the American Promise, Second Edition, features a brief, question-driven narrative that models for students the inquiry-based methods used by historians and features innovative active learning pedagogy to help students understand what’s really important to know about U.S. history. This affordable text comes integrated with LearningCurve, an adaptive learning tool that helps students retain what they’ve read and come to class prepared.
Susan M. Hartmann (Ph.D., University of Missouri) is Arts and Humanities Distinguished Professor of History at Ohio State University. In 1995 she won the university's Exemplary Faculty Award in the College of Humanities. Her publications include Truman and the 80th Congress; The Home Front and Beyond: American Women in the 1940s; From Margin to Mainstream: American Women and Politics since 1960; and The Other Feminists: Activists in the Liberal Establishment.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Study GuideChapter 2 Europeans Encounter the New World 1492–1600What factors led to European exploration in the fifteenth century?Mediterranean Trade and European ExpansionA Century of Portuguese Exploration What did Spanish explorers discover in the western Atlantic?The Explorations of ColumbusThe Geographic Revolution and the Columbian ExchangeHow did Spaniards explore, conquer, and colonize New Spain?The Conquest of MexicoThe Search for Other MexicosSpanish Outposts in Florida and New Mexico New Spain in the Sixteenth CenturyThe Toll of Spanish Conquest and ColonizationWhat impact did Spain’s New World endeavors have in Europe?The Protestant Reformation and the Spanish Response Europe and the Spanish ExampleConclusion: What promise did the New World offer Europeans?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 2 Study GuideChapter 3 Founding the Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century 1601–1700 What challenges faced early Chesapeake colonists? The Fragile Jamestown SettlementCooperation and Conflict between Natives and NewcomersFrom Private Company to Royal GovernmentHow did Chesapeake tobacco society take shape?Tobacco Agriculture A Servant Labor System The Rigors of Servitude Cultivating Land and FaithWhy did Chesapeake colonial society change in the late seventeenth century?Social and Economic PolarizationGovernment Policies and Political ConflictBacon’s RebellionWhy did the southern colonies move toward a slave labor system?Religion and Revolt in the Spanish Borderland The West Indies: Sugar and SlaveryCarolina: A West Indian FrontierSlave Labor Emerges in the ChesapeakeConclusion: Why were export crops and slave labor important in the growth of the southern colonies?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 3 Study GuideChapter 4 Founding the Northern Colonies 1601–1700 Why did the Puritans immigrate to North America?Puritan Origins: The English ReformationThe Pilgrims and Plymouth ColonyThe Founding of Massachusetts Bay ColonyHow did New England society change during the seventeenth century?Church, Covenant, and ConformityGovernment by Puritans for PuritanismThe Splintering of PuritanismReligious Controversies and Economic ChangesWhat was distinctive about the middle colonies?From New Netherland to New YorkNew Jersey and PennsylvaniaToleration and Diversity in PennsylvaniaWhat was the connection between the colonies and the English empire?Royal Regulation of Colonial TradeKing Philip’s War and the Consolidation of Royal AuthorityConclusion: Was there an English model of colonization in North America?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 4 Study GuideChapter 5 The Changing World of Colonial America 1701–1770 How did the North American colonies change in the eighteenth century?What changed in New England life and culture? Natural Increase and Land DistributionFarms, Fish, and Atlantic TradeWhat spurred the growth of the middle colonies?German and Scots-Irish Immigrants"God Gives All Things to Industry": Urban and Rural LaborWhy did slavery become the defining feature of the southern colonies?The Atlantic Slave Trade and the Growth of SlaverySlave Labor and African American CultureTobacco, Rice, and ProsperityWhat experiences tended to unify the colonists in British North America during the eighteenth century?Commerce and ConsumptionReligion, Enlightenment, and RevivalTrade and Conflict in the North American BorderlandsColonial Politics in the British EmpireConclusion: What was the dual identity of British North American colonists?