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Understanding the Political World : A Comparative Introduction to Political Science,9780321391315
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Understanding the Political World : A Comparative Introduction to Political Science

by
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780321391315

ISBN10:
0321391314
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $114.00
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Summary

Understanding the Political World offers a personal writing style and a comparative perspective that illuminates how politics works on individual, group, national, and global levels.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xii
To the Readerp. xvii
About the Authorp. xviii
On Knowing the Political World
Politics and Knowledgep. 3
On Politicsp. 3
Types of Political Knowledgep. 4
Descriptionp. 7
Explanationp. 8
Prescriptionp. 8
Sources of Political Knowledgep. 9
Authorityp. 9
Personal Thoughtp. 12
Sciencep. 13
Political Sciencep. 14
Political "Science"?p. 18
Criticisms of Political Science as a "Science"p. 18
Political Science as a Means of Understanding the Political Worldp. 20
Where Is This Book Going?p. 21
Political Behavior
Political Theory and Political Beliefsp. 25
Normative Political Theoryp. 26
Thomas Hobbesp. 26
Political Ideologyp. 27
Conservatismp. 28
Classical Liberalismp. 30
Socialismp. 31
Some Further Points About "Isms"p. 35
Individual Political Beliefsp. 38
Types of Orientationsp. 39
Identifying Specific Beliefsp. 40
Belief Systemsp. 41
Belief Systems Among Mass Publicsp. 42
Belief Systems Among Elitesp. 43
Political Culturep. 44
National Character Studiesp. 44
Survey Researchp. 45
Looking Aheadp. 48
Political Actionsp. 53
Individual Political Actionsp. 54
Modes of Political Activityp. 54
Political Activistsp. 56
Political Participation Studiesp. 58
Group Political Actionsp. 62
Political Interest Groupsp. 63
Activities of Political Interest Groupsp. 63
Constraints on a Group's Behaviorp. 66
Types of Interest Groupsp. 69
Political Partiesp. 71
Activities of Political Partiesp. 71
Doing Politicsp. 75
Influences on Beliefs and Actionsp. 83
The Environmentp. 84
Agents of Political Socializationp. 87
The Familyp. 87
The Schoolsp. 88
Peer Groupsp. 89
The Media and Culturep. 92
Eventsp. 96
Personal Characteristicsp. 96
Political "Personality"p. 102
Personalityp. 102
Human Naturep. 105
Concluding Observationsp. 105
Political Systems
States and Nationsp. 111
The Statep. 111
A Legal Definitionp. 112
A Structural-Functional Definitionp. 115
The Domain of State Actionp. 118
The Nationp. 120
The Political Systemp. 124
Systems in Generalp. 124
The Political System Definedp. 125
Conceptualization of the Political Systemp. 129
System Persistencep. 131
The Utility of the Political Systems Approachp. 135
Three Major Concepts: A Reprisep. 135
Political Institutions I: Structuresp. 141
The Legislaturep. 142
Roles of the Legislaturep. 142
Structural Arrangementsp. 145
The Decline of Legislaturesp. 146
Executivesp. 149
Roles of Executivesp. 150
Structural Arrangementsp. 151
The Age of the Executive?p. 154
The Administrationp. 154
Bureaucracy as One Form of Administrationp. 155
Administrative Functions and Powerp. 157
The Judiciaryp. 158
Aspects of Adjudicationp. 158
Judicial Structuresp. 159
Concluding Observationsp. 161
Political Institutions II: Institutional Arrangementsp. 169
Broad Taxonomiesp. 170
Democracies and Nondemocraciesp. 170
Defining Democracyp. 172
Defining Nondemocraciesp. 178
A Democracy-Nondemocracy Continuump. 179
Constitutional and Nonconstitutional Regimesp. 184
Constitutionsp. 184
Constitutional Regimesp. 187
Nonconstitutional Regimesp. 187
Areal Distribution of Powerp. 188
Unitary Statep. 188
Federationp. 188
Confederationp. 190
Forms of Executive-Legislative Relationsp. 191
Presidential Governmentp. 191
Parliamentary (Cabinet) Governmentp. 192
Hybrid Systemsp. 194
Council Systemsp. 196
Assembly Systemsp. 196
Which Form Is Optimal?p. 197
Political Party Systemsp. 197
Two-Party Systemsp. 198
Multiparty Systemsp. 199
Dominant-Party Systemsp. 202
One-Party Systemsp. 202
No-Party Systemsp. 203
Classification and Clarityp. 203
Political Economyp. 209
Politics and Economicsp. 209
A Political-Economic Frameworkp. 210
Factors, Firms, and Households/Consumersp. 210
Getting and Spendingp. 213
The State Joins Inp. 214
The World Joins Inp. 215
The Grand Totalp. 216
Two Ideal-Type Political Economiesp. 216
The Market Economy: Total Private Controlp. 219
The Command Economy: Total State Controlp. 222
Key Problems for Each Ideal-Type Political Economyp. 223
Market Economyp. 224
Command Economyp. 224
