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Understanding Animal Breeding,9780130964496
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Understanding Animal Breeding

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780130964496

ISBN10:
0130964492
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/29/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $105.60

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Summary

An experienced animal breeder, Rick Bourdon designed this book to be a modern, technologically up-to-date approach to animal breeding.Understanding Animal Breeding addresses the abstract concepts of animal breeding, presenting the necessary mathematics, but previous experience in genetics and statistics is not assumed. Well organized and readable, the book stresses application, then explains theory for an overall understanding of the material. Coverage explores the latest material on interactions and breeding objectives; performance testing; probabilities and inheritance; the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with multiple alleles; realized response to selection; breeding for uniformity; and biotechnology. For practicing animal breeders as well as those interested in breeding and agriculture.

Table of Contents

PART I ANIMAL BREEDING FROM THE TOP DOWN 3(30)
CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS THE "BEST" ANIMAL?
3(14)
Traits, Phenotypes and Genotypes
3(2)
Analyzing the System
5(6)
Genotype by Environment Interactions
6(1)
Interactions and Breeding Objectives
6(2)
Common Misconceptions about Interactions
8(2)
Other Interactions Involving Genotype
10(1)
Breeding Objectives and Industry Structure
11(2)
Traditional Livestock Species
11(1)
Recreational and Companion Animal Species
12(1)
Factors that Distort Breeding Objectives
13(1)
Change Versus Stasis
13(1)
Exercises
14(3)
Study Questions
14(1)
Problems
15(2)
CHAPTER 2 HOW ARE ANIMAL POPULATIONS IMPROVED?
17(16)
Selection
17(7)
Phenotypic Selection
19(1)
Measuring Performance
20(1)
Selection Using Information on Relatives
20(3)
Selection for Simply-Inherited Traits
23(1)
Between-Breed Selection
24(1)
Mating and Mating Systems
24(3)
Mating Systems and Industry Structure
26(1)
Selection and Mating Together
27(1)
Exercises
28(5)
Study Questions
28(5)
PART II ANIMAL BREEDING FROM THE BOTTOM UP 33(46)
CHAPTER 3 MENDELIAN INHERITANCE
33(23)
Genes, Chromosomes, and Genotypes
33(1)
Germ Cells and Their Formation
34(3)
Formation of the Embryo
37(2)
The Randomness of Inheritance
39(3)
Dominance and Epistasis
42(9)
Complete Dominance
43(2)
Partial Dominance
45(2)
No Dominance
47(1)
Overdominance
47(1)
Common Misconceptions about Dominance
48(1)
Epistasis
49(2)
Sex-Related Inheritance
51(2)
Sex-Linked Inheritance
52(1)
Sex-Limited Inheritance
52(1)
Sex-Influenced Inheritance
52(1)
Exercises
53(3)
Study Questions
53(1)
Problems
54(2)
CHAPTER 4 GENES IN POPULATIONS
56(15)
Gene and Genotypic Frequencies
56(1)
The Effect of Selection on Gene and Genotypic Frequencies
57(3)
The Effect of Mating Systems on Gene and Genotypic Frequencies
60(9)
Inbreeding
60(1)
Outbreeding (Crossbreeding)
61(8)
Exercises
69(2)
Study Questions
69(1)
Problems
70(1)
CHAPTER 5 SIMPLY-INHERITED AND POLYGENIC TRAITS
71(8)
Simply-Inherited and Polygenic Traits
71(2)
Common Characteristics of Simply-Inherited and Polygenic Traits
73(1)
Different Breeding Approaches for Simply-Inherited Versus Polygenic Traits
74(2)
Exercises
76(3)
Study Questions
76(3)
PART III SELECTION 79(236)
CHAPTER 6 SELECTION FOR SIMPLY-INHERITED TRAITS
79(23)
Simple One-Locus Case
79(1)
Proving Parental Genotypes--Test Matings
80(11)
Probabilities of Outcomes of Matings
82(9)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Selection
91(8)
Exercises
99(3)
Study Questions
99(1)
Problems
100(2)
CHAPTER 7 THE GENETIC MODEL FOR QUANTITATIVE TRAITS
102(21)
The Basic Model
102(3)
Breeding Value
105(5)
Progeny Difference
107(1)
Additive Properties of Breeding Values and Progeny Differences
108(2)
Breeding Value and Selection
110(1)
Gene Combination Value
110(4)
A New Model
112(2)
Producing Ability
114(4)
Permanent and Temporary Environmental Effects
115(1)
The Genetic Model for Repeated Traits
115(3)
The Importance of Producing Ability
118(1)
The Genetic Model and Threshold Traits
