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Understanding And Managing Cybercrime,9780205439737
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Understanding And Managing Cybercrime

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780205439737

ISBN10:
020543973X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
10/20/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

Provides a general yet original overview of cybercrime and the legal, social, and technical issues that cybercrime presents.Understanding and Managing Cybercrimeis accessible to a wide audience and written at an introductory level for use in courses that focus on the challenges having to do with emergence, prevention, and control of high tech crime. It takes a multidisciplinary perspective, essential to full appreciation of the subject and in dealing with this very complex type of criminal activity. The text ties together various disciplines-information technology, the sociology/anthropology of cyberspace, computer security, deviance, law, criminal justice, risk management, and strategic thinking.

Author Biography

Sam McQuade is currently Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at the Rochester Institute of Technology in Rochester, New York

Table of Contents

Preface viii
Foreword by Charles Wellford xi
Acknowledgments xii
PART ONE Understanding Cybercrime 1(136)
1 Cybercrime: A New High-Tech Crime Paradigm
2(27)
1.0 Introduction: What Is Cybercrime?
2(2)
1.1 Understanding Human Behavior in Evolving Social and Technological Contexts
4(6)
1.1.1 Relatively Normal versus Deviant Behavior
4(4)
1.1.2 Normal versus Deviant Use of Information Technology
8(2)
CYBER TALE 1.1 Inappropriate Use of Cell Phones in Public
8(2)
1.1.3 Normalcy, Deviancy, and Crime in Cyberspace
10(1)
1.2 High-Tech Crime Constructs and Terms
10(6)
1.2.1 White Collar, Financial, and Organized Crime
11(1)
1.2.2 The Emergence of Computer-Related Abuse and Crime
12(2)
CYBER TALE 1.2 Policing without Desktop and Laptop Computers and Other IT Devices
13(1)
1.2.3 Technology Fusion Brings about Cybercrime
14(2)
CYBER TALE 1.3 Policing with Desktop and Laptop Computers and other IT Devices
15(1)
1.3 The Importance of Defining and Understanding Crime Terms
16(4)
1.3.1 What Is Cybercrime and Why Should We Care about It?
16(2)
BOX 1.1 Definitional Constructs of High-Tech Crime
16(2)
1.3.2 Creating, Complying with, and Enforcing Laws and Regulations
18(1)
1.3.3 Research and Justice Systems Improvement
19(1)
CYBER CASE 1.1 Why Definitions of Crime Matter: State of New York v. Robert Versaggi
19(1)
1.4 Principles for Better Understanding Cybercrime and Future Crime Labels
20(6)
1.4.1 Recognize and Accept that Views of Cybercrime Differ
20(1)
1.4.2 Education and Training Helps Professionals Stay Informed
21(1)
1.4.3 The Inter and Multidisciplinary Nature of Cybercrime and Organization of the Text
22(4)
Key Terms and Concepts
26(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions
26(1)
References and Endnotes
27(2)
2 Information and Other Assets in Need of Assurance
29(34)
2.0 Introduction: What Are We Protecting?
29(1)
2.1 Technology, Information, and Data in Justice and Security Management
30(8)
2.1.1 Six Primary Characteristics of Information
31(2)
BOX 2.1 Six Primary Characteristics of Data
32(1)
2.1.2 Data versus Knowledge Management
33(2)
2.1.3 Additional Knowledge and Data Considerations
35(3)
2.2 Information Assurance
38(7)
2.2.1 The Basic Prescription for What Is Needed: CIA
39(3)
2.2.2 Becoming Pragmatic about Information Assurance
42(3)
CYBER TALE 2.1 Who Can You Trust? Credit Card Fraud by "Friends"
44(1)
2.3 Attack Dimensions
45(6)
2.3.1 Cyber versus Physical Attacks and Security Systems
46(1)
2.3.2 Insider versus Outsider Threats to Assets
47(3)
CYBER CASE 2.1 A Phone Service—Scamming Prison Warden
48(1)
CYBER CASE 2.2 A Collective of Money-Laundering Professionals
49(1)
CYBER CASE 2.3 A Double Rip-off Mortgage Scheme
49(1)
2.3.3 Diagnosing and Responding to Threats and Attacks
50(1)
2.4 Critical Infrastructure Protection
51(9)
