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Understanding Public Policy,9780131174528
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Understanding Public Policy

by
Edition:
11th
ISBN13:

9780131174528

ISBN10:
0131174525
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

This leading introduction to public policy is designed to provide learners with concrete tools for not only understanding public policy in general, but for analyzingspecific public policies. It focuses onwhat policies governments pursue,why governments pursue the policies they do, and what theconsequences of these policies are. Very contemporary in perspective, it introduces eight analytical models currently used by political scientists to describe and explain political life and then, using these various analytical models--singly and in combination--explores specific public policies in a variety of key domestic policy areas. For individuals interested in a summary of current public policy in a variety of areas.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Policy Analysis: What Governments Do, Why They Do It, and What Difference It Makes
1(10)
What Is Public Policy?
1(2)
Why Study Public Policy?
3(2)
What Can Be Learned From Policy Analysis?
5(1)
Policy Analysis and Policy Advocacy
6(1)
Policy Analysis and the Quest for Solutions to America's Problems
7(2)
Policy Analysis as Art and Craft
9(1)
Note
10(1)
Bibliography
10(1)
Web Sites
10(1)
Models of Politics: Some Help in Thinking about Public Policy
11(20)
Models for Policy Analysis
11(1)
Institutionalism: Policy as Institutional Output
12(2)
Process: Policy as Political Activity
14(1)
Rationalism: Policy as Maximum Social Gain
15(3)
Incrementalism: Policy as Variations on the Past
18(2)
Group Theory: Policy as Group Equilibrium
20(2)
Elite Theory: Policy as Elite Preference
22(2)
Public Choice Theory: Policy as Collective Decision Making by Self-Interested Individuals
24(2)
Game Theory: Policy as Rational Choice in Competitive Situations
26(2)
Models: How to Tell if They are Helping or Not
28(1)
Notes
29(1)
Bibliography
30(1)
Web Sites
30(1)
The Policymaking Process: Decision-Making Activities
31(29)
The Policy Process: How Policies Are Made
31(1)
Problem Identification and Agenda Setting
31(2)
Agenda Setting From The Bottom Up
33(2)
Agenda Setting From The Top Down
35(4)
``Nondecisions'': Deciding What will not be Decided
39(1)
Agenda Setting and Mobilizing Opinion: The Mass Media
40(2)
Formulating Policy
42(1)
Interest Groups and Policymaking
43(4)
Policy Legitimation: The Proximate Policymakers
47(5)
Policy Implementation: the Bureaucracy
52(3)
Policy Evaluation: Impressionistic Versus Systematic
55(1)
Summary
56(1)
Notes
57(1)
Bibliography
58(1)
Web Sites
58(2)
Criminal Justice: Rationality and Irrationality in Public Policy
60(32)
Crime in America
60(3)
Crime and Deterrence
63(2)
Does Crime Pay?
65(2)
Police and Law Enforcement
67(3)
Federalizing Crime Fighting
70(1)
Crime and Guns
71(3)
The Drug War
74(5)
Crime and the Courts
79(3)
RICO Versus Liberty
82(2)
Prisons and Correctional Policies
84(1)
Capital Punishment
85(3)
Summary
88(1)
Notes
89(1)
Bibliography
90(1)
Web Sites
91(1)
Health and Welfare: The Search for Rational Strategies
92(33)
Rationality and Irrationality in the Welfare State
92(3)
Defining the Problem: Poverty in America
95(1)
Who are the Poor?
96(3)
Why are the Poor Poor?
99(2)
The Preventive Strategy: Social Security
101(2)
Evaluation: Intended and Unintended Consequences of Social Security
103(2)
Social Security Reform?
105(2)
The Alleviative Strategy: Public Assistance
107(1)
Welfare Reform
108(2)
Evaluation: is Welfare Reform Working?
110(1)
The Working Poor
111(1)
Homelessness and Public Policy
112(1)
Health Care in America
113(3)
Evaluation: Health Care Access and Costs
116(3)
Health Care Reform Strategies
119(2)
Summary
121(2)
Notes
123(1)
Bibliography
123(1)
Web Sites
123(2)
Education: The Group Struggle
125(30)
Multiple Goals in Educational Policy
125(1)
The Educational Groups
126(2)
Battling Over the Basics
128(3)
The Federal Government's Role in Education
131(3)
``No Child Left Behind''
134(2)
Controversies Over Testing
136(1)
Parental Choice in Education
137(2)
Battles Over School Finances
139(1)
Public Policy and Higher Education