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 5 Study GuideChapter 6 The British Empire and the Colonial Crisis 1754–1775 How did the Seven Years’ War lay the groundwork for colonial crisis?French-British Rivalry in the Ohio CountryThe Albany CongressThe War and Its ConsequencesPontiac’s Rebellion and the Proclamation of 1763Why did the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act draw fierce opposite from colonists?Grenville’s Sugar ActThe Stamp ActResistance Strategies and Crowd PoliticsLiberty and Property Why did British authorities send troops to occupy Boston in the fall of 1768? The Townshend DutiesNonconsumption and the Daughters of LibertyMilitary Occupation and "Massacre" in BostonWhy did Parliament pass the Coercive Acts in 1774?The Calm before the StormTea in Boston HarborThe Coercive ActsBeyond Boston: Rural New EnglandThe First Continental CongressHow did enslaved people in the colonies react to the stirrings of revolution?Lexington and ConcordRebelling against Slavery Conclusion: What changes did the American colonists want in 1775?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 6 Study GuideChapter 7 Fighting the American Revolution 1775–1783 Why did Americans wait so long before they declared their independence?Assuming Political and Military AuthorityPursuing Both War and PeaceThomas Paine, Abigail Adams, and the Case for IndependenceThe Declaration of IndependenceWhat initial challenges did the opposing armies face? The American Military ForcesThe British StrategyQuebec, New York, and New JerseyWhat role did the home front play in the war? Patriotism at the Local LevelThe LoyalistsWho Is a Traitor?Prisoners of WarFinancial Instability and CorruptionHow were Native Americans and the French involved in the war? Burgoyne’s Army and the Battle of SaratogaThe War in the West: Indian CountryThe French AllianceWhy did the British southern strategy ultimately fail?Georgia and South CarolinaTreason and Guerrilla WarfareSurrender at YorktownThe Losers and the Winners Conclusion: Why did the British lose the American Revolution?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 7 Study GuideChapter 8 Building a Republic 1775–1789What kind of government did the Articles of Confederation create? Confederation and TaxationThe Problem of Western LandsRunning the New GovernmentHow did the states define citizenship and freedom?The State ConstitutionsWho Are "the People"?Equality and SlaveryWhy did the Articles of Confederation fail?The War Debt and the Newburgh ConspiracyThe Treaty of Fort StanwixLand Ordinances and the Northwest TerritoryThe Requisition of 1785 and Shays’s Rebellion, 1786–1787How did the Constitution change how the nation was governed?From Annapolis to PhiladelphiaThe Virginia and New Jersey PlansDemocracy versus RepublicanismWhat were the objections to ratification of the Constitution? The FederalistsThe AntifederalistsThe Big Holdouts: Virginia and New YorkConclusion: What was the "republican remedy"?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LCChapter 8 Study GuideChapter 9 Forming the New Nation 1789–1800 What were the sources of political stability in the 1790s?Washington Inaugurates the GovernmentThe Bill of RightsThe Republican Wife and MotherWhat were Hamilton’s economic policies?Agriculture, Transportation, and BankingThe Public Debt and TaxesThe First Bank of the United States and the Report on ManufacturesThe Whiskey RebellionWhat external threats did the United States face in the 1790s?Creeks in the SouthwestOhio Indians in the NorthwestFrance and BritainThe Haitian RevolutionHow did partisan rivalries shape the politics of the late 1790s?The Election of 1796 The XYZ AffairThe Alien and Sedition ActsConclusion: Why did the new nation ultimately form political parties?