2.4.1 What are Critical Infrastructures and Critical Information Infrastructures?
53(2)
2.4.2 Conceptual and National Differences in Infrastructures
55(1)
2.4.3 Critical Information Infrastructure Protection
55(1)
2.4.4 Can the Net Be Taken Down?
56(4)
Key Terms and Concepts
60(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions
60(1)
References and Endnotes
61(2)
3 IT-Enabled Abuse, Attacks, and Crimes
63(50)
3.0 Introduction: How Are Information Technologies Misused?
63(1)
3.1 Types of Abuse, Attacks, and Crime
64(34)
3.1.1 Writing and Distributing Malicious Code
64(3)
BOX 3.1 Differences between Computer Viruses, Worms, and Trojans
65(2)
3.1.2 Fraudulent Schemes and Theft
67(8)
CYBER TALE 3.1 How One Student Avoided Being Defrauded Online
68(2)
CYBER TALE 3.2 A Student Victim of Credit Card Fraud
70(5)
3.1.3 Interfering with and Disrupting Computer Services
75(4)
CYBER TALE 33 How One Student Fought Fraud with Fraud
75(1)
CYBER TALE 3.4 Suckered as the Result of Porn Curiosity
76(1)
CYBER TALE 3.5 Denial-of-Service Attacks Hit Gaming Website
77(2)
3.1.4 Computer Spying and Intrusions
79(7)
CYBER TALE 3.6 Free and Illegal Phone Phreaking
82(1)
CYBER TALE 3.7 The Infamous Back Orifice Remote Control Tool
83(3)
3.1.5 Unauthorized and Illegal File Sharing
86(3)
3.1.6 Abuse of Computers and Electronic Devices in Academia
89(4)
CYBER TALE 3.8 Mass-Distributed Illegal File Sharing
90(3)
3.1.7 Online Harassment and Computer-Enabled Sex Crimes
93(5)
CYBER CASE 3.1 Online Harassment via a Website Soliciting Sex
94(2)
CYBER CASE 3.2 Cyberstalking Star Trek Voyager's Seven of Nine
96(2)
3.2 Evolving Forms of Cybercrimes, Attacks, and Conflict
98(10)
3.2.1 Emerging Crime and Attack Trends
99(3)
3.2.2 Futuristic Forms of Cyber Conflict
102(12)
CYBER TALE 3.9 Installation of Multiple Alien Servers
103(5)
Key Terms and Concepts
108(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions
109(1)
References and Endnotes
109(4)
4 Computer Abusers and Cybercriminals
113(24)
4.0 Introduction: Who Commits Computer Abuse and Cybercrime?
113(1)
4.1 Behavioral and Social Traits of Abusers, Attackers, and Criminals
114(10)
4.1.1 Social Engineering Tactics
114(3)
CYBER TALE 4.1 Victimized by a Social Engineering Friend
116(1)
4.1.2 The Adversarial SKRAM Model
117(5)
CYBER TALE 4.2 Three Friends, of Whom Two Were Hackers
117(2)
CYBER TALE 4.3 Juvenile Geek Paid for Corporate Espionage and Sabotage
119(3)
4.1.3 What Cybercriminals Fear
122(2)
CYBER TALE 4.4 SKRAM Needed to Create and Use Fake Ids
122(2)
4.2 Categorizing Cyber Abusers, Attackers, and Criminals
124(9)
4.2.1 Stereotypical and Other Adversary Profiles
126(3)
4.2.2 Who Are Cybercriminals Really?
129(2)
4.2.3 A More Comprehensive Categorization Schema
131(2)
Key Terms and Concepts
133(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions
133(1)
References and Endnotes
134(3)
PART TWO Theoretical and Social Perspectives on Cybercrime 137(134)
5 Theories of Computer-Enabled Abuse and Crime
139(46)
