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Understanding Psychology,9780131931992

Understanding Psychology

by ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780131931992

ISBN10:
0131931997
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $94.67

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Summary

This book presents a scientific, accurate, and thorough overview of the essential concepts of psychology in engaging language that the average reader can easily comprehend.Topics include the science of psychology, the biological basis of behavior, sensation and perception, states of consciousness, learning, memory, cognition and mental abilities, motivation and emotion, life-span development, personality, stress and health psychology, psychological disorders, therapies, and social psychology.For counselors, behavioral analysts and others in various related psychology fields.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
To the Student xvii
The Science of Psychology
2(38)
What is Psychology?
3(9)
The Fields of Psychology
4(3)
Enduring Issues
7(1)
Psychology as Science
8(1)
Critical Thinking: Thinking Like a Scientist
9(3)
The Growth of Psychology
12(8)
The ``New Psychology'': A Science of the Mind
12(2)
Redefining Psychology: The Study of Behavior
14(1)
The Cognitive Revolution
15(2)
New Directions
17(1)
Where Are the Women?
18(2)
Human Diversity
20(4)
Gender
20(2)
Race and Ethnicity
22(1)
Culture
23(1)
Research Methods in Psychology
24(8)
Naturalistic Observation
24(1)
Case Studies
25(1)
Surveys
26(1)
Correlational Research
26(1)
Experimental Research
27(1)
Multimethod Research
28(1)
The Importance of Sampling
29(2)
Human Diversity and Research
31(1)
Ethics and Psychology: Research on Humans and Animals
32(3)
Careers in Psychology
35(5)
Understanding Ourselves
The Benefits of Studying Psychology
10(20)
Understanding the World Around US
Internet Users: A Flawed Study?
30(10)
The Biological Basis of Behavior
40(38)
Neurons: The Messengers
41(9)
The Neural Impulse
43(1)
The Synapse
44(3)
Neural Plasticity and Neurogenesis
47(3)
The Central Nervous System
50(12)
The Organization of the Nervous System
50(1)
The Brain
51(4)
Hemispheric Specialization
55(2)
Tools for Studying the Brain
57(3)
The Spinal Cord
60(2)
The Peripheral Nervous System
62(2)
The Endocrine System
64(3)
Genes, Evolution, and Behavior
67(11)
Genetics
67(2)
Behavior Genetics
69(2)
Evolutionary Psychology
71(2)
Social Implications
73
Understanding Ourselves
Drugs and Behavior
47(21)
Understanding The World Around US
In Search of the Human Genome
68(10)
Sensation and Perception
78(40)
The Nature of Sensation
79(4)
Sensory Thresholds
80(1)
Subliminal and Extrasensory Perception
81(2)
Vision
83(9)
The Visual System
83(5)
Color Vision
88(4)
Hearing
92(5)
Sound
92(1)
The Ear
93(2)
Theories of Hearing
95(2)
The Other Senses
97(6)
Smell
97(1)
Taste
98(1)
Kinesthetic and Vestibular Senses
99(1)
The Skin Senses
100(2)
Pain
102(1)
Perception
103(15)
Perceptual Organization
104(1)
Perceptual Constancies
105(2)
Perception of Distance and Depth
107(3)
Perception of Movement
110(1)
Visual Illusions
111(1)
Observer Characteristics
112
Understanding The World Around Us
Pheromones
98(3)
Understanding Ourselves
Massage: Rubbing People the Right Way?
101(17)
States of Consciousness
118(32)
Conscious Experience
119(2)
Daydreaming and Fantasy
120(1)
Sleep
121(7)
Circadian Cycles: The Biological Clock
122(1)
The Rhythms of Sleep
123(2)
Inadequate Sleep
125(1)
Sleep Disorders
126(2)
Dreams
128(2)
Why Do We Dream?
