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Understanding Food : Principles and Preparation

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780534506094

ISBN10:
0534506097
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/15/2003
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole
List Price: $148.33

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Summary

Part I: FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION. 1. Food Selection and Evaluation. 2. Food Safety. 3. Chemistry of Food Composition. Part II: FOOD SERVICE. 4. Meal Management, Planning, and Service. 5. Heating and Equipment. 6. Food Preparation Basics. 7. Food Preservation. 8. Government Food Regulations. Part III: FOOD ITEMS. 9. Sweeteners. 10. Fats and Oils. 11. Milk. 12. Cheese. 13. Eggs. 14. Meat. 15. Poultry. 16. Fish and Shellfish. 17. Vegetables. 18. Fruits. 19. Soups and Salads. 20. Starch and Sauces. 21. Grains and Pasta. 22. Flours and Flour Mixtures. 23. Quick Breads. 24. Yeast Breads. Part IV: DESSERTS AND BEVERAGES. 25. Cakes and Cookies. 26. Pies and Pastries. 27. Candy. 28. Frozen Desserts. 29. Beverages. Appendix A. Table of Food Composition. Appendix B. Substitution of Ingredients. Appendix C. Flavorings and Seasonings. Appendix D. Garnishes. Appendix E. Additives. Appendix F. Cheeses. Appendix G. Chemistry of Foods. Glossary. Index.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
PART I FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION
1 Food Selection and Evaluation
2(20)
Food Selection Criteria
2(11)
Sensory Criteria
2(3)
Nutritional Criteria
5(3)
Cultural Criteria
8(1)
Religious Criteria
9(1)
Psychological and Sociological Criteria
10(3)
Budgetary Criteria
13(1)
Food Evaluation
13(9)
Subjective Evaluation
13(2)
Objective Evaluation
15(7)
2 Chemistry of Food Composition
22(31)
Basic Food Chemistry
22(1)
Water
23(7)
Water Content in Foods
24(1)
Composition of Water
24(2)
Functions of Water in Food
26(4)
Carbohydrates
30(6)
Foods High in Carbohydrates
30(1)
Composition of Carbohydrates
30(1)
Monosaccharides
31(1)
Disaccharides
32(1)
Oligosaccharides
32(1)
Polysaccharides
33(3)
Lipids or Fats
36(3)
Foods High in Lipids
36(1)
Composition of Lipids
36(1)
Triglycerides
36(2)
Phospholipids
38(1)
Sterols
39(1)
Proteins
39(7)
Foods High in Proteins
39(2)
Composition of Proteins
41(1)
Functions of Proteins in Food
41(5)
Vitamins and Minerals
46(1)
Foods High in Vitamins and Minerals
46(1)
Composition of Vitamins and Minerals
46(1)
Functions of Vitamins and Minerals in Food
46(1)
Non-Nutritive Food Components
47(6)
Color Compounds
47(1)
Flavor Compounds
48(1)
Plant Compounds
48(5)
3 Food Safety
53(25)
Foodborne Illness
53(1)
What Causes Foodborne Illness?
54(1)
Biological Hazards-Living Culprits
54(8)
Bacteria-#1 Cause of Foodborne Illness
54(5)
Molds
59(1)
Viruses
59(1)
Parasites
60(1)
Prions-Mad Cow Disease
61(1)
New Virulent Biological Hazards
62(1)
Chemical Hazards-Harmful Chemicals in Food
62(1)
Seafood Toxins-Chemicals from Fish/Shellfish
62(1)
Physical Hazards-Objects in Food
63(1)
The HACCP System-Preventing Foodborne Illness
63(15)
History of HACCP
63(1)
The Seven HACCP Principles
63(1)
HACCP Principle #1: Assess the Hazards
63(1)
HACCP Principle #2: Identify the Critical Control Points (CCPs)
64(4)
HACCP Principle #3: Establish Limits at Each Critical Control Point
68(3)