5.0 Introduction: Why Do People Commit Cyber Abuse and Crime?
139(2)
5.1 Theories: The Building Blocks of Knowledge and Understanding
141(2)
5.1.1 The Practicality of Good Theories
141(1)
5.1.2 The Process of Knowledge-Building
142(1)
5.1.3 General Criminological Explanations of Cybercrime
142(1)
5.2 Classical/Choice Theory
143(4)
5.2.1 Rational Choice Theory
144(1)
5.2.2 General Deterrence Theory
144(3)
CYBER TALE 5.1 People Can and Sometimes Do Choose to Change Their Criminal Ways
144(3)
5.2.3 Routine Activities Theory
147(1)
5.3 Trait Theory
147(8)
BOX 5.1 Major Strengths and Limitations of Classical Criminology
148(2)
5.3.1 Arousal Theory
150(2)
5.3.2 Cognitive Theory
152(1)
5.3.3 Behavioral Theory
153(2)
5.4 Social Process Theory
155(8)
BOX 5.2 Major Strengths and Limitations of Trait Theories
155(1)
5.4.1 Social Control Theories
156(1)
5.4.2 Social Learning Theories
157(2)
5.4.3 Neutralization Theory
159(2)
5.4.4 Labeling Theory
161(1)
5.4.5 Differential Enforcement
162(1)
BOX 5.3 Major Strengths and Limitations of Social Process Theories
162(1)
CYBER TALE 5.2 Negative Labels as Badges of Honor
162(1)
5.5 Social Structure Theory
163(3)
5.5.1 General Social Structure Theory
164(1)
5.5.2 Social Disorganization Theory
164(1)
5.5.3 Strain Theories
165(1)
5.5.4 Cultural Deviance Theory
166(1)
5.6 Conflict Theory
166(8)
BOX 5.4 Major Strengths and Limitations of Social Structure Theories
167(1)
5.6.1 General Conflict Theory
168(1)
5.6.2 Marxist Criminology
169(2)
CYBER CASE 5.1 The Case of Unabomber Ted Kaczynski
169(1)
CYBER CASE 5.2 The Presidential Pardoning of Financier Mark Rich
170(1)
5.6.3 Other Conflict Theories of Crime
171(3)
CYBER CASE 5.3 Making an Example of Martha Stewart?
171(3)
5.7 Integrated and Technological Theories
174(6)
5.7.1 Overview of Integrated Theories
174(2)
BOX 5.5 Major Strengths and Weaknesses of Conflict Theory
174(1)
CYBER TALE 5.3 Which Theories Help Explain This Criminal Behavior?
175(1)
5.7.2 Technology-Enabled Crime, Policing, and Security
176(10)
CYBER CASE 5.4 New Crime: Fictitious Characters Socially Engineer Real-World Stabbing
177(1)
BOX 5.6 Strengths and Limitations of Integrated and Technological Theories
178(2)
Key Terms and Concepts
180(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions
181(1)
References and Endnotes
182(3)
6 The Social and Economic Impacts of Cybercrime
185(34)
6.0 Introduction: Who Is Harmed and by How Much Cybercrime?
185(1)
6.1 The Human and Financial Costs of Computer Abuse and Cybercrime
186(6)
6.1.1 Victimization Concepts
187(3)
CYBER TALE 6.1 How Victimization Can Lead to Cybercrime
189(1)
6.1.2 Harm Experienced by Victims of Cybercrime
190(2)
CYBER CASE 6.1 Cybercrime as Nonviolent Property Crime
191(1)
6.2 How Much Cybercrime Is There?
192(18)
6.2.1 Primary Means of Generating Crime Statistics
193(4)
CYBER TALE 6.2 An Examination of Early Uniform Crime Reports
194(3)
6.2.2 Overview of Major IT-Enabled Abuse and Crime Studies
197(4)
6.2.3 Research by U.S. Organizations that Track Cybercrime
201(2)
6.2.4 Economic Estimates and Impact Studies of Cybercrime
203(7)
CYBER TALE 6.3 A Worldwide Online Auction Scam
205(2)
CYBER TALE 6.4 What Are the Economic Impacts of Spam?
