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Understanding the Political World : A Comparative Introduction to Political Science,9780321101921
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Understanding the Political World : A Comparative Introduction to Political Science

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780321101921

ISBN10:
0321101928
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $83.40
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Table of Contents

Boxed Features xv
Preface xvii
To the Reader xxi
About the Author xxii
PART ONE On Knowing the Political World
Politics and Knowledge
3(22)
On Politics
3(2)
Types of Political Knowledge
5(3)
Description
6(2)
Explanation
8(1)
Prescription
8(1)
Sources of Political Knowledge
8(5)
Authority
8(4)
Personal Thought
12(1)
Science
13(1)
Political Science
13(5)
Political ``Science''?
18(2)
Criticisms of Political Science as a ``Science''
18(2)
Political Science as a Means of Understanding the Political World
20(1)
Where Is This Book Going?
20(1)
Key Concepts
21(1)
For Further Consideration
22(1)
For Further Reading
22(1)
On the Web
23(2)
PART TWO Political Behavior
Political Beliefs
25(24)
Individual Political Beliefs
26(2)
Belief Systems
28(3)
Belief Systems among Mass Publics
28(2)
Belief Systems among Elites
30(1)
Political Culture
31(4)
National Character Studies
31(1)
Survey Research
32(3)
Political Ideology
35(10)
Key Issues
35(3)
Conservatism
38(1)
Classical Liberalism
39(2)
Socialism
41(2)
Some Further Points about ``Isms''
43(2)
Looking Ahead
45(1)
Key Concepts
46(1)
For Further Consideration
46(1)
For Further Reading
46(1)
On the Web
47(2)
Political Actions
49(26)
Individual Political Actions
50(7)
Modes of Political Activity
50(1)
Political Activists
51(2)
Political Participation Studies
53(4)
Group Political Actions
57(1)
Political Interest Groups
58(6)
Activities of Political Interest Groups
58(2)
Constraints on a Group's Behavior
60(2)
Types of Interest Groups
62(2)
Political Parties
64(4)
Activities of Political Parties
64(4)
Doing Politics
68(3)
Key Concepts
71(1)
For Further Consideration
72(1)
For Further Reading
72(1)
On the Web
73(2)
Influences on Beliefs and Actions
75(28)
The Environment
76(3)
Agents of Political Socialization
79(9)
The Family
79(1)
The Schools
80(2)
Peer Groups
82(2)
The Media and Culture
84(4)
Events
88(1)
Personal Traits
88(6)
Political ``Personality''
94(4)
Personality
94(3)
Human Nature
97(1)
Concluding Observations
98(2)
Key Concepts
100(1)
For Further Consideration
100(1)
For Further Reading
100(1)
On the Web
101(2)
PART THREE Political Systems
States and Nations
103(28)
The State
103(7)
A Legal Definition
104(3)
A Structural-Functional Definition
107(1)
The Domain of State Action
108(2)
The Nation
110(4)
The Political System
114(12)
Systems in General
114(1)
The Political System Defined
115(4)
Conceptualization of the Political System
119(3)
System Persistence
122(4)
The Utility of the Political Systems Approach
126(1)
Three Major Concepts: A Reprise
126(1)
Key Concepts
127(1)
For Further Consideration
127(1)
For Further Reading
127(2)
On the Web
129(2)
Political Institutions I: Structures
131(24)
The Legislature
132(8)
Roles of the Legislature
132(3)
Structural Arrangements
135(1)
The Decline of Legislatures
136(4)
Executives
140(4)
Roles of Executives
140(2)
Structural Arrangements
142(2)
The Age of the Executive?
144(1)
The Administration
144(4)
Bureaucracy as One Form of Administration
145(2)
Administrative Functions and Power
147(1)
The Judiciary
148(3)
Aspects of Adjudication
148(1)
Judicial Structures
149(2)
Concluding Observations
151(1)
Key Concepts
152(1)
For Further Consideration
152(1)
For Further Reading
152(1)
On the Web
153(2)
Political Institutions II: Institutional Arrangements
155(36)
Broad Taxonomies
156(1)
Democracies and Nondemocracies
156(12)
Defining Democracy
158(5)
Defining Nondemocracies
163(2)
A Democracy-Nondemocracy Continuum
165(3)
Constitutional and Nonconstitutional Regimes
168(4)
Constitutions
168(2)
Constitutional Regimes
170(1)
Nonconstitutional Regimes
171(1)
Areal Distribution of Power
172(2)
Unitary State
172(1)
Federation
172(1)
Confederation
173(1)
Forms of Executive-Legislative Relations
174(7)
Presidential Government
175(1)
Parliamentary (Cabinet) Government
175(2)
Hybrid Systems
177(2)
Council Systems
179(1)
Assembly Systems
180(1)
Which Form Is Optimal?
180(1)
Political Party Systems
181(6)
Two-Party Systems
183(1)
Multiparty Systems
184(1)
Dominant-Party Systems
185(1)
One-Party Systems
186(1)
No-Party Systems
186(1)
Classification and Clarity
187(1)
Key Concepts
188(1)
For Further Consideration
188(1)
For Further Reading
188(1)
On the Web
189(2)
Political Economy
191(26)
Politics and Economics
191(1)
A Political-Economic Framework
192(12)
Factors, Firms, and Households/Consumers
192(3)
Getting and Spending
195(2)
The State (and the World) Join In
197(3)
Two Ideal-Type Political Economies
200(1)
The Market Economy: Total Private Control
200(3)
The Command Economy: Total State Control
203(1)
Key Problems for Each Ideal-Type Political Economy
204(3)
Market Economy
204(2)
Command Economy
206(1)
The Mixed Economy
207(1)
Politics Plus Political Economy: The Other ``Isms''