HACCP Principle #4: Monitor Critical Control Points
71(1)
HACCP Principle #5: Take Corrective Action
71(1)
HACCP Principle #6: Documentation-Establish Record-Keeping Systems
71(1)
HACCP Principle #7: Verification
72(6)
PART II: FOOD SERVICE
4 Meal Management
78(20)
Food Service Organization
78(2)
Commercial Food Service Organization
78(2)
Hospital Food Service Organization
80(1)
Meal Planning
80(4)
USDA Menu Patterns
80(1)
Hospital Menu Patterns
81(1)
Creating the Menu
81(1)
Nutrient Value
82(2)
Purchasing
84(5)
Buyer
84(1)
Food Stores and Vendors/Suppliers
85(1)
Keeping Food Costs Down
86(1)
Price Comparisons
86(2)
Reducing Waste Saves Costs
88(1)
Time Management
89(1)
Estimating Time
89(1)
Efficient Meal Preparation
90(1)
Types of Meal Service
90(2)
Russian Service
90(1)
French Service
90(1)
English Service
90(2)
American Service
92(1)
Family Service
92(1)
Buffet Service
92(1)
Table Settings
92(1)
Cover and Linens
92(1)
Flatware/Dinnerware/Glassware
92(1)
Accessories
92(1)
Table Manners
93(5)
Basic Dining Etiquette
93(1)
Flatware/Glassware Etiquette
94(4)
5 Heating and Equipment
98(21)
Heating Foods
98(3)
Measuring Heat
98(2)
Types of Heat Transfer
100(1)
Food Preparation Equipment
101(18)
Primary Equipment
101(4)
Auxiliary Equipment
105(3)
Pots and Pans
108(3)
Utensils
111(8)
6 Food Preparation Basics
119(18)
Methods of Heating Foods
119(4)
Moist-Heat Preparation
119(2)
Dry-Heat Preparation
121(2)
Cutlery Techniques
123(1)
Handling Knives
123(1)
Cutting Styles
123(1)
Measuring Ingredients
124(3)
Liquid
125(1)
Eggs
125(1)
Fat
125(1)
Sugar
126(1)
Flour
127(1)
Other Ingredients and Substitutions
127(1)
Mixing Techniques
127(1)
Conventional (Creaming) Method
128(1)
Conventional Sponge Method
128(1)
Single-Stage Method
128(1)
Pastry-Blend Method
128(1)
Biscuit Method
128(1)
Muffin Method
128(1)
Seasonings and Flavorings
128(5)
Types of Seasonings and Flavorings
129(3)
Adding Seasonings and Flavorings to Food
132(1)
Food Presentation
133(4)
Plate Presentation
133(1)
Garnishes
133(4)
7 Food Preservation
137(14)
Food Spoilage
137(1)
Biological Changes
137(1)
Chemical Changes
138(1)
Physical Changes
138(1)
Food Preservation Methods
138(4)
Drying
138(2)
Curing
140(1)
Fermentation
140(1)
Pickling
140(1)
Edible Coatings on Foods
140(1)
Canning
141(1)
Cold Preservation
142(2)
Refrigeration
142(1)
Freezing
142(2)
Heat Preservation
144(1)
Boiling
144(1)
Pasteurization
144(1)
Ohmic Heating
144(1)
Other Preservation Methods
144(7)
Irradiation (Cold Pasteurization)
144(1)
Pulsed Light
145(1)
High-Pressure Processing
146(1)
Ozonation
146(1)
Aseptic and Modified-Atmosphere Packaging
146(5)
8 Government Food Regulations
151(15)
Federal Food Laws
151(1)
Food and Drug Act (1906)
151(1)
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938)
152(1)
Numerous Government Agencies
152(1)
Food and Drug Administration
152(7)
The Code of Federal Regulations
152(1)
Research/Education
152(1)
FDA Inspections
153(1)
FDA Standards
153(1)
Food Labeling
154(2)
Food Additives
156(3)
U.S. Department of Agriculture
159(2)
USDA Inspections
159(1)
USDA Grading
160(1)
Environmental Protection Agency
161(1)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
161(1)
Other Regulatory Agencies
161(5)
U.S. Department of Commerce
161(1)
Federal Trade Commission
161(1)
Department of the Treasury
161(1)
State Agencies
161(5)
PART III: FOOD ITEMS
9 Sweeteners
166(15)
Natural Sweeteners
