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Understanding Music

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780130405906

ISBN10:
0130405906
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

"Jeremy Yudkin's" book is a rich music appreciation program that supports the ultimate goal of teaching active listening. By focusing on music of the Western tradition in its social, historical, and global context, this book engages readers in an active listening experience of music through a lively narrative text and innovative activities. Topic coverage includes music around the world, the fundamentals of music, the art of listening, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Baroque Era, the Classic Era, Beethoven, the Nineteenth Century, and the Twentieth Century. For those interested in developing active listening skills and a deeper appreciation for music.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Foreword xxvii
Music Around the World
1(22)
Introduction to the Study of Music
2(2)
Music as a Reflection of Society
4(10)
The United States: A Test Case
5(2)
World Music: View from a Satellite
7(1)
What to Listen for in Music Around the World
8(1)
Attitude Toward Music of the Past
9(1)
Texture
9(1)
Melody
9(1)
Rhythm
10(1)
Tone Color: Voices and Instruments
10(2)
Musical Context
12(1)
Attitudes Toward the Participation of Women
13(1)
Time
13(1)
Listening to Music from Around the World
14(1)
Japanese Shakuhachi Music
14(2)
Listening Sketch for Shakuhachi Music: Koku-Reibo (A Bell Ringing in the Empty Sky)
16(2)
Gamelan Music from the Indonesian Island of Java
17(1)
Listening Sketch for Javanese Gamelan Music: Gangsaran - Bima Kurda - Gangsaran
18(3)
African Drumming and Mbira Music
19(2)
Listening Sketch for Mbira Music: Mandarendare (A Place Full of Energy)
21(2)
Conclusion
22(1)
Fundamentals
23(37)
The Elements of Music
24(18)
Sound and Texture
24(2)
Pitch
26(1)
Notation
26(3)
Intervals
29(1)
Consonance and Dissonance
29(1)
Melody
30(2)
Harmony
32(1)
Key and Tonality
33(1)
Scales
34(2)
Key Signatures
36(1)
Chords
37(1)
Cadences
37(1)
Rhythm
38(1)
Beat
38(1)
Measure & Meter
39(2)
Tempo
41(1)
Dynamics
41(1)
Musical Form
42(1)
Making Music: Voices
43(1)
Making Music: Instruments
44(1)
The Orchestra
45(10)
Strings
45(3)
Woodwinds
48(2)
Brass
50(1)
Percussion
51(1)
Keyboard Instruments
52(3)
Rehearsals
55(1)
Emotion in Music
56(1)
Performances
57(1)
Historical Periods and Individual Style
58(2)
The Art of Listening
60(15)
Sound, Rhythm, and Texture
61(1)
Paul Dukas, Fanfare from La Peri
62(1)
Music and Words, Key, Dissonance
63(1)
Franz Schubert, Song for voice and piano, Gretchen am Spinnrade (Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel)
63(3)
Form, Dynamics, Tempo, Meter, Cadences, and Key
66(1)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Minuet and Trio from Symphony No. 18 in F Major, K. 130
66(4)
Beats, Meter, Form and Tone Color
69(1)
Benny Harris, Crazeology
70(2)
Texture, Chromaticism, and Word-Painting
72(1)
Maddalena Casulana, Madrigal, Morte, te chiamo (Death, I Call on You)
72(2)
Alastair Reid, ``A Lesson in Music''
74(1)
The Middle Ages: 400--1400
75(18)
Box: Medieval Technology
76(1)
General Characteristics of Medieval Music
77(1)
The Music of the Middle Ages
77(2)
Part One: Plainchant
77(2)
Kyrie (Plainchant)
79(2)
Part Two: Secular Song and Polyphony
81(1)
Secular Song
81(1)
Polyphony
81(1)
Box: Performance of Medieval Music
81(1)
Beatriz de Dia, Song, A chantar
82(4)
Perotinus, Viderunt Omnes