207(3)
6.3 Why Research the Nature and Extent of Cybercrime?
210(5)
6.3.1 The General State of Research on Cybercrime
210(2)
6.3.2 Types of Research Needed on Cybercrime
212(3)
Key Terms and Concepts
215(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions
215(1)
References and Endnotes
216(3)
7 Emerging and Controversial Cybercrime Issues
219(52)
7.0 Introduction: How is IT Creating New Opportunities for Cybercrime?
219(2)
7.1 Emerging Potential for IT-Enabled Abuse and Cybercrime
221(9)
7.1.1 Transformations in Academic Education and Professional Training
221(1)
7.1.2 Online Banking and E-Commerce
222(3)
CYBER TALE 7.1 Benefits and Risks of Online Auctions
224(1)
7.1.3 Meeting and Courting Significant Others Online
225(1)
7.1.4 IT-Enabled Democratization
226(4)
CYBER TALE 7.2 An Obsessive Cyber Spooning Love Affair
227(3)
7.2 Controversial Cybercrime-Related Issues
230(35)
7.2.1 The Computer Hacker Subculture
232(4)
CYBER TALE 7.3 How the Movie Hackers Inspired One Student to Abuse Computers
234(2)
7.2.2 The Open Source Community
236(2)
BOX 7.1 The Death of Cyberpunk
236(2)
7.2.3 Electronic Gaming Enclaves
238(4)
7.2.4 Online Pornography
242(5)
7.2.5 Information Privacy Protections and Infringement
247(28)
BOX 7.2 A Discredited Study on the Amount Internet Pornography
247(13)
BOX 7.3 Real-Time Electronic Surveillance, Tracking, and Recording Capabilities Relative k Behavioral, Investigative, and Security Functions
260(4)
BOX 7.4 Basic Principles for Safeguarding Information Privacy
264(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
265(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions
266(1)
References and Endnotes
267(4)
PART THREE Managing Cybercrime 271(220)
8 Cyber Laws and Regulations
273(58)
8.0 Introduction: How Does Society Prohibit Cybercrime?
273(2)
8.1 The Rationale and Reach of Cyber Laws and Regulations
275(12)
8.1.1 Legal Philosophies
276(2)
8.1.2 Concepts of Due Process and Legal Jurisprudence
278(3)
8.1.3 International Agreements for Managing Cybercrime
281(6)
BOX 8.1 Determining Jurisdiction in Cyber Suits: Zippo Manufacturing v. Zippo.com
281(5)
CYBER CASE 8.1 Operation Buccaneer Targets International Warez Groups
286(1)
8.2 Bodies of Law Pertaining to IT and Cybercrime Issues
287(16)
CYBER CASE 8.2 International Computer Gaming Bust
287(1)
8.2.1 Constitutional Law and Case Law
288(4)
BOX 8.2 The U.S. Constitution and its Amendments
289(2)
CYBER CASE 8.3 ACLU v. Reno: Striking Down of the Communications Decency Act
291(1)
8.2.2 Criminal Law
292(2)
8.2.3 Administrative and Regulatory Law
294(1)
CYBER CASE 8.4 Code Writer Faces Federal Prosecution
294(1)
8.2.4 Intellectual Property (IP) Law
295(6)
8.2.5 Tort Law
301(2)
BOX 8.3 Types of Intellectual Property Law Protections
301(2)
8.3 How Laws and Regulations Are Created and Administered
303(8)
8.3.1 Legislative Bills and Executive Approval
305(1)
8.3.2 Implementation and Enforcement of Laws and Regulations
306(1)
8.3.3 Federal Regulatory Agencies with InfoSec Oversight Responsibilities
307(4)
8.4 Key Federal Cybercrime Laws and Information Security Regulations
311(16)
8.4.1 Laws Specifying Illegal Use of Computers and Electronic Devices
312(3)
8.4.2 Laws that Facilitate or Limit Cybercrime Investigations
315(5)
8.4.3 Laws Protecting Children from Online Pornography
320(2)
8.4.4 Laws Specifying Information Security Requirements
322(1)
8.4.5 Laws Affording Privacy Protections
323(4)
Key Terms and Concepts
327(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions
327(1)
References and Endnotes
328(3)
9 Investigating and Prosecuting Cybercrime
331(75)