128(2)
Drug-Altered Consciousness
130(15)
Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependence
132(1)
Depressants: Alcohol, Barbiturates, and the Opiates
133(5)
Stimulants: Caffeine, Nicotine, Amphetamines, and Cocaine
138(3)
Hallucinogens and Marijuana
141(2)
Explaining Abuse and Addiction
143(2)
Meditation and Hypnosis
145(5)
Meditation
145(1)
Hypnosis
146
Understanding Ourselves
Coping with Occasional Insomnia
127(9)
Understanding The World Around Us
Binge Drinking on College Campuses
136(14)
Learning
150(32)
Classical Conditioning
151(5)
Elements of Classical Conditioning
151(2)
Establishing a Classically Conditioned Response
153(1)
Classical Conditioning in Humans
153(1)
Classical Conditioning Is Selective
154(2)
Operant Conditioning
156(7)
Elements of Operant Conditioning
156(1)
Establishing an Operantly Conditioned Response
157(1)
A Closer Look at Reinforcement
158(2)
A Closer Look at Punishment
160(2)
Learned Helplessness
162(1)
Factors Shared By Classical and Operant Conditioning
163(9)
The Importance of Contingencies
164(3)
Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery
167(1)
Stimulus Control, Generalization, and Discrimination
168(1)
New Learning Based on Original Learning
169(1)
Summing Up
170(2)
Cognitive Learning
172(10)
Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps
173(1)
Insight and Learning Sets
174(1)
Learning by Observing
175
Understanding Ourselves
Modifying Your Own Behavior
159(12)
Understanding The World Around Us
Shaping Behavioral Change through Biofeedback and Neurofeedback
171(11)
Memory
182(28)
The Sensory Registers
183(3)
Visual and Auditory Registers
184(1)
Attention
184(2)
Short-Term Memory
186(3)
Capacity of STM
186(2)
Encoding in STM
188(1)
Maintaining STM
188(1)
Long-Term Memory
189(7)
Capacity of LTM
189(1)
Encoding in LTM
189(1)
Serial Position Effect
190(1)
Maintaining LTM
190(3)
Types of LTM
193(1)
Explicit and Implicit Memory
194(2)
The Biology of Memory
196(2)
Where Are Memories Stored?
196(2)
Forgetting
198(5)
The Biology of Forgetting
198(1)
Experience and Forgetting
199(4)
Special Topics In Memory
203(7)
Cultural Influences
203(1)
Autobiographical Memory
203(1)
Childhood Amnesia
204(1)
Flashbulb Memories
204(1)
Recovered Memories
205
Understanding Ourselves
Improving Your Memory
192(8)
Understanding The World Around Us
Eyewitness Testimony: Can We Trust It?
200(10)
Cognition and Mental Abilities
210(40)
Building Blocks of Thought
211(3)
Language
211(1)
Images
212(1)
Concepts
213(1)
Language, Thought, and Culture
214(2)
Problem Solving
216(6)
The Interpretation of Problems
216(2)
Producing Strategies and Evaluating Progress
218(1)
Obstacles to Solving Problems
219(3)
Decision Making
222(3)
Logical Decision Making
222(1)
Decision-Making Heuristics
223(1)
Explaining Our Decisions
224(1)
Intelligence and Mental Abilities
225(9)
Theories of Intelligence
227(2)
Intelligence Tests
229(2)
What Makes a Good Test?