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 9 Study GuideChapter 10 A Maturing Republic 1800–1824How did Jefferson attempt to undo the Federalist innovations of earlier administrations?Turbulent Times: Election and RebellionThe Jeffersonian Vision of Republican SimplicityDangers Overseas: The Barbary WarsWhat was the significance of the Louisiana Purchase for the United States?The Louisiana PurchaseThe Lewis and Clark ExpeditionOsage and Comanche IndiansWhy did Congress declare war on Great Britain in 1812?Impressment and EmbargoDolley Madison and Social PoliticsTecumseh and TippecanoeThe War of 1812Washington City Burns: The British OffensiveHow did the civil status of American women and men differ in the early Republic?Women and the LawWomen and Church GovernanceFemale Education Why did partisan conflict increase during the administrations of Monroe and Adams?From Property to DemocracyThe Missouri CompromiseThe Monroe DoctrineThe Election of 1824The Adams AdministrationConclusion: How did republican simplicity become complex? [[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 10 Study GuideChapter 11 The Expanding Republic 1815–1840 Why did the United States experience a market revolution after 1815?Improvements in TransportationFactories, Workingwomen, and Wage LaborBankers and LawyersBooms and BustsWhy did Andrew Jackson defeat John Quincy Adams so dramatically in the 1828 election?Popular Politics and Partisan IdentityThe Election of 1828 and the Character IssueJackson’s Democratic AgendaWhat was Andrew Jackson’s impact on the presidency?Indian Policy and the Trail of TearsThe Tariff of Abominations and NullificationThe Bank War and Economic BoomHow did social and cultural life change in the 1830s?The Family and Separate SpheresThe Education and Training of YouthsThe Second Great AwakeningThe Temperance Movement and the Campaign for Moral ReformOrganizing against SlaveryWhy was Martin Van Buren a one-term president?The Politics of SlaveryElection and PanicsConclusion: The Age of Jackson or the era of reform?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 11 Study GuideChapter 12The New West and the Free North 1840–1860What factors contributed to the United States’ "industrial evolution"? Agriculture and Land PolicyManufacturing and MechanizationRailroads: Breaking the Bonds of NatureHow did the free-labor ideal account for economic inequality? The Free-Labor IdealEconomic InequalityImmigrants and the Free-Labor LadderWhat factors spurred westward expansion?Manifest DestinyOregon and the Overland TrailThe Mormon ExodusThe Mexican BorderlandsWhy did the United States go to war with Mexico?The Politics of ExpansionThe Mexican-American War, 1846–1848Victory in MexicoGolden CaliforniaHow did reform movements change after 1840?The Pursuit of Perfection: Transcendentalists and UtopiansWoman’s Rights ActivistsAbolitionists and the American Ideal Conclusion: How was white freedom in the West and North defined?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 12 Study GuideChapter 13Understanding the Slave South, 1820–1860Why did the South become so distinctly different from the North? Cotton Kingdom, Slave Empire The South in Black and White The Plantation Economy What was plantation life like for masters and mistresses? Paternalism and Male HonorThe Southern Lady and Feminine VirtuesWhat was plantation life like for slaves? Work Family and Religion Resistance and Rebellion How did nonslaveholding southern whites work and live? Plantation-Belt Yeomen Upcountry Yeomen Poor Whites The Culture of the Plain Folk What place did free blacks occupy in the South? Precarious Freedom Achievement despite Restrictions How did slavery shape southern politics? The Democratization of the Political ArenaPlanter Power Conclusion: How did slavery come to define the South? [[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 13 Study Guide Chapter 14The House Divided, 1846–1861Why did the acquisition of land from Mexico contribute to sectional tensions? The Wilmot Proviso and the Expansion of Slavery The Election of 1848 Debate and Compromise What factors helped unravel the balance between slave and free states? The Fugitive Slave Act Uncle Tom’s Cabin The Kansas-Nebraska Act How did the party system change in the 1850s? The Old Parties: Whigs and Democrats The New Parties: Know-Nothings and Republicans The Election of 1856 Why did northern fear of the "Slave Power" intensify in the 1850s? "Bleeding Kansas" The Dred Scott Decision Prairie Republican: Abraham Lincoln The Lincoln-Douglas Debates Why did some southern states secede immediately after Lincoln’s election?The Aftermath of John Brown’s RaidRepublican Victory in 1860 Secession Winter Conclusion: Why did political compromise fail? [[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 14 Study Guide Chapter 15The Crucible of War, 