86(2)
Late Medieval Polyphonic Song
87(1)
Guillaume de Machaut, Secular song (rondeau), Doulz Viaire Gracieus
88(2)
The End of the Middle Ages
89(1)
Special Box Feature: Composers, Patrons, and Audiences: The Medieval Audience
90(2)
The Middle Ages
92(1)
The Renaissance: 1400--1600
93(21)
Life and Times in the Renaissance
94(2)
General Characteristics of Renaissance Music
96(1)
Music in the Early Renaissance
97(1)
The Renaissance Mass
97(1)
The Mid-Renaissance
97(1)
Josquin Desprez (c. 1440-1521)
98(1)
Josquin's Pange Lingua Mass
98(1)
Thomas Aquinas, Plainchant hymn, Pange Lingua
99(1)
Josquin Desprez, Kyrie from the Pange Lingua Mass
100(1)
The Late Renaissance
101(1)
Special Box Feature: Composers, Patrons, and Audiences: Patronage
102(3)
The Counter-Reformation and the Music of Palestrina
103(1)
The Renaissance Motet
104(1)
The Renaissance Secular Song
104(1)
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Motet, Exsultate Deo
105(2)
The Madrigal
106(1)
Box: Musical Borrowing
107(1)
The Rise of Instrumental Music
108(1)
Box: The Importance of Dancing
108(1)
Thomas Morley, Two English Madrigals
109(1)
Giovanni Gabrieli, Canzona Duodecimi Toni
110(1)
Tielman Susato, Ronde and Saltarelle
111(1)
The Renaissance
112(2)
The Baroque Era: 1600--1750
114(42)
Life in the Baroque Era
115(2)
Special Box Feature: Composers, Patrons, and Audiences: Audiences in the Baroque Era
117(1)
General Characteristics of Baroque Music
118(1)
The Early Baroque (1600--1700)
119(2)
Monteverdi and the First Great Opera
120(1)
The Story of the Opera
120(1)
Opera in the Seventeenth Century
121(1)
Box: An Argument over the Future of Music
121(1)
Claudio Monteverdi, Excerpts from the Opera Orfeo
122(4)
Henry Purcell and English Opera
125(1)
Sonata and Concerto
125(1)
Henry Purcell, Dido's Lament from the Opera Dido and Aeneas
126(3)
French Music
128(1)
Arcangelo Corelli, Trio Sonata, Op. 3, No. 7, for two violins and basso continuo
129(2)
The Late Baroque (1700--1750)
131(4)
Late Baroque Opera
131(1)
The Late Baroque Concerto
132(1)
Antonio Vivaldi (1678--1741)
132(2)
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685--1750)
134(1)
Antonio Vivaldi, First Movement from Violin Concerto, Op. 8, No. 1, La Primavera (``Spring''), from The Four Seasons
135(3)
Box: Musical Imitations
138(1)
Box: A Musical Offering
139(1)
Bach's Music
139(1)
Bach's Organ Music
139(1)
Johann Sebastian Bach, Prelude and Fugue in E minor
140(2)
Bach's Keyboard, Instrumental, and Orchestral Music
141(1)
Bach's Vocal Church Music
141(1)
Johann Sebastian Bach, First Movement from Brandenburg Concerto No. 2 in F Major
142(3)
George Frideric Handel (1685--1759)
144(1)
Johann Sebastian Bach, St. Mathew Passion (Excerpt)
145(4)
Handel's Music
148(1)
George Frideric Handel, Giulio Cesare, Act III, Scene 4
149(1)
Box: Castratos
150(2)
George Frideric Handel, ``Halleluyah'' Chorus from Messiah
152(2)
The Baroque Era
154(2)
The Classic Era: 1750--1800
156(38)
From Absolutism to Enlightenment to Revolution
157(4)
The Musical Public
160(1)
General Characteristics of Classic Music
161(2)
Genres of Classic Music
162(1)
Opera
162(1)
Giovanni Pergolesi, Opera, La Serva Padrona (Duet from Act I)
163(10)
Symphony
168(1)
Chamber Music
168(2)
Convention in Classic Music
170(1)
Forms of Classic Music
170(1)
Sonata Form
170(1)
Aria Form
171(1)
Minuet-and-Trio Form
171(1)
Rondo Form
172(1)
Summary
172(1)
The Early Classic Period
173(1)
The Classic Masters
173(1)
Franz Joseph Haydn (1732--1809)
173(1)
Box: Haydn's Contract