The Mixed Economyp. 225
Politics Plus Political Economy: The Other "Isms"p. 226
The Three "Isms"p. 226
The Real Worldp. 228
Concluding Observationsp. 231
Political Processes
Public Policy, Power, and Decisionp. 237
Public Policyp. 237
Taxonomies of Public Policiesp. 238
Analysis of the Stages of the Policy Processp. 240
Policy Impact Analysisp. 241
Explaining Public Policy Decision Makingp. 242
The Elite Approachp. 243
Key Conceptsp. 243
Major Theoristsp. 244
The Public Policy Processp. 244
The Prevalence of Elite-Based Political Systemsp. 245
The Class Approachp. 247
The Public Policy Processp. 249
The Group Approachp. 250
The Policy Making Processp. 251
The Three Approaches Comparedp. 254
Which Approach Is Correct?p. 254
Essential Similarities and Differencesp. 255
Change and Political Developmentp. 261
Changep. 262
Developmentp. 263
Characteristics of "More Developed" Human Systemsp. 263
The Process of Developmentp. 264
The Dynamics of Economic Developmentp. 269
Political Developmentp. 276
Characteristics of Political Developmentp. 276
The Process of Political Developmentp. 277
Political Development as Democratizationp. 281
Political Institutionalization and Political Decayp. 282
Achieving Political Developmentp. 284
World of Changesp. 285
Politics Across Bordersp. 291
The Goals of Statesp. 292
Realist and Idealist Perspectives on the State's "Motives"p. 292
Major Goalsp. 293
Mechanisms of Cooperation Between Statesp. 295
Diplomacy and Interstate Agreementsp. 295
International Lawp. 299
International Organizationsp. 300
Competition Among Statesp. 307
Balance of Powerp. 307
Balance of Terrorp. 309
Domination and Dependencep. 310
Globalization?p. 314
Competition in the Globalized Worldp. 318
Political Violencep. 325
Violencep. 326
Political Societyp. 327
Types of Political Violencep. 327
State Violence Against Individuals or Groupsp. 328
Individual Violence Against an Individualp. 329
Group Violence Against an Individualp. 330
Group Violence Against a Groupp. 333
Individual or Group Violence Against the Statep. 337
Use of Force Between Statesp. 343
Warp. 344
What Causes War?p. 348
Evaluating Political Violence: Means and Endsp. 351
Politics Among States
The Developed Countriesp. 359
An Introduction to the Next Three Chapters: Grouping the States in the Contemporary Worldp. 359
The Developed Countries of the Global Northp. 360
The Developing Countries of the Global Southp. 361
The Transitional Developed Countriesp. 361
Images of the Developed Countriesp. 362
Political Culturep. 364
Goal: Prosperityp. 366
Mixed Economyp. 366
Performancep. 369
Challengesp. 371
Goal: Stabilityp. 376
Political Institutionalizationp. 376
Order Maintenancep. 378
Challenges to Stabilityp. 380
Goal: Securityp. 384
The Era of Colonialismp. 385
The Cold War Periodp. 385
Challenges to Security in the Post-Cold War Periodp. 386
The Developed Countries Overallp. 387
The Developing Countriesp. 393
Images of the Developing Worldp. 393
Developmental Classificationp. 393
Regional Classificationp. 394
Goal: Prosperityp. 398
Obstacles to Prosperityp. 400
The Quest for Prosperity: Strategic Choicesp. 404
Current Outcomesp. 411
Prognosisp. 416
Goal: Securityp. 416
Interstate Violencep. 416
Economic Securityp. 420
Goal: Stabilityp. 421
Challenges to Political System Effectivenessp. 421
The Decline of Political Orderp. 422
Democratizationp. 425
Political Approachesp. 427
Concluding Observations: It's Getting Better all the Time(?)p. 431
The Transitional Developed Countriesp. 437
The Postcommunist Developed Countriesp. 437
Political Culturep. 439
Under Communismp. 439
Postcommunismp. 440
Goal: Prosperityp. 440
Under Communismp. 440
Postcommunismp. 441
Goal: Stabilityp. 447
Under Communismp. 447
Postcommunismp. 451
Goal: Securityp. 456
Under Communismp. 456
Postcommunismp. 457
The Newly Industrializing Countriesp. 457
Political Culturep. 458
Goal: Prosperityp. 459
Goal: Stabilityp. 465
Goal: Securityp. 466
The Future of the Transitional Developed Countriesp. 467
The Postcommunist Developed Countriesp. 467
The NICsp. 468
Next?p. 468
The Last Chapter: Looking Backward, Looking Forwardp. 473
Political Outputsp. 474
Political Structuresp. 475
Political Processesp. 475
Political Changep. 476
Directionp. 476
Ratep. 476
Controllabilityp. 477
Into the Twenty-First Century: Understanding and Actionp. 477
The Quest for Harmony with Our Technologyp. 477
The Quest for Harmony with Planet Earthp. 478
The Quest for Harmony with One Anotherp. 484
Choosing a Futurep. 484
Political Analysisp. 487
Glossaryp. 501
Referencesp. 511
Creditsp. 521
Indexp. 522
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.


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