208(5)
The Three ``Isms''
208(2)
The Real World
210(3)
Concluding Observations
213(1)
Key Concepts
214(1)
For Further Consideration
214(1)
For Further Reading
214(1)
On the Web
215(2)
PART FOUR Political Processes
Politics as a Value Allocation Process
217(20)
The Elite Approach
218(4)
Key Concepts
218(1)
Major Theorists
218(2)
The Value Allocation Process
220(1)
The Prevalence of Elite-Based Political Systems
220(2)
The Class Approach
222(4)
The Group Approach
226(4)
The Three Approaches Compared
230(3)
Which Approach Is Correct?
230(2)
Essential Similarities and Differences
232(1)
Key Concepts
233(1)
For Further Consideration
233(1)
For Further Reading
234(3)
Change and Political Development
237(30)
Change
238(1)
Development
239(12)
Characteristics of ``More Developed'' Social Systems
239(2)
The Process of Development
241(5)
The Dynamics of Economic Development
246(5)
Political Development
251(8)
Characteristics of Political Development
252(1)
The Process of Political Development
253(1)
Political Development as Democratization
254(4)
Political Institutionalization and Political Decay
258(1)
Achieving Political Development
259(1)
World of Changes
260(2)
Key Concepts
262(1)
For Further Consideration
263(1)
For Further Reading
263(2)
On the Web
265(2)
Political Violence
267(24)
Violence
268(1)
Political Society
269(1)
Types of Political Violence
269(18)
State Violence against Individuals or Groups
270(2)
Individual Violence against an Individual
272(1)
Group Violence against an Individual
272(5)
Group Violence against a Group
277(1)
Individual or Group Violence against the State
278(9)
Evaluating Political Violence: Means and Ends
287(1)
Key Concepts
288(1)
For Further Consideration
288(1)
For Further Reading
289(1)
On the Web
289(2)
PART FIVE Politics among States
Politics between States
291(36)
The Goals of States
292(3)
Realist and Idealist Perspectives on the State's ``Motives''
292(1)
Major Goals
293(2)
Mechanisms of Cooperation between States
295(8)
Diplomacy and Interstate Agreements
295(3)
International Law
298(2)
International Organizations
300(3)
Competition among States
303(12)
Balance of Power
303(1)
Balance of Terror
304(1)
Domination and Dependence
305(4)
Competition in the Post-Cold War World
309(6)
Violence between States
315(7)
Threat of Force
315(1)
Display of Force
315(1)
Use of Force
316(1)
War
317(2)
What Causes War?
319(2)
Is War Justifiable?
321(1)
Key Concepts
322(1)
For Further Consideration
323(1)
For Further Reading
323(2)
On the Web
325(2)
The Developed Countries
327(34)
An Introduction to the Next Three Chapters: Grouping the States in the Contemporary World
327(4)
The Developed Countries
329(1)
The Developing Countries
329(1)
The Transitional Developed Countries
329(2)
Images of the Developed Countries
331(2)
Political Culture
333(2)
Goal: Prosperity
335(10)
Mixed Economy
335(3)
Performance
338(2)
Challenges
340(5)
Goal: Stability
345(8)
Political Institutionalization
346(2)
Order Maintenance
348(1)
Challenges to Stability
349(4)
Goal: Security
353(3)
The Era of Colonialism
353(1)
The Cold War Period
354(1)
Challenges to Security in the Post-Cold War Period
354(2)
The Developed Countries Overall
356(1)
Key Concepts
357(1)
For Further Consideration
357(1)
For Further Reading
358(1)
On the Web
359(2)
The Developing Countries
361(48)
Images of the Developing World
361(5)
Developmental Classification
361(1)
Regional Classification
362(4)
Goal: Prosperity
366(20)
Obstacles to Prosperity
368(4)
Strategies for Prosperity
372(5)
Overall Performance
377(8)
Prognosis
385(1)
Goal: Security
386(4)
Interstate Violence
386(3)
Economic Security
389(1)
Goal: Stability
390(14)
Challenges to Political System Effectiveness
391(1)
The Decline of Political Order
392(4)
Democratization
396(1)
Political Approaches
397(7)
Concluding Observations: It's Got to Get Better(?)
404(1)
Key Concepts
405(1)
For Further Consideration
405(1)
For Further Reading
406(1)
On the Web
407(2)
The Transitional Developed Countries
409(40)
The Post-Communist Developed Countries
409(2)
Political Culture
411(2)
Under Communism
411(1)
Post-Communism
412(1)
Goal: Prosperity
413(7)
Under Communism
413(1)
Post-Communism
414(6)
Goal: Stability
420(9)
Under Communism
420(4)
Post-Communism
424(5)
Goal: Security
429(3)
Under Communism
429(1)
Post-Communism
430(1)
The Newly Industrializing Countries
431(1)
Political Culture
432(1)
Goal: Prosperity
433(4)
Goal: Stability
437(6)
Goal: Security
443(2)
The Future of the Transitional Developed Countries
444(1)
Key Concepts
445(1)
For Further Consideration
446(1)
For Further Reading
446(1)
On the Web
447(2)
The Last Chapter: Looking Backward, Looking Forward
449(14)
Political Outputs
450(1)
Political Structures
451(1)
Political Processes
451(1)
Political Change
452(1)
Direction
452(1)
Rate
452(1)
Controllability
453(1)
Into the Twenty-First Century: Understanding and Action
453(7)
Challenge 1: The Quest for Harmony with Our Technology
454(4)
Challenge 2: The Quest for Harmony with Planet Earth
458(1)
Challenge 3: The Quest for Harmony with One Another
459(1)
Choosing a Future
460(3)
Appendix: Political Analysis 463(13)
Glossary 476(15)
References 491(22)
Credits 513(2)
Index 515


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