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Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment With Infotrac

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780534546892

ISBN10:
0534546897
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/13/2000
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 5th edition with a publication date of 7/13/2000.
What is included with this book?
  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

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Author Biography

Charles Zastrow, Mssw, and PhD, is Professor in the Social Work Department, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater Karen K. Kirst-Ashman, Mssw, PhD, and Certified Independent Clinical Social Worker, is Professor in the Social Work Department, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater

Table of Contents

About the Authors vii
Preface xvii
Theoretical Perspectives on Human Behavior and the Social Environment
1(50)
A Prespective
2(1)
Foundation Knowledge and the Purpose of Social Work
3(1)
Foundation Knowledge and the Process of Social Work: The Importance of Assessment
4(1)
Impacts of Systems in the Environment
5(8)
Understanding Key Concepts in Systems Theories
5(3)
The Ecological Perspective: Important Concepts
8(1)
Case Example: Child Abuse
9(4)
People's Involvement with Multiple Systems
13(10)
Micro, Mezzo, and Macro Systems
14(1)
The Social Environment
14(1)
Interactions Between Micro Systems and Mezzo Systems
14(1)
Interactions Between Micro Systems and Macro Systems
14(3)
The Impact of Social Forces
17(1)
The Relationships among Biological, Psychological, and Social Systems
18(1)
Bio-Psycho-Social Systems Affect Each Other
19(1)
Application of Values and Ethics to Bio-Psycho-Social System Assessments
20(1)
Diversity, Oppression, and Populations-at-Risk
21(2)
The Systems Impact Model
23(4)
The Client System
23(1)
The Relationship Between Organizational Macro Systems and Client Systems
24(1)
The Relationship Between the Community Macro System and the Client System
24(1)
The Relationship Between Organization and Community Macro Systems
25(1)
Institutional Values Macro System
25(1)
The Effects of Institutional Values and Organizational Macro Systems on Clients
26(1)
The Social Worker System
26(1)
The Impacts of Organizations
27(3)
What Are Organizations?
27(2)
Organizational Theories
29(1)
Viewing Organizations from a Systems Perspective
30(3)
Resource Input
30(1)
Process
30(1)
Output
30(1)
The Exceptional Problems of Social Service Organizations
30(2)
Goal Displacement
32(1)
Communities and Human Behavior
33(8)
Theoretical Perspectives on Communities
34(3)
Models of Community
37(1)
Characteristics of Three Models of Community Change
38(3)
Social Worker System Roles
41(6)
Enabler
41(1)
Hispanic Women, Community Development, and Social Action
42(2)
Mediator
44(1)
Integrator/Coordinator
44(1)
Manager
44(1)
Educator
44(1)
Analyst/Evaluator
45(1)
Broker
45(1)
Facilitator
45(1)
Initiator
46(1)
Negotiator
46(1)
Advocate
46(1)
Assessment, Problem Solving, and Social Work: The Underlying Theme
47(1)
Summary
47(4)
Case Example: Unplanned Pregnancy
48(3)
Part One Infancy and Childhood
Biological Systems and Their Impacts on Infancy and Childhood
51(47)
A Perspective
52(1)
The Dynamics of Human Reproduction
52(13)
Conception
53(1)
Diagnosis of Pregnancy
54(1)
Fetal Development during Pregnancy
54(2)
Prenatal Influences
56(2)
Prenatal Assessment
58(1)
Access to Prenatal Care: Obstacles in the Macro Environment
59(1)
Problem Pregnancies
60(1)
The Birth Process
60(5)
Early Functioning of the Neonate
65(1)
Developmental Milestones
66(2)
Growth as a Continuous, Orderly Process
67(1)
Specific Characteristics of Different Age Levels
67(1)
Individual Differences
67(1)
The Nature-Nurture Controversy
67(1)
Relevance to Social Work
68(1)
Profiles of Normal Development
68(1)