1861–1865Why did both the Union and the Confederacy consider control of the border states crucial?Attack on Fort Sumter The Upper South Chooses Sides Why did each side expect to win? How They Expected to Win Lincoln and Davis Mobilize How did each side fare in the early years of the war? Stalemate in the Eastern Theater Union Victories in the Western Theater The Atlantic Theater International Diplomacy How did the war for union become a fight for black freedom? From Slaves to Contraband From Contraband to Free People The War of Black Liberation What problems did the Confederacy face at home? Revolution from Above Hardship Below The Disintegration of Slavery How did the war affect the economy and politics of the North? The Government and the Economy Women and Work at Home and at War Politics and Dissent How did the Union finally win the war? Vicksburg and Gettysburg Grant Takes Command The Election of 1864 The Confederacy Collapses Conclusion: In what ways was the Civil War a "Second American Revolution"? [[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 15 Study Guide Chapter 16Reconstructing a Nation 1863–1877Why did Congress object to Lincoln’s wartime plan for reconstruction?"To Bind Up the Nation’s Wounds"Land and LaborThe African American Quest for AutonomyHow did the North respond to the passage of black codes in the southern states?Johnson’s Program of ReconciliationWhite Southern Resistance and Black CodesExpansion of Federal Authority and Black RightsHow radical was congressional reconstruction?The Fourteenth Amendment and Escalating ViolenceRadical Reconstruction and Military RuleImpeaching a PresidentThe Fifteenth Amendment and Women’s DemandsWhat brought the elements of the South’s Republican coalition together? Freedmen, Yankees, and YeomenRepublican RuleWhite Landlords, Black SharecroppersWhy did reconstruction collapse?Grant’s Troubled PresidencyNorthern Resolve WithersWhite Supremacy TriumphsAn Election and a CompromiseConclusion: Was reconstruction "a revolution but half accomplished"?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 16 Study GuideChapter 17Contesting the West, 1865–1900What did U.S. expansion mean for Native Americans? Indian Removal and the Reservation System The Decimation of the Great Bison HerdsIndian Wars and the Collapse of Comanchería The Fight for the Black Hills In what ways did different Indian groups defy and resist colonial rule?Indian Schools and the War on Indian Culture The Dawes Act and Indian Land Allotment Indian Resistance and Survival How did mining shape American expansion? Mining on the Comstock Lode The Diverse Peoples of the West How did the fight for land and resources in the West unfold?Life on the Comstock Lode The Diverse Peoples of the West Moving West: Homesteaders and Speculators Ranchers and Cowboys Tenants, Sharecroppers, and Migrants Commercial Farming and Industrial Cowboys Conclusion: How did the West set the tone for the Gilded Age?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 17 Study Guide Chapter 18Defining the Gilded Age in Business and Politics, 1865–1900How did the railroads stimulate big business? Railroads: America’s First Big Business Andrew Carnegie, Steel, and Vertical Integration John D. Rockefeller, Standard Oil, and the Trust New Inventions: The Telephone and the TelegraphWhy did the ideas of social Darwinism appeal to many Americans in the late nineteenth century?J. P. Morgan and Finance Capitalism Social Darwinism, Laissez-Faire, and the Supreme Court What factors influenced political life in the late nineteenth century? Political Participation and Party Loyalty Sectionalism and the New South Gender, Race, and Politics Women’s Activism What issues shaped party politics in the late nineteenth century? Corruption and Party Strife Garfield’s Assassination and Civil Service Reform Reform and Scandal: The Campaign of 1884 What role did economic issues play in party realignment? The Tariff and the Politics of Protection Railroads, Trusts, and the Federal Government The Fight for Free Silver Panic and Depression Conclusion: Why did business dominate the Gilded Age?