174(2)
Haydn's Music
176(1)
Franz Joseph Haydn, Minuet and Trio from Symphony No. 45 in F-sharp minor
176(2)
Franz Joseph Haydn, Fourth Movement from String Quartet, Op. 33, No. 2, in E-flat Major
178(2)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756--1791)
180(1)
Box: Leopold Mozart
180(1)
Box: The Boy Genius
181(2)
Special Box Feature: Composers, Patrons, and Audiences: Composers and Patrons in the Classic Era
183(2)
Mozart's Music
184(1)
Box: Musical Forgeries
185(1)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Second Movement from Piano Concerto No. 21 In C Major, K. 467
186(3)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, First Movement from Symphony No. 40 in G minor, K. 550
189(3)
The Classic Era
192(2)
Beethoven
194(30)
Beethoven's Life
195(2)
Beethoven's Early Life
196(1)
The Heroic Phase
197(1)
Box: Beethoven's Personality
197(2)
Personal Crisis and Halt to Productivity
198(1)
Late Years
198(1)
Beethoven's Music
199(1)
Box: Beethoven's Work Habits
199(1)
Box: Music Critics
200(1)
Listening Examples
201(1)
Ludwing van Beethoven, Six Easy Variations on a Swiss Tune in F Major for Piano, WoO 64
201(2)
Beethoven's Fifth Symphony
203(1)
Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor
203(14)
Beethoven's Late Music
217(1)
Box: Beethoven's Piano-Playing
217(1)
Ludwig van Beethoven, Third Movement from Piano Sonata in E Major, Op. 109
218(4)
Beethoven
222(2)
The Nineteenth Century
224(100)
The Age of Romanticism
225(10)
The Industrial Revolution
226(1)
Political, Intellectual, and Social Changes
226(3)
The New Artistic Spirit
229(3)
Music for All
232(1)
The New Sound
233(1)
Dynamics
234(1)
Tempo and Expression
234(1)
Box: The History of the Pianoforte, 1700--1860
235(6)
Melody
236(1)
Harmony
236(2)
Form
238(1)
Program Music
238(1)
Massive and Miniature
238(1)
Favorite Romantic Genres
239(1)
Favourite Romantic Instruments
239(1)
The Individual and the Crowd
240(1)
Women in Nineteenth-Century Music
240(1)
Romantic Song
240(1)
PART ONE: EARLY ROMANTICISM
241(2)
Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
241(1)
Schubert's Music
242(1)
Franz Schubert, Song, Die Forelle (The Trout)
243(2)
Franz Schubert, Fourth Movement from Quintet in A Major, D. 667 (The Trout)
245(4)
Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
247(1)
Berlioz's Music
248(1)
Hector Berlioz, First Movement from Symphonie fantastique (Fantastical Symphony)
249(7)
Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847)
254(1)
Mendelssohn's Music
255(1)
Felix Mendelssohn, First Movement from Concerto in E Minor for Violin and Orchestra, Op. 64
256(3)
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel (1805-1847)
258(1)
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel, Lied from Songs without Words, Op. 8, No. 3
259(1)
Special Box Feature: Composers, Patrons, and Audiences
260(2)
Fryderyk Chopin (1810-1849)
261(1)
Chopin's Music
261(1)
Fryderyk Chopin, Prelude in E minor, Op. 28, for Piano
262(2)
Fryderyk Chopin, Waltz in D-flat Major, Op. 64, No. 1, for Piano Solo (Minute Waltz)
264(3)
Robert Schumann (1810-1856)
265(2)
Schumann's Music
267(1)
Robert Schumann, Traumerei (Dreaming), from Kinderszenen, Op. 15, for Piano
267(2)
Clara Schumann (1819-1896)
268(1)
Box: Clara Schumann
269(1)
Clara Schumann, Third Movement from Trio in G minor for Piano, Violin, and Cello
270(2)
PART TWO: MID-ROMANTICISM
272(4)
Works for Solo Piano
272(1)
Symphonic Program Music
272(1)
Opera
272(1)
Nationalism
273(1)
Franz Liszt (1811-1886)
273(2)
Liszt's Music