Significant Issues and Life Events
68(1)
The Abortion Controversy: Impacts of Social and Economic Forces
68(18)
Developmental Milestones for Children From Age 4 Months to 11 Years
69(5)
The Impact of Macro System Policies on Practice and Access to Services
74(1)
Case Example: Single and Pregnant
75(4)
Incidence of Abortion
79(1)
Methods of Abortion
80(1)
The Importance of Context and Timing
81(1)
Long-Term Effects of Abortion
81(1)
Arguments for and Against Abortion
82(1)
Social Worker Roles and Abortion
83(1)
Abortion-Related Ethical Dilemmas in Practice
84(2)
Infertility
86(10)
Causes of Infertility
87(1)
Psychological Reactions to Infertility
88(1)
Treatment of Infertility
88(1)
Alternatives Available to the Infertile Couple
88(1)
A Feminist Perspective on Infertility Counseling
89(4)
An Ethical Dilemma: Fertility Doctor Allegedly Uses His Own Sperm to Impregnate Unknowing Patients
93(3)
The Effects of Macro Systems on Infertility
96(1)
Social Work Roles and Infertility
96(1)
Summary
96(2)
Psychological Systems and Their Impacts on Infancy and Childhood
98(48)
A Perspective
99(1)
Theories of Psychological Development
100(14)
Psychodynamic Theory
100(2)
Definitions of Common Defense Mechanisms Postulated By Psychoanalytic Theory
102(2)
Critical Thinking: Evaluation of Psychodynamic Theory
104(1)
Neo-Freudian Psychoanalytic Developments
104(1)
Behavioral Theories
105(1)
Phenomenological Theories: Carl Rogers
105(2)
Feminist Theories
107(1)
Being Sensitive to Diversity When Examining Psychological Theories
108(1)
The Relevance of Theory to Social Work: Critical Thinking and Evaluation of Theory
109(5)
Cognitive Development: Piaget
114(7)
The Sensorimotor Period
116(1)
The Preoperational Thought Period
117(2)
The Period of Concrete Operations
119(1)
The Period of Formal Operations
119(1)
Critical Thinking: Evaluation of Piaget's. Theory
120(1)
Emotional Development
121(3)
Infants' Emotions
122(1)
Infants and Temperament
123(1)
Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
124(3)
The Effects of Positive and Negative Self-Concepts
125(2)
A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Self-Esteem
127(1)
Significant Issues and Life Events
127(17)
Intelligence and Intelligence Testing
127(5)
People Who Have Cognitive Disabilities: A Population-at-Risk
132(5)
The Americans With Disabilities Act: A Macro System Addresses a Population-At-Risk
137(1)
People with Learning Disabilities: A Population-at-Risk
138(1)
People With Developmental Disabilities: Populations-at-Risk
139(3)
The Effects of a Learning Disability
142(2)
Summary
144(2)
Social Systems and Their Impacts on Infancy and Childhood
146(57)
A Perspective
147(1)
Socialization
148(1)
The Family Environment
148(4)
Membership in Family Groups: Variations in Family Structure
148(1)
Positive Family Functioning
149(1)
Effects of Social Forces and Policies on Family Systems: Helpful or Hurtful?
150(2)
The Dynamics of Family Systems
152(1)
The Family Life Cycle
152(5)
The Application of Systems Theory Principles to Families
153(4)
Learning Theory
157(7)
Critical Thinking: Evaluation of Theory
158(1)
Respondent Conditioning
158(1)
Modeling
159(1)
Operant Conditioning
160(1)
The ABCs of Behavior
160(1)
Consequences and Recurring Behavior
161(1)
Reinforcement
161(1)
Punishment
162(1)
Extinction
163(1)
Applications of Learning Theory to Practice
164(8)
The Use of Positive Reinforcement
165(1)
Types of Positive Reinforcers
165(1)
Secondary Reinforcers
165(2)
Reinforcers versus Rewards
167(1)
Suggestions for Using Positive Reinforcement
168(1)
The Use of Punishment
169(3)
Additional Issues
172(3)
Accidental Training
172(1)
Behaviorally Specific Terminology
173(1)
Accidental Training
173(1)
Measuring Improvement
174(1)
The Improtance of Parental Attention
174(1)
A Specific Treatment Situation: Time-Out from Reinforcement
175(1)
Improving Effectiveness
175(1)
``Grounding''
176(1)