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 18 Study Guide sChapter 19The Growth of America’s Cities, 1870–1900Why did American cities experience explosive growth in the late nineteenth century?The Urban Explosion: A Global Migration Racism and the Cry for Immigration Restriction The Social Geography of the City What kinds of work did people do in industrial America? America’s Diverse Workers The Family Economy: Women and Children White-Collar Workers: Managers, "Typewriters," and Salesclerks Why did the fortunes of the Knights of Labor rise in the late 1870s and decline in the 1890s?The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 The Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor Haymarket and the Specter of Labor Radicalism How did urban industrialism shape the world of home life and leisure?Domesticity and "Domestics" Cheap Amusements How did municipal governments respond to the challenges of urban expansion?Building Cities of Stone and Steel City Government and the "Bosses" White City or City of Sin? Conclusion: Who built the cities? [[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 19 Study Guide Chapter 20Dissent, Depression, and War, 1890–1900Why did American farmers organize alliances in the late nineteenth century?The Farmers’ Alliance The Populist Movement What led to the labor wars of the 1890s? The Homestead Lockout The Cripple Creek Miners’ Strike of 1894 Eugene V. Debs and the Pullman Strike How were women involved in late-nineteenth-century politics? Frances Willard and the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and the Movement for Woman Suffrage How did economic problems affect American politics in the 1890s? Coxey’s Army The People’s Party and the Election of 1896 Why did the United States largely abandon its isolationist foreign policy in the 1890s?Markets and Missionaries The Monroe Doctrine and the Open Door Policy "A Splendid Little War" The Debate over American Imperialism Conclusion: What was the connection between domestic strife and foreign policy?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 20 Study Guide Chapter 21Progressivism from the Grass Roots Up, 1890–1916How did grassroots progressives attack the problems of industrial America? Civilizing the City Progressives and the Working Class What were the key tenets of progressive theory? Reform Darwinism and Social Engineering Progressive Government: City and State How did Theodore Roosevelt advance the progressive agenda? The Square Deal Roosevelt the Reformer Roosevelt and Conservation The Big Stick The Troubled Presidency of William Howard Taft How did progressivism evolve during Woodrow Wilson’s first term?Progressive Insurgency and the Election of 1912Wilson’s Reforms: Tariff, Banking, and the Trusts Wilson, Reluctant Progressive What were the limits of progressive reform? Radical Alternatives Progressivism for White Men Only Conclusion: How did the liberal state transform during the Progressive Era? [[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 21 Study Guide Chapter 22The United States and World War I, 1914–1920What was Woodrow Wilson’s foreign policy agenda? Taming the Americas The European Crisis The Ordeal of American Neutrality The United States Enters the War What role did the United States play in World War I? The Call to Arms The War in France What impact did the war have on the home front? The Progressive Stake in the War Women, War, and the Battle for Suffrage Rally around the Flag—or Else What part did Woodrow Wilson play at the Paris peace conference? Wilson’s Fourteen Points The Paris Peace Conference The Fight for the Treaty Why was America’s transition from war to peace so turbulent? Economic Hardship and Labor Upheaval The Red Scare The Great Migrations of African Americans and Mexicans Postwar Politics and the Election of 1920 Conclusion: What was the domestic cost of foreign victory? [[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 22 Study Guide Chapter 23From New Era to Great Depression, 1920–1932How did big business shape the "New Era" of the 1920s? A Business Government Promoting Prosperity and Peace Abroad Automobiles, Mass Production, and Assembly-Line Progress Consumer Culture In what ways did the Roaring Twenties challenge traditional values? Prohibition The New Woman The New Negro Entertainment for the MassesThe Lost Generation Why did the relationship between urban and rural America deteriorate in the 1920s?Rejecting the Undesirables The Rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan The Scopes Trial Al Smith and the Election of 1928 How did President Hoover respond to the economic crash