231(3)
Heredity, Environment, and Intelligence
234(9)
Heredity
234(1)
Environment
235(2)
The IQ Debate: A Useful Model
237(1)
Mental Abilities and Human Diversity: Gender and Culture
238(1)
Extremes of Intelligence
239(4)
Creativity
243(1)
Intelligence and Creativity
243(1)
Creativity Tests
243(1)
Answers to Problems in the Chapter
244(2)
Answers to Intelligence Test Questions
246(4)
Understanding Ourselves
Becoming a More Skillful Problem Solver
220(20)
Understanding The World Around Us
Smarter Students or Different Attitudes? Culture and Success in School
240(10)
Motivation and Emotion
250(32)
Perspectives on Motivation
251(4)
Instincts
251(1)
Drive-Reduction Theory
252(1)
Arousal Theory
252(1)
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
253(1)
A Hierarchy of Motives
254(1)
Hunger and Thirst
255(5)
Biological and Emotional Factors
255(1)
Cultural and Social Factors
256(1)
Eating Disorders and Obesity
257(3)
Sex
260(4)
Biological Factors
261(1)
Cultural and Environmental Factors
262(1)
Patterns of Sexual Behavior Among Americans
262(1)
Sexual Orientation
262(2)
Other Important Motives
264(6)
Exploration and Curiosity
264(1)
Manipulation and Contact
265(1)
Aggression
265(3)
Achievement
268(1)
Affiliation
269(1)
Emotions
270(4)
Basic Emotions
271(1)
Theories of Emotion
272(2)
Communicating Emotion
274(8)
Voice Quality and Facial Expression
275(1)
Body Language, Personal Space, and Gestures
275(1)
Gender and Emotion
276(1)
Culture and Emotion
277
Understanding Ourselves
The Slow (but Lasting) Fix for Weight Gain
259(8)
Understanding The World Around Us
What Motivates Rape?
267(15)
Life-Span Development
282(44)
Enduring Issues and Methods in Developmental Psychology
283(2)
Prenatal Development
285(2)
The Newborn
287(3)
Reflexes
287(1)
Temperament
287(1)
Perceptual Abilities
288(2)
Infancy and Childhood
290(15)
Physical Development
290(1)
Motor Development
291(1)
Cognitive Development
292(2)
Moral Development
294(2)
Language Development
296(2)
Social Development
298(4)
Sex-Role Development
302(1)
Television and Children
303(2)
Adolescence
305(6)
Physical Changes
305(1)
Cognitive Changes
306(1)
Personality and Social Development
307(2)
Some Problems of Adolescence
309(2)
Adulthood
311(6)
Love, Partnerships, and Parenting
312(2)
The World of Work
314(1)
Cognitive Changes
315(1)
Personality Changes
316(1)
The ``Change of Life''
316(1)
Late Adulthood
317(9)
Physical Changes
318(1)
Social Development
319(1)
Cognitive Changes
320(1)
Facing the End of Life
321
Understanding The World Around Us
Kids Who Kill
310(3)
Understanding Ourselves
Resolving Conflicts in Intimate Relationships
313(13)
Personality
326(28)
Studying Personality
327(1)
Psychodynamic Theories
328(10)
Sigmund Freud
328(3)
Carl Jung
331(1)
Alfred Adler
332(1)
Karen Horney
333(1)
Erik Erikson
334(2)
A Psychodynamic View of Jaylene Smith
336(1)
Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories
336(2)
Humanistic Personality Theories
338(2)
Carl Rogers
338(1)
A Humanistic View of Jaylene Smith
339(1)
Evaluating Humanistic Theories
339(1)
Trait Theories
340(4)
The Big Five
341(1)
A Trait View of Jaylene Smith
342(1)
Evaluating Trait Theories
343(1)
Cognitive-Social Learning Theories
344(2)
Expectancies, Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control
344(1)
A Cognitive-Social Learning View of Jaylene Smith
345(1)
Evaluating Cognitive-Social Learning Theories
345(1)
Personality Assessment
346(8)
The Personal Interview
347(1)
Direct Observation
347(1)
Objective Tests
348(1)
Projective Tests
349
Understanding The World Around Us
Are the Big Five Personality Traits Universal?