Impacts of Common Life Events on Children
176(6)
Membership in Family Systems
176(1)
Membership in Sibling Subsystems
177(1)
Gender Role Socialization
178(1)
Ethnic and Cultural Differences in Families
179(3)
The Social Environment: Peers, Television, and School
182(7)
The Social Aspects of Play with Peers
182(3)
The Influence of Television
185(3)
The School Environment
188(1)
Child Abuse and Neglect
189(12)
Incidence and Demographics of Child Abuse and Neglect
190(1)
Physical Child Abuse
190(4)
Child Neglect
194(3)
Sexual Abuse
197(4)
Suggestions for Talking to Children Victimized by Sexual Assault
201(1)
Summary
201(2)
Ethnocentrism and Racism
203(38)
A Perspective
204(1)
Ethnic Groups and Ethnocentrism
204(1)
Race and Racism
205(2)
Violence Against Minorities in the United States
206(1)
Aspects of Social and Economic Forces: Prejudice, Discrimination, and Oppression
207(2)
Racial and Ethnic Streotypes
209(1)
Racial and Ethnic Discrimination Is the Problem of Whites
209(1)
White Privilege
210(1)
Race Is a Social Concept
210(1)
Institutional Values and Racism: Discrimination in Systems
211(2)
Discrimination and Oppression in Organizational Macro Systems
211(1)
Discrimination and Oppression in Community Macro Systems
212(1)
Sources of Prejudice and Discrimination
213(4)
Projection
213(1)
Frustration-Aggression
213(1)
Countering Insecurity and Inferiority
213(1)
Authoritarianism
213(1)
History
213(1)
Competition and Exploitation
214(1)
Socialization Patterns
214(1)
Belief in the One True Religion
214(1)
Evaluation of Discrimination Theories
214(1)
Is Racial Discrimination Based on Criminal Thinking?
215(2)
Impacts of Social and Economic Forces: The Effects and Costs of Discrimination and Oppression
217(1)
The Effects of Discrimination on Human Growth and Development
218(5)
History and Culture of African Americans
218(3)
Effects of Discrimination on Development of Self-Concept
221(1)
The Africentric Perspective and Worldview
221(1)
Kwanzaa
222(1)
Strategies to Promote Social and Economic Justice
223(8)
Mass Media Appeals: Striving to Change Institutional Values
223(1)
Greater Interaction Between Minority Groups and the Majority Group
224(1)
Civil Rights Laws: Changing the Legal Macro System
224(1)
Activism
224(1)
Rosa Parks' Act of Courage Sparked the Civil Rights Movement
225(1)
School Busing: A Community Initiative
225(1)
Affirmative Action: A Macro System Response
226(2)
Confronting Racist Remarks and Actions
228(1)
Minority-Owned Businesses
228(1)
Confronting Community Problems: Inner Cities
228(2)
Grass-Roots Organizations: Implementing Change in Community Macro Systems
230(1)
Social Work Practice with Racial and Ethnic Groups
231(5)
Ethnic-Sensitive Practice
231(2)
Learning the Culture of the Group
233(1)
Self-Awareness of Values, Prejudices, and Stereotypes
234(1)
Application to Theory to Practice: Techniques of Intervention
234(1)
Social Work Roles to Counter Discrimination
235(1)
The Future of American Race and Ethnic Relations
236(1)
Summary
236(5)
A Dream of the End of Racism
237(4)
Part Two Adolescence and Young Adulthood
Biological Systems and Their Impacts on Adolescence and Young Adulthood
241(35)
A Perspective
242(1)
Adolescence
243(1)
Puberty
243(3)
The Growth Spurt
243(1)
The Secular Trend
244(1)
Primary and Secondary Sex Characteristics
244(2)
Psychological Reactions to Physical Changes
246(2)
Body Image and Self-Concept
246(1)
Weight, Women, and Eating Disorders
246(1)
Critical Thinking About Weight and Body Image
247(1)
Early and Late Maturation in Boys
247(1)
Early and Late Maturation in Girls
248(1)
Young Adulthood
248(7)
Physical Development
249(1)
Health Status
249(1)
Breast Cancer
250(3)
Life-Style and Good Health
253(2)
Significant Issues and Life Events
255(20)
Sexual Activity in Adolescence
255(1)
Masturbation
256(1)
Unplanned Pregnancy in Adolescence
257(1)
Teenage Fathers
258(1)
Why Do Teens Get Pregnant?