9.0 Introduction: What Happens When Cybercrime Laws Are Broken?
331(2)
9.1 Collaborative Criminal Justice System Responses to Cybercrime
333(8)
9.1.1 Roles of Public Law Enforcement and Private Security
335(2)
9.1.2 Dedicated Cybercrime Investigation and Prosecution Units
337(2)
9.1.3 Key Investigative and Technical Assistance Agencies
339(2)
9.2 Legal Issues Governing Investigative Procedures
341(20)
9.2.1 Evidentiary Challenges Faced by Investigators and Prosecutors
342(8)
9.2.2 Physical and Cyber Monitoring, Surveillance, and Investigative Operations
350(11)
BOX 9.1 Mapp v. Ohio Results in Nationwide Exclusionary Rule
353(8)
9.3 Crime Scene Processing and Evidence Management
361(23)
9.3.1 Responding to and Protecting the Crime Scene
361(6)
BOX 9.2 Typical Crime Scene Processing Equipment
364(2)
CYBER TALE 9.1 Searching for Physical and Electronic Evidence of Counterfeiting
366(1)
9.3.2 Collecting and Preserving Physical and Electronic Evidence
367(13)
BOX 9.3 Controversy and Evidentiary Challenges of Child Porn Morphing
371(6)
CYBER CASE 9.1 The Challenge of Putting a Cybercriminal Behind a Keyboard
377(3)
9.3.3 Interviewing Victims, Witnesses, and Cybercriminals
380(4)
9.4 Prosecuting Cybercriminals
384(17)
9.4.1 Pretrial Procedures and Hearings
386(4)
9.4.2 Trial Procedures and the Art of Presenting Evidence
390(6)
9.4.3 Trial Verdicts, Sentencing Policies, and Appeals
396(5)
Key Terms and Concepts
401(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions
402(1)
References and Endnotes
403(3)
10 Preventing Cybercrime with Information Security
406(1)
10.0 Introduction: How Can We Better Protect our Computer Systems and Data?
406(2)
10.1 Personal and Organizational Information Security
408(31)
10.1.1 What Every Person Should Know about Information Security
410(25)
CYBER TALE 10.1 A Security Lesson about Purchasing Inferior Technology
413(5)
CYBER TALE 10.2 A Case of Sloppy Password Administration
418(3)
CYBER TALE 10.3 Software Firewall Programs May Not Provide Complete Protection
421(1)
CYBER TALE 10.4 The Importance of Patch Management
422(1)
CYBER TALE 10.5 Backup Data Only on Trusted Media!
423(6)
CYBER TALE 10.6 Broadband Connectivity: Learn to be a Savvy ISP Customer
429(1)
CYBER TALE 10.7 Avoid Being Swindled in Online Auction Fraud
429(4)
CYBER TALE 10.8 A Security Conscious Traveling Executive
433(2)
10.1.2 Assuring Protection of Information in Organizations
435(4)
10.2 Advancing the Security Posture of Organizations
439(15)
10.2.1 Security Change Procedures
440(3)
10.2.2 Risk Management
443(16)
BOX 10.1 Due Care and Diligence
444(3)
CYBER TALE 10.9 The Need for Computer Use and Security Policies
447(7)
Key Terms and Concepts
454(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions
455(1)
References and Endnotes
455(2)
11 Future Opportunities for Managing Cybercrime
457(1)
11.0 Introduction: Where Can We Go from Here?
457(2)
11.1 What More Can Government Do to Prevent Cybercrime?
459(15)
11.1.1 Preparing to Manage Cybercrime
461(5)
BOX 11.1 Actions Government Can Take to Prevent and Control Cybercrime, Improve Information Security Capabilities Nationally, and Protect Critical Information Infrastructure
462(4)
11.1.2 Getting Set and Moving Forward
466(8)
CYBER TALE 11.1 Information Insecurity at ChoicePoint
470(4)
11.2 Computer Ethics Education and Intolerance of Cybercrime
474(14)
11.2.1 The Philosophy of Ethics
474(3)
BOX 11.2 Get Ahead by Joining a Professional Membership Association
475(1)
BOX 11.3 Not Everyone Likes Using Computers
475(2)
11.2.2 Classical Ethics Theories
477(4)
CYBER TALE 11.2 Unethical Employment Practices: Don't Get Burned!
480(1)
11.2.3 Computer Ethics
481(7)
BOX 11.4 Is It Ethical to Use a Work Computer for Personal Reasons?
484(4)
Key Terms and Concepts
488(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions
488(1)
References and Endnotes
489(2)
Appendix: Cyber Stakeholders and Online Resources 491(2)
Index 493


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