342(7)
Understanding Ourselves
Evaluating Your Personality
349(5)
Stress and Health Psychology
354(28)
Sources of Stress
356(5)
Change
356(1)
Everyday Hassles
356(3)
Self-Imposed Stress
359(1)
Stress and Individual Differences
359(2)
Coping With Stress
361(5)
Direct Coping
361(1)
Defensive Coping
362(3)
Socioeconomic and Gender Differences in Coping with Stress
365(1)
How Stress Affects Health
366(3)
Stress and Heart Disease
368(1)
Stress and the Immune System
368(1)
Staying Healthy
369(5)
Reduce Stress
369(3)
Adopt a Healthy Life Style
372(2)
Extreme Stress
374(8)
Sources of Extreme Stress
374(2)
Reactions to Extreme Stress
376(2)
The Well-Adjusted Person
378
Understanding Ourselves
Coping with Stress at College
362(14)
Understanding The World Around Us
Traumatic Stress: Recovering from War and Other Traumatic Events
376(6)
Psychological Disorders
382(32)
Perspectives on Psychological Disorders
383(6)
Historical Views of Psychological Disorders
385(1)
The Biological Model
386(1)
The Psychoanalytic Model
386(1)
The Cognitive--Behavioral Model
386(1)
The Diathesis--Stress Model and Systems Theory
387(1)
Classifying Abnormal Behavior
387(1)
The Prevalence of Psychological Disorders
387(2)
Mood Disorders
389(4)
Depression
389(1)
Suicide
389(2)
Mania and Bipolar Disorder
391(1)
Causes of Mood Disorders
392(1)
Anxiety Disorders
393(3)
Specific Phobias
393(1)
Panic Disorder
394(1)
Other Anxiety Disorders
394(1)
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
395(1)
Psychosomatic and Somatoform Disorders
396(2)
Dissociative Disorders
398(2)
Sexual and Gender-Identity Disorders
400(2)
Personality Disorders
402(3)
Schizophrenic Disorders
405(3)
Childhood Disorders
408(1)
Gender and Cultural Differences in Abnormal Behavior
409(5)
Understanding Ourselves
Recognizing Depression
390(16)
Understanding The World Around Us
The Insanity Defense
406(8)
Therapies
414(32)
Insight Therapies
415(5)
Psychoanalysis
415(2)
Client-Centered Therapy
417(1)
Gestalt Therapy
418(1)
Recent Developments
419(1)
Behavior Therapies
420(3)
Using Classical Conditioning Techniques
421(1)
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning
422(1)
Therapies Based on Modeling
422(1)
Cognitive Therapies
423(2)
Stress-Inoculation Therapy
424(1)
Rational-Emotive Therapy
424(1)
Beck's Cognitive Therapy
424(1)
Group Therapies
425(4)
Family Therapy
426(1)
Couple Therapy
426(2)
Self-Help Groups
428(1)
Effectiveness of Psychotherapy
429(2)
Biological Treatments
431(5)
Drug Therapies
431(2)
Electroconvulsive Therapy
433(1)
Psychosurgery
434(2)
Institutionalization and Its Alternatives
436(3)
Deinstitutionalization
436(1)
Alternative Forms of Treatment
437(1)
Prevention
437(2)
Client Diversity and Treatment
439(7)
Gender and Treatment
439(2)
Culture and Treatment
441
Understanding Ourselves
How to Find Help
427(13)
Understanding The World Around Us
Access to Mental Health Care---Who Gets Treatment?
440(6)
Social Psychology
446
Social Cognition
447(7)
Forming Impressions
448(1)
Attribution
449(2)
Interpersonal Attraction
451(3)
Attitudes
454(10)
The Nature of Attitudes
455(1)
Prejudice and Discrimination
456(4)
Changing Attitudes
460(4)
Social Influence
464(5)
Cultural Influences
464(1)
Conformity
465(1)
Compliance
466(1)
Obedience
467(2)
Social Action
469(10)
Deindividuation
469(1)
Helping Behavior
469(1)
Groups and Decision Making
470(2)
Leadership
472(1)
Organizational Behavior
473
Understanding The World Around Us
Ethnic Conflict and Violence
458(8)
Understanding Ourselves
Beliefs and Binge Drinking
466(13)
Appendix
Scales of Measurement
479(1)
Measurements of Central Tendency
480(2)
Differences Between the Mean, Median, and Mode
480(2)
The Normal Curve
482(1)
Skewed Distributions
482(1)
Measures of Variation
483(2)
Range
483(1)
The Standard Deviation
484(1)
Measures of Correlation
485(1)
Using Statistics to Make Predictions
486
Probability
486
Glossary 1(1)
References 1(1)
Photo Credits 1(1)
Name Index 1(1)
Subject Index 1


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