258(1)
Portrait of a Single Father
259(1)
Sex Education
260(2)
Focus on Diversity: Empowerment through Sex Education for Native Americans
262(1)
Sex Education in the Age of AIDS
263(1)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
264(3)
Major Methods of Contraception
267(8)
Summary
275(1)
Psychological Systems and Their Impacts on Adolescence and Young Adulthood
276(30)
A Perspective
277(1)
Identity Formation
277(8)
Erickson's Psychosocial Theory
278(1)
Erikson's Eight Stages of Development
279(1)
Implications of Identity Formation in Adolescence
280(1)
How to Determine Who You Are
281(1)
Marcia's Categories of Identity
282(1)
Critical Thinking: The Evaluation of Theory and Application to Client Situations
283(1)
Race, Culture, Ethnicity, and Identity Development
283(1)
Lesbian and Gay Adolescents
284(1)
Moral Development
285(4)
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
285(1)
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development
286(1)
Critical Thinking: Evaluation of Kohlberg's Theory
286(1)
Moral Development and Women: Gilligan's Approach
287(1)
Critical Thinking: Evaluation of Gilligan's Theory
288(1)
Application of Theory to Client Situations
289(1)
Empowerment Through Spiritual Development
289(3)
Fowler's Theory of Faith Development
290(1)
Spirituality and Social Work Practice
291(1)
Significant Issues and Life Events: Suicide and Assertiveness
292(1)
Suicide
292(9)
Incidence of Suicide
292(1)
Causes of Adolescent Suicide
293(1)
Suicidal Symptoms
294(1)
Joany---A Victim of Suicide
294(1)
Suicide Notes
295(1)
How to Use the Sad Persons Scale
296(1)
The SAD Persons Scale
297(1)
Focus On Diversity: Suicide and Adolescent Hispanic Females
297(1)
Guidelines for Helping Suicidal People
298(1)
Community Responses to Suicide: Prevention and Crisis Intervention
299(2)
Empowerment through Assertiveness and Assertiveness Training
301(4)
The Relevance of Assertiveness
301(1)
Nanassertive, Assertive, and Aggressive Communication
302(1)
Each of Us Has Certain Assertive Rights
302(1)
The Advantages of Assertiveness
303(1)
Assertiveness Training
304(1)
Application of Assertiveness Approaches to Social Work Practice
305(1)
Summary
305(1)
Social Systems and Their Impacts on Adolescence and Young Adulthood
306(50)
A Perspective
307(1)
Social System Changes in Adolescence and Young Adulthood
308(7)
Movement from Dependence to Independence
308(1)
Interaction in Peer Group Systems
309(1)
Interaction in Families: Effective Communication Between Parents and Children
310(3)
An Educational Program for Ethnic Minority Adolescents That's Making a Difference
313(1)
Intimacy versus Isolation
313(2)
Empowerment of Homeless Youth
315(1)
Interaction in Family Systems: Choosing a Personal Life-Style
315(9)
Marriage
315(1)
Theories about Why People Choose Each Other as Mates
316(1)
Predictive Factors Leading to Marital Happiness/Unhappiness
317(1)
Romantic Love versus Rational Love
318(2)
Guidelines for Building and Maintaining a Happy Marriage
320(1)
Cohabitation
320(1)
Single Life
321(1)
Parenthood
321(1)
Parental Gender Preferences
322(1)
Childless Couples
323(1)
Social Problems
324(20)
Eating Disorders
324(5)
Emotional and Behavioral Problems
329(2)
Major Mental Disorders According to the American Psychiatric Association
331(1)
Format for Rational Self-Analysis
331(5)
A Rational Self-Analysis of Emotions Associated with Ending a Marriage
336(3)
Macro System Problems: Crime and Delinquency
339(1)
Our Thinking Determines Our Behavior and Our Emotions
340(1)
Macro System Problems: Delinquent Gangs
340(1)
Self-Talk Explanation for Multiple Forgeries
341(3)
Empowerment Through Social Work with Groups
344(10)
Types of Groups
345(3)
Models of Group Development Over Time
348(2)
Task and Maintenance Roles
350(1)
Leadership Theories
351(3)
Summary
354(2)
Gender Roles and Sexism
356(41)
A Perspective
357(1)
Gender Role Stereotypes
357(4)
Childhood
358(1)
Adolescence
359(1)
Adulthood
360(1)
Male/Female Differences
361(1)
Ability Level
361(1)
Communication Styles
362(1)
People as Individuals
362(1)
Significant Issues and Events in the Lives of Women
363(1)
Comparable Worth and Economic Inequality
363(3)
Sexual Harassment
366(4)
The Definition of Sexual Harassment
366(1)
Strengthening the Definition: A Macro System Response
367(1)
Anita Hill Versus Clarence Thomas: A Case of Sexual Harassment?