118(1)
Exercises
119(4)
Study Questions
119(1)
Problems
120(3)
CHAPTER 8 STATISTICS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO QUANTITATIVE TRAITS
123(38)
Individual Values and Population Measures
123(1)
The Normal Distribution
124(3)
The Mean
127(2)
Variation
129(8)
The Importance of Variation
129(2)
Measures of Variation
131(1)
Variation and the Normal Distribution
132(5)
Covariation
137(17)
The Importance of Covariation
139(1)
Measures of Covariation
140(14)
Prediction
154(2)
True and Predicted Values
154(1)
Prediction Equations
154(2)
A Summary Example
156(3)
Exercises
159(2)
Study Questions
159(1)
Problems
160(1)
CHAPTER 9 HERITABILITY AND REPEATABILITY
161(37)
Heritability
161(11)
Common Misconceptions about Heritability
165(1)
Heritability and Resemblance Among Relatives
166(3)
The Importance of Heritability
169(3)
Repeatability
172(7)
Common Misconceptions about Repeatability
175(2)
The Importance of Repeatability
177(2)
Ways to Improve Heritability and Repeatability
179(15)
Environmental Uniformity
180(1)
Accurate Measurement
181(1)
Mathematical Adjustments for Known Environmental Effects
182(4)
Contemporary Groups
186(8)
Exercises
194(4)
Study Questions
194(1)
Problems
195(3)
CHAPTER 10 FACTORS AFFECTING THE RATE OF GENETIC CHANGE
198(29)
Elements of the Key Equation for Genetic Change
198(2)
Accuracy of Selection
199(1)
Selection Intensity
199(1)
Genetic Variation
199(1)
Generation Interval
200(1)
The Key Equation in More Precise Terms
200(13)
The Rate of Genetic Change
201(1)
Accuracy of Selection
201(1)
Selection Intensity
201(5)
Genetic Variation
206(2)
Generation Interval
208(1)
Realized Response to Selection
208(1)
The Key Equation with Phenotypic Selection
209(2)
Partitioning the Key Equation
211(2)
Trade-Offs Among Elements of the Key Equation
213(3)
Accuracy Versus Generation Interval
213(1)
Accuracy Versus Intensity
213(1)
Intensity Versus Generation Interval
214(2)
Intensity Versus Risk
216(1)
Comparing Selection Strategies Using the Key Equation: An Example
216(4)
The Key Equation in Perspective
220(1)
Male versus Female Selection
221(2)
Genetic Change when Sires are Purchased
222(1)
Exercises
223(4)
Study Questions
223(1)
Problems
224(3)
CHAPTER 11 GENETIC PREDICTION
227(31)
Comparing Animals Using Data from Genetically Similar Groups--The Selection Index
227(18)
Prediction Using Regression: A Review
229(1)
Prediction Using a Single Source of Information
230(12)
Prediction Using Multiple Sources of Information
242(3)
Comparing Animals Using Data from Genetically Diverse Groups--Best Linear Unbiased Prediction
245(9)
Types of BLUP Models
246(1)
Capabilities of Advanced BLUP Models
246(8)
Exercises
254(4)
Study Questions
254(2)
Problems
256(2)
CHAPTER 12 LARGE-SCALE GENETIC EVALUATION
258(17)
A History of Across-Herd and Across-Flock Comparisons
259(1)
Sire Summaries
260(5)
Predictions
261(1)
Accuracy Measures
262(2)
Importance of Sire Summaries
264(1)
Genetic Evaluation for Nonsires
265(1)
Types of EPDs
265(1)
Interpreting Genetic Evaluation Information
266(3)
Predictions Are for Comparing Animals
266(1)
The Meaning of Zero
266(1)
Using Accuracy Measures
267(2)
Evaluation or Characterization?
269(1)
Pitfalls in Large-Scale Genetic Evaluation
269(2)
Faulty Data
269(1)
Lack of Relationship Among Contemporary Groups
270(1)
Genotype by Environment Interaction
271(1)
Alternatives to Large-Scale Genetic Evaluation
271(2)
Nucleus Breeding Schemes
271(2)
Exercises
273(2)
Study Questions
273(2)
CHAPTER 13 CORRELATED RESPONSE TO SELECTION
275(19)
What Causes Correlated Response?
275(1)
Genetic, Phenotypic, and Environmental Correlations
276(6)
Keeping Genetic, Phenotypic, and Environmental Correlations Straight
279(3)
More Perspective on Correlations between Traits
282(1)
Factors Affecting Correlated Response
282(5)
Correlated Response to Phenotypic Selection
285(2)
Selecting for Correlated Traits
287(3)
The Good News/Bad News about Genetic Correlations and Correlated Response
290(1)
Exercises
291(3)
Study Questions
291(1)
Problems
292(2)
CHAPTER 14 MULTIPLE-TRAIT SELECTION
294(21)
Methods of Multiple-Trait Selection
294(11)
Tandem Selection
295(1)
Independent Culling Levels
295(2)
Economic Selection Indexes
297(7)
Combination Methods
304(1)
Selection Intensity and Multiple-Trait Selection
305(4)