of 1929?Herbert Hoover: The Great Engineer The Distorted Economy The Crash of 1929 Hoover and the Limits of Individualism What was life like in the early years of the depression? The Human Toll Denial and Escape Working-Class Militancy Conclusion: Why did the hope of the 1920s turn to despair? [[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 23 Study Guide Chapter 24Forging the New Deal, 1932–1939How did Franklin D. Roosevelt win the 1932 election? The Making of a Politician The Election of 1932 What were the goals and achievements of the first New Deal? The New Dealers Banking and Finance Reform Relief and Conservation Programs Agricultural Initiatives Industrial Recovery Who opposed the New Deal and why? Resistance to Business Reform Casualties in the Countryside Politics on the Fringes How did the second phase of the New Deal differ from the first? Relief for the Unemployed Empowering Labor Social Security and Tax Reform Neglected Americans and the New Deal What major political trends changed during the late 1930s?The Election of 1936 Court Packing Reaction and Recession The Last of the New Deal Reforms Conclusion: What were the achievements and limitations of the New Deal? [[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 24 Study Guide Chapter 25The United States and the Second World War, 1939–1945How did the United States respond to international developments in the 1930s? Roosevelt and Reluctant Isolation The Good Neighbor Policy The Price of Noninvolvement How did the outbreak of war affect America’s relations with other nations?Nazi Aggression and War in Europe From Neutrality to the Arsenal of Democracy Japan Attacks America How did the United States mobilize for war? Home-Front Security Building a Citizen Army Conversion to a War Economy How did the Allies turn the tide in Europe and the Pacific? Turning the Tide in the Pacific The Campaign in Europe How did the war change life on the American home front? Women and Families, Guns and Butter The Double V Campaign Wartime Politics and the 1944 Election Reaction to the Holocaust How did the Allies finally win the war?From Bombing Raids to Berlin The Defeat of Japan Atomic Warfare Conclusion: Why did America emerge as a superpower at the end of the war? [[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 25 Study GuideChapter 26 Cold War Politics in the Truman Years, 1945–1953What factors contributed to the Cold War?The Cold War BeginsThe Truman Doctrine and the Marshall PlanBuilding a National Security StateSuperpower Rivalry around the GlobeWhy did Truman have limited success in implementing his domestic agenda?Reconverting to a Peacetime EconomyBlacks and Mexican Americans Push for Their Civil RightsThe Fair Deal FloundersThe Domestic Chill: McCarthyismHow did U.S. Cold War policy lead to the Korean War?Korea and the Military Implementation of ContainmentFrom Containment to Rollback to ContainmentKorea, Communism, and the 1952 ElectionAn Armistice and the War’s CostsConclusion: What were the costs and consequences of the Cold War?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 26 Study GuideChapter 27 The Politics and Culture of Abundance, 1952–1960What was Eisenhower’s "middle way" on domestic issues? Modern RepublicanismTermination and Relocation of Native AmericansThe 1956 Election and the Second TermHow did Eisenhower’s foreign policy differ from Truman’s?The "New Look" in Foreign PolicyApplying Containment to VietnamInterventions in Latin America and the Middle EastThe Nuclear Arms RaceWhat fueled the prosperity of the 1950s?Technology Transforms Agriculture and IndustryBurgeoning Suburbs and Declining CitiesThe Rise of the Sun BeltThe Democratization of Higher EducationHow did prosperity affect American society and culture?Consumption Rules the DayThe Revival of Domesticity and ReligionTelevision Transforms Culture and PoliticsCountercurrentsHow did African Americans fight for civil rights in the 1950s?African Americans Challenge the Supreme Court and the PresidentMontgomery and Mass ProtestConclusion: What unmet challenges did peace and prosperity mask?