368(1)
The Extent of Sexual Harassment
369(1)
Effects of Sexual Harassment
370(1)
Sexist Language
370(2)
Sexual Harassment Allegations Plague High Places
371(1)
Rape and Sexual Assault
372(12)
Confronting Sexual Harassment
373(1)
Using Nonsexist Language
374(1)
Incidence of Rape
374(1)
Theoretical Views of Rape
375(1)
Common Myths about Rape
376(1)
Additional Facts about Rape
376(1)
Suggestions for Rape Prevention
377(1)
Profile of a Rapist
378(2)
Survivors' Reactions to Rape
380(1)
Suggestions for Counseling Rape Survivors
380(2)
My Place''
382(2)
Battered Women
384(8)
The Abusive Perpetrator
385(1)
The Battering Cycle
385(1)
Revered American Hero and Spouse Batterer
386(1)
O.J. Simpson
Why Does She Stay?
387(1)
Community Responses to Battered Women: Their Alternatives
388(1)
Prince Charming Redefined
389(3)
Special Counseling Needs of Women
392(1)
Working with Women
392(2)
Strategies for Combating Sexism and Achieving Sexual Equality
393(1)
Summary
394(3)
Part Three Middle Adulthood
Biological Systems and Their Impacts on Middle Adulthood
397(29)
A Perspective
398(1)
The Age Span of Middle Adulthood
398(1)
Physical Changes in Middle Age
398(4)
Changes in Physical Functioning
398(1)
Health Changes
398(1)
Changes in Physical Appearance
399(1)
The Double Standard of Aging
399(1)
Changes in Sense Organs
400(1)
Changes in Physical Strength and Reaction Time
400(1)
Changes in Intellectual Functioning
400(1)
An Identity Crisis: When the Applause Stops
401(1)
Female Menopause
402(3)
Cultural Differences in Women's Experience of Menopause
403(1)
Osteoporosis
404(1)
Male Climateric
405(1)
Midlife Crisis: True or False?
406(1)
Sexual Functioning in Middle Age
407(3)
Sex in Marriage
407(1)
Extramarital Sexual Relationships
408(1)
Sex Following Divorce
409(1)
Sex in Widowhood
409(1)
Sex among the Never-Married
409(1)
Celibacy
410(1)
People Living with AIDS: A Population-at-Risk
410(15)
What Causes AIDS?
410(1)
How Is AIDS Contracted?
411(1)
Magic Johnson, an American hero, Joins the Battle Against the AIDS Virus
411(2)
Diagnosis
413(1)
Origin of AIDS
413(1)
The Effects of HIV
414(1)
Treatment and Prevention of AIDS
415(1)
Impacts of Social and Economic Forces: AIDS Discrimination and Oppression
416(1)
Professional Values and AIDS
416(1)
When a Friend Has AIDS
417(1)
Ethical Dilemmas: Confidentiality
418(2)
Ethical Dilemmas: HIV Testing
420(1)
Macro System Responses to AIDS
420(2)
Social Work Roles: Helping Persons Living with AIDS
422(2)
Persons Living with AIDS
424(1)
Summary
425(1)
Psychological Systems and Their Impacts on Middle Adulthood
426(47)
A Perspective
427(1)
Generativity versus Stagnation
428(1)
Peck's Theories of Psychological Development
428(1)
Levinson's Theories of Life Structure, Life Eras, and Transitions for Men
429(3)
Application of Levinson's Theories to Women: An Evaluation
431(1)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
432(1)
Game Analysis and Script Analysis
433(5)
Game Analysis
433(2)
Life Scripts
435(3)
Mezzo System Interactions: Nonverbal Communication
438(9)
The Functions of Nonverbal Communication
439(1)
Posture
440(1)
Body Orientation
440(1)
Gestures
440(1)
Nonverbal Behavior among Poker Players
441(1)
Touching
441(1)
Clothing
442(1)
Personal Space
442(1)
Territoriality
443(1)
Facial Expressions
444(1)
Voice
444(1)
Physical Appearance
445(1)
The Environment
446(1)
Control Theory
447(1)
Intuition
448(1)
Chemical Substance Use and Abuse
449(22)
Specific Drugs---What They Are and What They Do
450(1)
Drugs of Abuse: Facts and Effects
451(4)
Date-Rape Drug
455(3)
Crack Babies
458(5)
Dependence on Alcohol and Other Drugs
463(2)
Interaction in Family Systems: A Theoretical Approach to Drug Abuse
465(1)
Application of Theory to Client Situations: Treatment for the Chemically Dependent Person and His or Her Family
465(3)
An AA Meeting
468(2)
Understanding and Treating Codependency
470(1)
The Relationship Between Knowledge and Assessment
470(1)
Working with Alcoholic Clients: The Problem of Denial
471(1)
Summary
471(2)
Social Systems and Their Impacts on Middle Adulthood
473(51)
A Perspective
474(1)
Macro Social System Theories
474(4)
The Functionalist Perspective
475(1)
The Conflict Perspective
476(1)
The Interactionist Perspective
477(1)
Poverty: Impacts of Social and Economic Forces
478(8)
The Rich and the Poor
478(1)
Personal Income Disparities Are Astounding
479(1)
The Problem
480(1)
The Ideology of Individualism
481(1)
Who Are the Poor?