166(6)
Sugars
166(3)
Syrups
169(2)
Sugar Alcohols
171(1)
Alternative Sweeteners
172(3)
Saccharin
172(1)
Aspartame
173(1)
Acesulfame-K
174(1)
Sucralose
174(1)
Neotame
174(1)
Pending Alternative Sweeteners
174
Other Sweeteners
114(61)
Functions of Sugars in Foods
175(6)
Sweetness
175(1)
Solubility
175(1)
Crystallization
175(1)
Browning Reactions
176(1)
Moisture Absorption (Hygroscopicity)
177(1)
Texture
177(1)
Fermentation
177(1)
Preservation
177(4)
10 Fats and Oils
181(21)
Functions of Fats in Food
181(5)
Heat Transfer
182(1)
Shortening Power
182(1)
Emulsions
182(2)
Melting Point
184(1)
Plasticity
184(1)
Solubility
185(1)
Flavor
185(1)
Texture
185(1)
Appearance
186(1)
Satiety or Feeling Full
186(1)
Types of Fats
186(4)
Butter
186(1)
Margarine
187(1)
Shortenings
188(1)
Oils
188(2)
Lard/Tallow/Suet
190(1)
Cocoa Butter
190(1)
Fat Replacers
190(2)
Types of Fat Replacers
190(1)
Carbohydrate-Based Fat Replacers
190(1)
Protein-Based Fat Replacers
190(2)
Lipid-Based Fat Replacers
192(1)
Food Preparation with Fats
192(4)
Frying Care
192(3)
Lower-Fat Preparation Techniques
195(1)
Storage of Fats
196(6)
Rancidity
196(6)
11 Milk
202(18)
Composition of Milk
202(2)
Nutrients
202(2)
Color Compounds
204(1)
Purchasing Milk
204(2)
Grades
204(1)
Pasteurization
205(1)
Homogenization
206(1)
Types of Milk
206(6)
Fresh Fluid Milks
206(3)
Canned Fluid Milks
209(1)
Dry Milk
210(1)
Cultured Milk Products
210(2)
Creams and Substitutes
212(1)
Milk Products in Food Preparation
212(3)
Flavor Changes
212(1)
Coagulation and Precipitation
212(2)
Whipped Milk Products
214(1)
Storage of Milk Products
215(5)
Refrigerated
215(1)
Dry Storage
216(4)
12 Cheese
220(13)
Classification of Cheeses
220(1)
Cheese Production
221(6)
Milk Selection
221(1)
Coagulation
222(1)
Curd Treatment
223(1)
Curing and Ripening
224(1)
Whey and Whey Products
225(1)
Processed Cheeses
226(1)
Purchasing Cheese
227(1)
Grading
227(1)
Food Preparation with Cheese
228(1)
Selecting a Cheese
228(1)
Temperatures
229(1)
Storage of Cheese
229(4)
Dry Storage
229(1)
Refrigeration
229(1)
Frozen
230(3)
13 Eggs
233(18)
Composition of Eggs
233(2)
Structure
233(2)
Purchasing Eggs
235(3)
Inspection
235(1)
Grading
235(1)
Sizing
236(1)
Egg Substitutes
236(1)
Value-Added Eggs
237(1)
Functions of Eggs in Foods
238(2)
Emulsifying
238(1)
Binding
238(1)
Foaming
239(1)
Interfering
240(1)
Clarifying
240(1)
Preparation of Eggs
240(6)
Changes in Prepared Eggs
240(1)
Dry-Heat Preparation
241(3)
Moist-Heat Preparation
244(2)
Storage of Eggs
246(5)
Refrigerator
246(1)
Frozen
247(1)
Dried
247(1)
Safety Tips
248(3)
14 Meat
251(28)
Types of Meats
251(1)
Beef
251(1)
Lamb and Mutton
251(1)
Pork
252(1)
Composition of Meats
252(4)
Structure of Meat
252(2)
Pigments
254(1)
Extractives
255(1)
Purchasing Meats
256(12)
Inspection
256(1)
Grading
257(2)
Tenderness of Meats
259(3)
Cuts of Meat
262(4)
Processed Meats
266(2)
Preparation of Meats
268(6)
Changes During Heating
268(1)
Determining Doneness
269(1)
Dry-Heat Preparation
270(3)
Moist-Heat Preparation
273(1)
Carving
273(1)
Storage of Meats
274(5)
Refrigerated
274(1)
Frozen
274(5)
15 Poultry
279(14)
Classification of Poultry
279(1)
Chickens
280(1)
Turkeys
280(1)
Other Domestic Poultry
280(1)
Composition of Poultry
280(1)
Pigments
280(1)
Purchasing Poultry
280(4)
Inspection
280(1)
Grading
280(2)
Types and Styles of Poultry
282(1)
How Much to Buy
283(1)
Preparation of Poultry