Loss of Selection Intensity and Correlations between Traits
307(1)
Loss of Selection Intensity in Perspective
308(1)
Exercises
309(6)
Study Questions
309(1)
Problems
310(5)
PART IV MATING SYSTEMS 315(116)
CHAPTER 15 SELECTION FOR SIMPLY-INHERITED TRAITS
315(10)
Mating to Produce Particular Gene Combinations
315(4)
Repeated Backcrossing to Import an Allele
319(3)
Exercises
322(3)
Study Questions
322(1)
Problems
323(2)
CHAPTER 16 MATING STRATEGIES BASED ON ANIMAL PERFORMANCE: RANDOM AND ASSORTATIVE MATING
325(8)
Strategies for Making Individual Matings
325(5)
Random Mating
325(1)
Assortative Mating
326(3)
Combination Strategies
329(1)
Strategies for Crossing Breeds or Lines
330(1)
Exercises
331(2)
Study Questions
331(2)
CHAPTER 17 MATING STRATEGIES BASED ON PEDIGREE RELATIONSHIP: INBREEDING AND OUTBREEDING
333(38)
Inbreeding
333(29)
Effects of Inbreeding
333(8)
Measuring Inbreeding and Relationship
341(5)
Calculating Inbreeding and Relationship Coefficients
346(13)
Linebreeding
359(1)
Reasons to Inbreed
359(2)
Inbreeding and Industry Structure
361(1)
Outbreeding
362(5)
Effects of Outbreeding
362(3)
Reasons to Outbreed
365(2)
Outbreeding and Industry Structure
367(1)
Exercises
367(4)
Study Questions
367(2)
Problems
369(2)
CHAPTER 18 HYBRID VIGOR
371(22)
A Population Model for Hybrid Vigor
371(3)
Measuring Hybrid Vigor
374(3)
Individual, Maternal, and Paternal Hybrid Vigor
377(2)
Loss of Hybrid Vigor
379(5)
Predicting Hybrid Vigor
384(6)
Exercises
390(3)
Study Questions
390(1)
Problems
391(2)
CHAPTER 19 CROSSBREEDING SYSTEMS
393(38)
Evaluating Crossbreeding Systems
394(3)
Merit of Component Breeds
394(1)
Hybrid Vigor
395(1)
Breed Complementarity
395(1)
Consistency of Performance
396(1)
Replacement Considerations
396(1)
Simplicity
396(1)
Accuracy of Genetic Prediction
396(1)
Rotational Systems
397(9)
Spatial Rotations Using Purebred Sires
397(4)
Spatial Rotations Using Crossbred Sires
401(4)
Rotations in Time
405(1)
Terminal Sire Systems
406(5)
Static Terminal Systems
407(3)
Rotational/Terminal Systems
410(1)
Composite Animals
411(12)
Pure Composite Systems
413(7)
Composite/Terminal Systems
420(1)
Breeding Composite Seedstock
421(2)
Breeding for Uniformity
423(3)
Uniformity within a Herd or Flock
423(2)
Uniformity within an Industry
425(1)
Exercises
426(5)
Study Questions
426(1)
Problems
427(4)
PART V NEW TECHNIQUES, OLD STRATEGIES 431(24)
CHAPTER 20 BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ANIMAL BREEDING
431(19)
Reproductive Technologies
431(9)
Artificial Insemination
432(1)
Embryo Transfer and Related Technologies
432(2)
Sex Control
434(2)
Cloning
436(2)
Same-Sex Mating
438(1)
Conservation Genetics
439(1)
Molecular Technologies
440(8)
DNA Fingerprinting for Animal Identification
440(1)
Other Applications of DNA Fingerprinting
441(1)
Marker Assisted Selection for Simply-Inherited Traits
442(3)
Marker Assisted Selection for Polygenic Traits
445(1)
Gene Transfer
446(2)
Exercises
448(2)
Study Questions
448(2)
CHAPTER 21 COMMONSENSE ANIMAL BREEDING
450(5)
Be Knowledgeable
450(1)
Use Good Information
451(1)
Take Time to Think
452(1)
Be Consistent
452(1)
Keep It Simple
452(1)
Be Patient
453(1)
Exercises
453(2)
Study Questions
453(2)
GLOSSARY 455(12)
APPENDIX 467(12)
The Algebra of Variances and Covariances 467(1)
A Sampling of Proofs Using the Algebra of Variances and Covariances 468(1)
Repeatability as a Ratio of Variances 469(1)
Predicting Producing Ability from an Individual's Own Records 469(1)
Heritability as a Ratio of Variances 469(1)
Heritability as a Regression Coefficient 470(4)
Predicting Breeding Value from Progeny Records 474(5)
ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS 479(52)
Answers to Chapter 1 Problems 479(2)
Answers to Chapter 3 Problems 481(3)
Answers to Chapter 4 Problems 484(2)
Answers to Chapter 6 Problems 486(4)
Answers to Chapter 7 Problems 490(4)
Answers to Chapter 8 Problems 494(2)
Answers to Chapter 9 Problems 496(3)
Answers to Chapter 10 Problems 499(3)
Answers to Chapter 11 Problems 502(5)
Answers to Chapter 13 Problems 507(3)
Answers to Chapter 14 Problems 510(2)
Answers to Chapter 15 Problems 512(4)
Answers to Chapter 17 Problems 516(8)
Answers to Chapter 18 Problems 524(3)
Answers to Chapter 19 Problems 527(2)
Quick Key 529(2)
INDEX 531


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