481(1)
Poverty Perpetuates Poverty
482(1)
What Causes Poverty?
482(1)
The Culture of Poverty: Evaluation of Theory and Its Application to Client Situations
482(2)
Poverty Is Functional
484(1)
Application of Functionalism to Poverty
484(1)
Application of Conflict Theory to Poverty
485(1)
Application of Interactionist Theory to Poverty
486(1)
Family Mezzo System Problems
486(17)
Empty-Shell Marriages
486(1)
Conflict Resolution Strategies
487(3)
Divorce
490(2)
Analyzing Love Relationships
492(2)
Facts about Divorce
494(3)
The Effects of a Divorce on Children Depend on What Happens after the Divorce
497(2)
Single-Parent Families
499(1)
Blended Families
499(3)
Mothers Working Outside the Home
502(1)
The ``Sandwich'' Generation
503(1)
Assessing and Intervening in Family Systems
503(10)
Verbal and Nonverbal Communication
503(1)
Family Norms
504(1)
Family System Assessment: The Eco-Map
505(2)
Family System Assessment: The Genogram
507(4)
Family Problems and Social Work Roles
511(2)
Social Work with Organizations
513(6)
Analyzing a Human Services Organization
514(1)
The Autocratic Model
514(1)
The Custodial Model
515(1)
The Scientific Management Model
515(1)
The Human Relations Model
516(1)
Theory X and Theory Y
517(1)
The Collegial Model
517(1)
Theory Z
517(1)
Total Quality Management
518(1)
Summary Comments About Models of Organizational Behavior
519(1)
Value-Orientations in Organizational Decision Making
519(1)
Liberal, Conservative, and Developmental Perspectives on Human Service Organizations
520(3)
Conservative Perspective
520(1)
Liberal Perspective
521(1)
Developmental Perspective
522(1)
Summary
523(1)
Sexual Orientation
524(29)
A Perspective
526(1)
Homosexuality and Bisexuality
526(5)
What Does Being a Homosexual Mean?
527(1)
Stereotypes about Gay and Lesbian People
528(2)
Definition of Bisexual
530(1)
Numbers of Lesbian and Gay People
530(1)
Why Are Some People Lesbian or Gay?
531(3)
Biological Theories
531(2)
Psychosocial Theories
533(1)
The Evaluation of Theory: What Is the Answer?
533(1)
Interactionist Theory
533(1)
Ethical Issues Related to Theory
533(1)
Other Research on the Origins of Homosexuality
534(1)
Discrimination: The Impacts of Homophobia
534(2)
Lesbian and Gay Lifestyles
536(2)
Lesbian and Gay Relationships
536(1)
Sexual Interaction
537(1)
Gay and Lesbian Pride and a Sense of Community
537(1)
Significant Issues and Life Events
538(12)
The Impacts of Social and Economic Forces: Legal Issues
538(3)
Community Responses: Violence Against Lesbian and Gay People
541(1)
Coming Out
542(3)
Cheryl's Exploration of Her Self-Identity and Sexual Orientation
545(1)
Lesbian and Gay Parents
546(2)
As Lesbians and Gay Men Age
548(1)
Gay and Lesbian People and AIDS
549(1)
Social Work with Lesbian and Gay People: Promoting Optimal Well-Being
549(1)
Summary
550(3)
Part Four Later Adulthood
Biological Systems and Their Impacts on Later Adulthood
553(26)
A Perspective
555(1)
What Is Later Adulthood?