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 27 Study GuideChapter 28 Reform, Rebellion, and Reaction, 1960–1974What liberal reforms were advanced during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations?The Unrealized Promise of Kennedy’s New FrontierJohnson Fulfills the Kennedy PromisePolicymaking for a Great SocietyAssessing the Great SocietyThe Judicial RevolutionHow did the civil rights movement evolve in the 1960s? The Flowering of the Black Freedom StruggleThe Response in WashingtonBlack Power and Urban RebellionsWhat other rights movements emerged in the 1960s?Native American ProtestLatino Struggles for JusticeStudent Rebellion, the New Left, and the CountercultureGay Men and Lesbians OrganizeWhat were the goals of the new wave of feminism?A Multifaceted Movement EmergesFeminist Gains Spark a CountermovementHow did liberalism fare under President Nixon?Extending the Welfare State and Regulating the EconomyResponding to Environmental Concerns Expanding Social Justice Conclusion: What were the achievements and limitations of liberalism?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 28 Study GuideChapter 29 Vietnam and the End of the Cold War Consensus, 1961–1975 How did U.S. foreign policy change under Kennedy?Meeting the "Hour of Maximum Danger"New Approaches to the Third WorldThe Arms Race and the Nuclear BrinkA Growing War in VietnamWhy did Johnson escalate American involvement in Vietnam?An All-Out Commitment in VietnamPreventing Another Castro in Latin AmericaThe Americanized War Those Who ServedHow did the war in Vietnam polarize the nation?The Widening War at HomeThe Tet Offensive and Johnson’s Move toward PeaceThe Tumultuous Election of 1968How did U.S. foreign policy change under Nixon?Moving toward Détente with the Soviet Union and ChinaShoring Up U.S. Interests around the WorldVietnam Becomes Nixon’s WarThe Peace Accords The Legacy of DefeatConclusion: Was Vietnam an unwinnable War?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 29 Study GuideChapter 30 The Conservative Turn, 1969–1989 How did the Nixon presidency reflect the rise of postwar conservatism? Emergence of a Grassroots MovementNixon Courts the RightThe Election of 1972WatergateThe Ford Presidency and the 1976 ElectionWhy did the "outsider" presidency of Jimmy Carter fail to gain broad support? Retreat from LiberalismEnergy and Environmental ReformPromoting Human Rights AbroadThe Cold War IntensifiesWhat conservative goals were realized in the Reagan administration?Appealing to the New Right and BeyondUnleashing Free EnterpriseWinners and Losers in a Flourishing EconomyWhat strategies did liberals use to fight the conservative turn? Battles in the Courts and CongressFeminism on the DefensiveThe Gay and Lesbian Rights MovementHow did Ronald Reagan’s foreign policy affect the Cold War? Militarization and Interventions AbroadThe Iran-Contra ScandalA Thaw in Soviet-American RelationsConclusion: What was the long-term impact of the conservative turn?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 30 Study GuideChapter 31 Facing the Promises and Challenges of Globalization, Since 1989How did the United States respond to the end of the Cold War and tensions in the Middle East? Gridlock in GovernmentGoing to War in Central America and the Persian GulfThe Cold War EndsThe 1992 ElectionHow did President Clinton seek a middle ground in American politics?Clinton’s ReformsAccommodating the RightImpeaching the PresidentThe Booming Economy of the 1990sHow did President Clinton respond to the challenges of globalization?Defining America’s Place in a New World OrderDebates over GlobalizationThe Internationalization of the United States How did President George W. Bush change American politics and foreign policy?The Disputed Election of 2000The Domestic Policies of a "Compassionate Conservative"The Globalization of Terrorism Unilateralism, Preemption, and the Iraq WarWhat obstacles stood in the way of President Obama’s reform agenda?Conclusion: How have Americans debated the role of the government?[[√]] LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkunderstanding/LC Chapter 31 Study GuideAPPENDICESI. DocumentsThe Declaration of Independence A-1The Articles of Confederation A-0The Constitution of the United States A-0Amendments to the Constitution with Annotations (including the six unratified amendments) A-00The Constitution of the Confederate States of America A-0II. Facts and Figures: Government, Economy, and DemographicsPresidential Elections A-00Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Secretaries of State A-00Admission of States to the Union A-00
Supreme Court Justices A-00