284(5)
Preparation Safety Tips
284(1)
Changes During Preparation
284(1)
Determining Doneness
285(1)
Dry-Heat Preparation
285(4)
Moist-Heat Preparation
289(1)
Storage of Poultry
289(4)
Refrigerated
289(1)
Frozen
290(3)
16 Fish and Shellfish
293(19)
Classification of Fish and Shellfish
293(1)
Vertebrate or Invertebrate
293(1)
Salt or Fresh Water
294(1)
Lean or Fat
294(1)
Composition of Fish
294(1)
Structure of Finfish
294(1)
Pigments
295(1)
Purchasing Fish and Shellfish
295(9)
Inspection/Grading
295(1)
Selection of Finfish
296(5)
Selection of Shellfish
301(3)
Preparation of Fish and Shellfish
304(3)
Dry-Heat Preparation
305(1)
Moist-Heat Preparation
306(1)
Raw Fish
307(1)
Storage of Fish and Shellfish
307(5)
Fresh Finfish
308(1)
Fresh Shellfish
308(1)
Frozen
308(1)
Canned and Cured
308(4)
17 Vegetables
312(22)
Classification of Vegetables
312(1)
Composition of Vegetables
313(4)
Structure of Plant Cells
313(1)
Plant Pigments
314(3)
Phytochemicals
317(1)
Purchasing Vegetables
317(7)
Grading Vegetables
317(1)
Selecting Vegetables
317(7)
Preparation of Vegetables
324(5)
General Guidelines
324(1)
Changes During Heating
324(2)
Dry-Heat Preparation
326(1)
Moist-Heat Preparation
327(1)
Preparing Legumes
328(1)
Preparing Sprouts
328(1)
Storage of Vegetables
329(5)
Refrigerated
329(1)
Dry Storage
330(4)
18 Fruits
334(20)
Classification of Fruits
334(1)
Classification Exceptions
334(1)
Composition of Fruits
335(1)
Organic Acids
335(1)
Pectic Substances
335(1)
Phenolic Compounds
336(1)
Purchasing Fruits
336(9)
Grading Fruit
336(1)
Selecting Fresh Fruits
337(7)
Processed Fruits
344(1)
Dried Fruits
345(1)
Fruit Juices
345(1)
Preparation of Fruits
345(4)
Enzymatic Browning
345(1)
Changes During Heating
345(2)
Dry-Heat Preparation
347(1)
Moist-Heat Preparation
347(1)
Fruit Spreads
348(1)
Storage of Fruits
349(5)
Storing Fresh Fruit
350(1)
Storing Canned Fruit
350(4)
19 Soups and Salads
354(15)
Soups
354(4)
Stocks
354(2)
Clear and Thin Soups
356(1)
Thick Soups
356(1)
Cream Soups
357(1)
Salads
358(11)
Salad Ingredients
358(2)
Leafy Green Salads
360(1)
Vegetable Salads
361(1)
Fruit Salads
362(1)
Protein Salads
362(1)
Pasta/Grain Salads
363(1)
Salad Dressings
363(1)
Gelatin Salads
364(5)
20 Starches and Sauces
369(14)
Starches as Thickeners
369(2)
Sources of Starch
369(1)
Starch in Food Products
369(1)
Starch Structure
370(1)
Starch Characteristics
371(4)
Gelatinization
371(1)
Gel Formation
372(1)
Retrogradation
372(1)
Dextrinization
373(1)
Modified Starches
374(1)
Sauces
375(5)
Functions of Sauces in Foods
375(1)
Thickened Sauces
375(3)
Unthickened Sauces
378(2)
Storage of Starches and Sauces
380(3)
21 Cereal Grains and Pastas
383
Composition of Cereal Grains
383(1)
Structure
383(1)
Uses of Cereal Grains
384(2)
Flour
384(1)
Pasta
385(1)
Breakfast Cereal
385(1)
Alcoholic Beverages
386(1)
Animal Feeds
386(1)
Types of Cereal Grains
386(6)
Wheat
386(1)
Rice
387(1)
Corn
388(1)
Barley
389(1)
Millet
390(1)
Sorghum
390(1)
Oats
390(1)
Rye
390(1)
Other Grains
391(1)
Preparation of Cereal Grains
392(2)
Moist-Heat Preparation
392(2)
Storage of Cereal Grains
394(1)
Dry
394(1)
Refrigerated
394(1)
Frozen
394(1)
Pastas
394(2)
Types of Pasta
394(1)
Pasta Nomenclature
394(2)
Preparation of Pasta
396(1)
Moist-Heat Preparation
396(1)
Storage of Pasta
397
22 Flours and Flour Mixtures
40(382)
Flours
401(6)
Gluten
402(2)
Milling
404(1)
Types of Wheat Flour