556(10)
Senescence
556(1)
Internationally Noted Individuals Document Age Need Not be a Barrier to being Productive
557(3)
Values and Aging: The Myth of Senility
560(4)
What Causes Aging?
564(1)
Factors That Influence the Aging Process
565(1)
Health Practices and Longevity
566(1)
Diseases and Causes of Death of the Elderly
566(1)
Leading Causes of Death among the Elderly
567(1)
Life Expectancy
567(3)
Alzheimer's Disease
568(2)
Wellness: The Impacts of Different Systems on Health
570(8)
Physical Exercise
570(1)
Mental Activity
571(1)
Sleep Patterns
571(1)
Nutrition and Diet
572(1)
Stress and Stress Management
572(2)
Conceptualizing Stressors, Stress, and Stress-Related Illnesses
574(4)
Summary
578(1)
Psychological Systems and Their Impacts on Later Adulthood
579(26)
A Perspective
580(1)
Developmental Tasks of Later Adulthood
581(2)
Theoretical Concepts about Developmental Tasks in Later Adulthood
583(4)
Integrity versus Despair
583(1)
Three Key Psychological Adjustments
583(1)
Life Review
584(1)
Self-Esteem
584(1)
Life Satisfaction
585(1)
Low Status and Ageism
585(1)
Depression and Other Emotional Problems
585(1)
Triple Jeopardy: Being Female, African American, and Old
586(1)
Spirituality and Religion
587(1)
Theories of Successful Aging
587(5)
Activity Theory
587(1)
Spirituality and Religion
588(3)
Disengagement Theory
591(1)
Social Reconstruction Syndrome Theory
592(1)
The Impact of Life Events on the Elderly
592(4)
Marriage
592(1)
Death of Spouse
593(1)
Widowhood
593(1)
Never Married
594(1)
Remarriage
594(1)
Family System Relationships
594(1)
Grandparenthood
595(1)
Guidelines for Positive Psychological Preparation for Later Adulthood
596(1)
Grief Management and Death Education
597(6)
Death in Our Society: The Impact of Social Forces
597(1)
The Grieving Process
598(1)
The Kubler-Ross Model
598(1)
The Westberg Model
598(2)
Application of Grief Management Theory to Client Situations
600(1)
How to Relate to a Dying Person
601(1)
How to Relate to Survivors
601(1)
Questions about Grief, Death, and Dying
602(1)
How to Become Comfortable with Your Own Eventual Death
603(1)
Summary
603(2)
Life After Life
604(1)
Social Systems and Their Impacts on Later Adulthood
605
A Perspective
607(1)
The Elderly: A Population-at-Risk
607(1)
Problems Faced by the Elderly
608(10)
Emphasis on Youth: The Impacts of Social and Economic Forces
608(1)
The Increasing Elderly Population
608(1)
High Status for the Elderly in China, Japan, and Other Countries
609(1)
The Fastest Growing Age Group Is the Old-Old
610(1)
Early Retirement: The Impacts of Social and Economic Forces
610(2)
Financial Problems of the Elderly
612(1)
The Social Security System
613(1)
Death
613(1)
Critical Thinking about an Ethical Issue: Should Assisted Suicide Be Legalized?
614(1)
Elder Abuse
615(1)
Where the Elderly Live
616(1)
Transportation
616(1)
Crime Victimization
616(1)
Malnutrition
616(1)
Health Problems and Cost of Care
616(1)
Cultural Differences in Seeking Health Care: The Case of Elderly Mexican Americans
617(1)
Current Services: Macro System Responses
618(6)
Older Americans Act of 1965
618(1)
Old Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance (OASDHI)
618(1)
Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
619(1)
Medicare
619(1)
Medicaid
619(1)
Food Stamps
620(1)
Adult Protective Services
620(1)
Additional Programs
620(1)
Adult Protective Services
621(1)
Nursing Homes
622(1)
Community Options Program: Providing Alternatives to Nursing Home Placement
623(1)
Social Work with the Elderly
624(1)
The Elderly Are a Powerful Political Force
625(1)
Changing a Macro System: Finding a Social Role for the Elderly
626(1)
Summary
627
Bibliography A-1(1)
Name Index B-1(1)
Subject Index C-1(1)
Photo Credits D-1


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