140(2)
``Diversity'' in Higher Education
142(3)
Groups in Higher Education
145(2)
Reading, Writing, and Religion
147(4)
Summary
151(1)
Notes
152(1)
Bibliography
153(1)
Web Sites
153(2)
Economic Policy: Incrementalism at Work
155(22)
Incrementalism in Fiscal and Monetary Policy
155(1)
Economic Theories as Policy Guides
156(4)
The Performance of the American Economy
160(1)
The Fed at Work
161(2)
Incrementalism and Government Spending
163(2)
``Entitlement'' Spending
165(2)
Changing Budget Priorities: Challenging Incrementalism
167(1)
Government Debt, Deficits, and Surpluses
168(2)
The Formal Budgetary Process
170(4)
Summary
174(1)
Notes
175(1)
Bibliography
175(1)
Web Sites
175(2)
Tax Policy: Battling the Special Interests
177(20)
Interest Groups and Tax Policy
177(1)
The Federal Tax System
178(5)
Taxation, Fairness, and Growth
183(3)
Tax Reform and the Special Interests
186(2)
Return of the Special Interests
188(3)
Replacing the Income Tax?
191(3)
Summary
194(1)
Notes
195(1)
Bibliography
195(1)
Web Sites
196(1)
International Trade and Immigration: Elite-Mass Conflict
197(20)
The Global Economy
197(1)
Changing Elite Preferences for World Trade
198(4)
Elite Gains from Trade
202(3)
Mass Losses From Trade
205(3)
Elite-Mass Differences Over Immigration
208(2)
National Immigration Policy
210(4)
Summary
214(1)
Notes
215(1)
Bibliography
215(1)
Web Sites
216(1)
Environmental Policy: Externalities and Interests
217(23)
Public Choice and the Environment
217(3)
Environmental Externalities
220(6)
Interest Group Effects
226(2)
The Global Warming Controversy
228(3)
The Nuclear Industry Meltdown
231(2)
Politicians and Bureaucrats: Regulating the Environment
233(2)
Alternative Public Choice Solutions
235(2)
Summary
237(1)
Notes
238(1)
Bibliography
238(1)
Web Sites
239(1)
Civil Rights: Elite and Mass Interaction
240(33)
Elite and Mass Opinions and Race
240(2)
The Development of Civil Rights Policy
242(2)
Mass Resistance to Desegregation
244(3)
Racial Balancing in Public Schools
247(2)
The Civil Rights Movement
249(2)
Public Policy and Affirmative Action
251(2)
The Supreme Court and Affirmative Action
253(3)
Mass Opinion and Affirmative Action
256(3)
Public Policy and Hispanic Americans
259(1)
The Constitution and Gender Equality
260(2)
Public Policy and Gender Equality
262(4)
Abortion and the Right to Life
266(2)
Public Policy and the Disabled
268(1)
Summary
269(1)
Notes
270(2)
Bibliography
272(1)
Web Sites
272(1)
American Federalism: Institutional Arrangements and Public Policy
273(21)
American Federalism
273(1)
Why Federalism?
274(2)
Politics and Institutional Arrangements
276(2)
American Federalism: Variations on the Theme
278(4)
Money and Power Flow to Washington
282(1)
Federalism Revived?
283(2)
Comparing Public Policies of the States
285(2)
Institutions and Public Policy
287(3)
Summary
290(1)
Notes
291(1)
Bibliography
292(1)
Web Sites
292(2)
Defense Policy: Strategies for Serious Games
294(22)
National Security as a Serious Game
294(1)
Confronting Nuclear Threats
295(1)
Arms Control Games
296(3)
Missile Defenses: The Limits of Deterrence
299(1)
NATO and European Security
300(3)
When to Use Military Force?
303(3)
Using Military Force
306(3)
Determining Military Force Levels
309(4)
Summary
313(2)
Notes
315(1)
Bibliography
315(1)
Web Sites
315(1)
Homeland Security: Terrorism and Nondeterrable Threats
316(16)
The Nature of Terrorism
316(1)
The War on Terrorism
317(5)
The Department of Homeland Security
322(1)
Fighting Terrorism With Intelligence
323(4)
Security Versus Liberty
327(3)
Summary
330(1)
Notes
330(1)
Bibliography
331(1)
Web Sites
331(1)
Policy Evaluation: Finding Out What Happens after a Law is Passed
332(19)
Policy Evaluation: Assessing the Impact of Public Policy
332(2)
The Symbolic Impact of Policy
334(1)
Program Evaluation: What Governments Usually Do
335(2)
Program Evaluation: What Governments Can Do
337(2)
Federal Evaluation: The General Accounting Office
339(1)
Experimental Policy Research
340(2)
Program Evaluation: Why It Fails So Often
342(1)
How Bureaucrats Explain Negative Findings
343(1)
Why Government Programs Are Seldom Terminated
344(2)
Politics As a Substitute For Analysis
346(1)
The Limits Of Public Policy
347(1)
Notes
348(1)
Bibliography
349(1)
Web Sites
349(2)
Index 351