405(1)
Types of Non-Wheat Flour
406(1)
Treated Flours
407(1)
Flour Mixture Ingredients
407(9)
Leavening Agents
407(4)
Sugar
411(1)
Salt/Flavoring
412(1)
Liquid
413(1)
Fat
413(2)
Eggs
415(1)
Commercial Additives
415(1)
Preparation of Baked Goods
416(1)
Doughs and Batters
416(1)
Changes During Heating
417(1)
Storage of Flour and Flour Mixtures
417(5)
Dry Storage
417(1)
Frozen
418(4)
23 Quick Breads
422(8)
Preparation of Quick Breads
422(1)
The Muffin Method
422(1)
Varieties of Quick Breads
423(7)
Pour Batters
423(1)
Drop Batters
424(2)
Doughs
426(4)
24 Yeast Breads
430(14)
Preparation of Yeast Breads
430(7)
Ingredients
430(1)
Mixing Methods
430(1)
Kneading
431(1)
Fermentation-First Rising
432(1)
Punching Down-Second Rising
433(1)
Shaping
433(1)
Proofing
434(1)
Decorating
435(1)
Baking
435(2)
Varieties of Yeast Breads
437(3)
Loaf Breads
437(1)
Rolls
438(1)
Pita Bread
438(1)
Bagels
439(1)
English Muffins
439(1)
Pizza Crust
439(1)
Raised Doughnuts
439(1)
Specialty Breads
439(1)
Storage of Yeast Breads
440(4)
Fresh
440(1)
Refrigerated
440(1)
Frozen
440(4)
PART IV: DESSERTS AND BEVERAGES
25 Cakes and Cookies
444(12)
Types of Cakes
444(1)
Shortened Cakes
444(1)
Unshortened Cakes
445(1)
Chiffon Cakes
445(1)
Preparation of Cakes
445(5)
Ingredients
445(1)
Preparing Shortened Cakes
446(2)
Preparing Unshortened Cakes
448(2)
Storage of Cakes
450(1)
Types of Cookies
450(2)
Preparation of Cookies
452(1)
Mixing Methods
452(1)
Baking Cookies
452(1)
Storage of Cookies
453(3)
26 Pies and Pastries
456(15)
Types of Pastry
456(1)
Types of Puff Pastry
456(1)
Preparation of Pastry
457(11)
Ingredients of Pastry
457(3)
Mixing
460(1)
Rolling
461(3)
Fillings
464(3)
Baking
467(1)
Storage of Pastry
468(3)
27 Candy
471(15)
Classification of Candies
471(1)
Preparation of Candy
472(10)
Steps to Confectionary Preparation
473(1)
Crystalline Candies
473(3)
Noncrystalline Candies
476(2)
Chocolate
478(4)
Frostings
482(1)
Storage of Candy
482(4)
Shelf Life of Chocolate
483(3)
28 Frozen Desserts
486(10)
Types of Frozen Desserts
486(3)
Ice Cream
486(2)
Frozen Yogurt
488(1)
Sherbet
488(1)
Sorbet
488(1)
Water Ices
488(1)
Still-Frozen Desserts
489(1)
Preparation of Frozen Desserts
489(4)
Factors Affecting Quality
489(1)
Mixing and Freezing
490(3)
Storage of Frozen Desserts
493(3)
Texture Changes
493(1)
Scooping Frozen Desserts
493(3)
29 Beverages
496(22)
Water
496(1)
Types of Water
496(1)
Carbonated Beverages
497(1)
Early Soft Drinks
498(1)
Soft Drink Processing
498(1)
Fruit and Vegetable Beverages
498(2)
Fruit/Vegetable Juice Processing
498(2)
New Age Beverages
500(1)
Coffee
500(4)
Coffee Processing
500(1)
Composition of Coffee
501(1)
Preparation of Coffee
502(2)
Storage of Coffee
504(1)
Tea
504(3)
Tea Processing
505(1)
Grades of Tea
506(1)
Composition of Tea
506(1)
Preparation of Tea
506(1)
Storage of Tea
507(1)
Dairy Beverages
507(1)
Alcoholic Beverages
507
Calorie (kcal) Content
508(1)
Beer
508(1)
Wine
509(3)
Spirits
512
APPENDIXES
A: Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating
518(2)
B: Approximate Food Measurements
520(2)
C: Substitution of Ingredients
522(2)
D: Flavorings and Seasonings
524(3)
E: Garnishes
527(1)
F: Common Food Additives
528(4)
G: Cheeses
532(2)
H: Basic Chemistry Concepts
534(9)
I: Nutritive value of Selected Foods
543(9)
Glossary 552(6)
Credits and Sources 558(2)
Index 560


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