275(1)
Box: Critical Views of Liszt
276(1)
Franz Liszt, Transcendental Etude No. 10 in F minor
277(2)
Franz Liszt, Symphonic Poem, Hamlet
279(5)
Verdi and Wagner
282(1)
Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)
282(1)
Verdi's Music
283(1)
Giuseppe Verdi, Otello (Excerpt)
284(5)
Richard Wagner (1813-1883)
288(1)
Box: The Ring Cycle
289(1)
Box: The Bayreuth Festival
290(2)
Wagner's Music
291(1)
Richard Wagner, Prelude and Liebestod from the Music Drama Tristan and Isolde
292(6)
The Nationalist Composers
297(1)
Russia
297(1)
Bohemia
297(1)
Moravia
297(1)
Scandinavia
297(1)
Bedrich Smetana, Symphonic Poem, The Moldau
298(3)
Spain
300(1)
France
300(1)
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)
300(1)
Tchaikovsky's Music
301(1)
Box: Copyright
301(1)
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, First Movement from Symphony No. 4 in F minor
302(3)
PART THREE: LATE ROMANTICISM
305(3)
Johannes Brahms (1833--1897)
305(1)
Brahms's Music
306(2)
Johannes Brahms, Wiegenlied (Lullaby), Op. 49, No. 4
308(1)
Johannes Brahms, Fourth Movement from Symphony No. 4 in E minor
309(6)
Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924)
314(1)
Puccini's Music
314(1)
Giacomo Puccini, Un bel di (One Fine Day) from Madama Butterfly
315(2)
Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)
317(1)
Box: Alma Mahler
318(2)
Mahler's Music
318(2)
Gustav Mahler, Fourth Movement, Urlicht (Primeval Light) from Symphony No. 2 in C minor (Resurrection)
320(2)
The Nineteenth Century
322(2)
The Twentieth Century I: The Classical Scene
324(86)
An Overview
325(3)
History and the Arts, 1900--1939
325(1)
1939 to 2000
326(2)
General Characteristics of Twentieth-Century Music
328(3)
The Replacement of Tonality
328(1)
Melody
329(1)
Rhythm
329(1)
Length
330(1)
Tone Color and Sound
330(1)
The Beginnings of Change
331(1)
Impressionism and Symbolism
331(2)
Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
332(1)
Claude Debussy, Prelude a lapres-midi d'un faune
333(3)
Primitivism
336(2)
Igor Stravinsky (1882--1971)
336(2)
Igor Stravinsky, Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of Spring), Opening Section
338(4)
Stravinsky and Neo-Classicism
341(1)
Stravinsky's Music
341(1)
Igor Stravinsky, First Movement from Concerto in E-flat (Dumbarton Oaks) for Chamber Orchestra
342(3)
Expressionism
345(3)
Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)
346(2)
Box: Schoenberg and Atonality
348(2)
Schoenberg's Music
349(1)
Arnold Schoenberg, Madonna from Pierrot Lunaire
350(2)
Arnold Schoenberg, Theme and Sixth Variation from Variations for Orchestra, Op. 31
352(4)
Schoenberg's Students
354(1)
Alban Berg (1885-1935)
354(1)
Berg's Music
354(1)
Berg's Wozzeck
355(1)
Wozzeck, Act III, Scene 3
355(1)
Wozzeck, Act III, Scene 4
355(1)
Alban Berg, Wozzeck, Act III, Scenes 3, 4, and 5
356(8)
Wozzeck, Act III, Scene 5
363(1)
Anton Webern (1883--1945)
363(1)
Webern's Music
363(1)
Anton Webern, Third Movement from Five Movements for String Quarter, Op. 5
364(1)
Other Composers Active Before World War II: Bartok, Shostakovich, Britten, Ives, Copland
365(1)
Bela Bartok (1881-1945)
365(1)
Bartok's Music
366(1)
Bela Bartok, Fifth Movement (Allegro molto) from String Quartet No. 4
366(4)
Dmitri Shostakovich (1906-1975)
368(1)
Benjamin Britten (1913--1976)
369(1)
Benjamin Britten, Sanctus from War Requiem
370(4)
The American Scene
372(1)
Charles Ives (1874-1954)
373(1)
Charles Ives, Second Movement from Three Places in New England (``Putnam's Camp, Redding, Conn.'')