Excerpts

Policy analysis is concerned with "who gets what" in politics and, more importantly, "why" and "what difference it makes." We are concerned not only with what policies governments pursue, but why governments pursue the policies they do, and what the consequences of these policies are. Political science, like other scientific disciplines, has developed a number of concepts and models to help describe and explain political life. These models are not really competitive in the sense that any one could be judged as the "best." Each focuses on separate elements of politics, and each helps us understand different things about political life. We begin with a brief description of eight analytic models in political science and the potential contribution of each to the study of public policy: Institutional model Process model Rational model Incremental model Group model Elite model Public choice model Game theory model Most public policies are a combination of rational planning, incrementalism, competition among groups, elite preferences, public choice, political processes, and institutional influences. Throughout this volume we employ these models, both singly and in combination, to describe and explain public policy. However, certain chapters rely more on one model than another. We attempt to describe and explain public policy by the use of these various analytic models. Readers are not only informed about public policy in a variety of key domestic policy areas; they are also encouraged to utilize these conceptual models in political science to explain the causes and consequences of public policies in these areas. The policy areas studied are: Criminal justice Health and welfare Education Economic policy Taxation International trade and immigration Environmental protection Civil rights State and local spending and services National defense Homeland Security Any of these policy areas might be studied by using more than one model. Frequently our selection of a particular analytic model to study a specific policy area was based as much on pedagogical considerations as on anything else. We simply wanted to demonstrate how political scientists employ analytic models. Once readers are familiar with the nature and uses of analytic models in political science, they may find it interesting to explore the utility of models other than the ones selected by the author in the explanation of particular policy outcomes. For example, we use an elitist model to discuss civil rights policy, but the reader may wish to view civil rights policy from the perspective of group theory. We employ public choice theory to discuss environmental policy, but the reader might prefer studying environmental problems from the perspective of the rational model. In short, this volume is not only an introduction to the study of public policy but also an introduction to the models political scientists use to describe and explain political life. The new 11th Edition ofUnderstanding Public Policybrings policy studies into the post 9/11 world. The chapter on "Defense Policy: Strategies for Serious Games" has been extensively revised to include issues surrounding the use of military force in fighting terrorism, including the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. A new chapter, "Homeland Security: Terrorism and NonDeterrable Threats," describes the goals and methods of terrorists, the U.S. response to the 9/11 attack, the role of the intelligence community in fighting terrorism, and the Patriot Act and the problems it poses for individual liberty. The 11th Edition also includes expanded discussions in educational policy, including the controversy surrounding the "No Child Left Behind Act" and its emphasis on pupil testing. The heated issue of "diversity" in higher


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