374(3)
Aaron Copland (1900-1990)
375(2)
Aaron Copland, Fanfare for the Common Man
377(1)
Building Bridges
378(1)
George Gershwin (1898-1937)
378(1)
George Gershwin, ``Bess, You is my Woman Now'' from Porgy and Bess
378(4)
Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990)
381(1)
Leonard Bernstein, ``Make Our Garden Grow'' from Candide
382(2)
Special Box Feature: Composers, Patrons, and Audiences: Audiences for Music in the Twentieth Century
384(1)
After the War: Modernism, The Second Stage
385(1)
Total Serialism
385(1)
Box: Who Cares if you Listen?
386(1)
Pierre Boulez, Structures I
387(2)
The Radical Sixties: New Sounds, Freedom, and Chance
388(1)
New Sounds
389(1)
Krzysztof Penderecki, Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima
389(3)
Freedom and Chance
392(1)
Postmodernism
392(2)
Box: Classical Music Today
394(1)
Postmodern Music
394(1)
Lukas Foss, Third Movement (Recitative---after Monteverdi) from Renaissance Concerto for Flute and Orchestra
395(3)
Fusion
397(1)
Box: The Kronos Quartet
398(1)
Inclusion
399(1)
Pauline Oliveros, Sound Patterns
400(1)
Olly Wilson, Sometimes
401(1)
Joan Tower, Wings
402(3)
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich, Third Movement (Rondo) from Symphony No. 1
405(2)
Conclusion
407(1)
The Twentieth Century
408(2)
The Twentieth Century II: Jazz, An American Original
410(24)
The History of Jazz
412(1)
Origins
412(1)
Band Music
412(1)
Ragtime
413(1)
Scott Joplin, Maple Leaf Rag, for piano solo
413(3)
The Blues
415(1)
Dixieland
415(1)
Bessie Smith, Florida-Bound Blues (Voice and Piano)
416(3)
Swing
418(1)
Louis Armstrong, Hotter Than That
419(2)
Duke Ellington, It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing)
421(3)
Bebop
423(1)
The Charlie Parker Quartet, Confirmation
424(4)
Cool Jazz
426(1)
Free Jazz
426(1)
Fusion
427(1)
Box: Jazz and Classical
428(2)
The Current Scene
429(1)
Wynton Marsalis, Harriet Tubman
430(2)
Jazz
432(2)
The Twentieth Century III: Popular Music
434(41)
Styles of Popular Music
435(1)
Beginnings: 1850-1950
435(1)
Special Box Feature: Composers, Patrons, and Audiences: Patronage and Commercialization
436(2)
Box: Copyright and Royalties for Popular Music
438(1)
Frank Sinatra, Blue Moon
439(2)
Box: Some of the Most Successful Popular Songs Before 1950
441(1)
The Fortunate Fifties
441(4)
Rock and Roll: The Beginnings
442(1)
Elvis Presley
443(2)
Elvis Presley, Blue Suede Shoes
445(3)
Rebellion
446(1)
Early Rock and Roll: Structure and Style
447(1)
Early Rock and Roll: Black and White
448(1)
The Turbulent Sixties
448(1)
Box: John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address (Extracts)
449(1)
Box: Martin Luther King's ``I Have a Dream'' Speech (Extracts)
449(4)
The Beatles
450(3)
The Beatles, It Won't Be Long
453(1)
The Beatles, Strawberry Fields Forever
454(2)
Bob Dylan
455(1)
Bob Dylan, Sad-eyed Lady of the Lowlands
456(3)
Jimi Hendrix
458(1)
Additional Notes to the Sixties
459(1)
Motown
459(1)
Box: The Stratocaster
459(3)
Surfing Songs
460(1)
Folk
460(1)
Country
461(1)
The British Blues Revival
461(1)
The 1970s and 1980s: Variety, Legacy, and Change
462(3)
Michael Jackson, Billie Jean
465(1)
Box: Censorship in Popular Music
465(2)
Madonna, Material Girl
467(2)
The Nineties: Rap, Rage, and Reaction
469(3)
Popular Music
472(3)
Glossary and Musical Example Locator 475(5)
Credits 480(4)
Index 484

Excerpts

There is nowadays more music in our lives than at any previous time in history. Music surrounds us as we buy food or clothes, drive our cars, sit in parks, or jog down the street. Much of this is our own choice: we have radios in our cars, portable cassette players on our belts. Some of it may be unwanted: our neighbor's stereo, for example, or a "boom box" on the beach. Some of it we actually do not notice. There is so much noise in our daily environment that the music playing in elevators or stores sometimes simply merges with the surroundings. In addition to the sheerquantityof music around us, there is a wider range of music available than ever before. We can listen to jazz, reggae, Vivaldi, Beethoven, or country ballads. Twentieth-century technology has presented us with an unparalleled wealth of musical possibilities. The very idea that a one-hundred-member symphony orchestra can be heard with crystal clarity and rich resonance in our own bedrooms would have startled most of the composers in this book. The consequences of this situation are (like the consequences of most technological advances) both good and bad. It is a wonderful thing to be able to go to a record store and buy a recording of a piece of music composed hundreds of years ago or thousands of miles away. But the ubiquitous nature of music today has also had negative consequences on the role that music plays in our society. For most of our history music was rare: it therefore had more importance in people's lives. The composition and performance of music required deliberation and effort. Whether it was the commissioning of a symphony by an aristocratic patron or the playing of a country dance by peasants, music was performed with care and listened to with attention--it was never without significance. The result of all this is that we have lost the art of listening. Music is the only one of the three great arts--literature, the visual arts, and music--that can be absorbed without attention, passively. Music can surround us while we concentrate on other things; it can even be there in the background, entirely unnoticed. This is not true of painting. To appreciate a painting we have to give it some of our attention. We have to study the forms and colors, the balance and proportions of its overall design. We may admire its style and technique, its humor, vigor, or despair. A good painting shows us objects or people orlifein a new light. A great painting affects us profoundly and leaves us changed. Few people have seen Picasso'sGuernicaand not been deeply moved. Literature has the same demands and the same rewards. We must pay attention to a book or a play. They cannot merely fill the room while we vacuum or accompany us while we jog or shop. And the effort of attention is repaid. A good book resonates in our own lives; a great book changes us forever. Music, too, is the expression of the deepest part of our souls. It expresses what words and paintings cannot. And for true understanding, music requires careful attention and the engagement of the intellect, just as painting and literature do. But even careful listening is not enough. Music is the expression of people in society. And, like the other arts, music is formed in a historical and social context. In the eighteenth century, for example, European music was the reflection of a hierarchical and orderly society, influenced by the ideals of the Enlightenment. Much eighteenth-century music, therefore, is carefully ordered and balanced, organized in a framework of fixed and widely accepted formal patterns. How can we truly understand this music if we do not know the forms used by composers of the time? It would be like reading Hawthorne'sThe Scarlet Letterwithout understanding the attitude of seventeenth-century New England puritans towards adultery; or reading Shakespeare without knowing the meaning of blank verse.


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