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Understanding Reading Problems : Assessment and Instruction,9780321013330
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Understanding Reading Problems : Assessment and Instruction

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780321013330

ISBN10:
0321013336
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Addison-Wesley
List Price: $94.40
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Summary

This market-leading text helps teachers create engaged readers at all age levels, from primary grades through adolescence, through its comprehensive exploration of strategies for reading assessment and instruction. Heavily revised, the new edition maintains its focus on struggling readers and emphasizes classroom-based, rather than clinical, approaches. Understanding Reading Problems, 5/e, integrates case studies and a reader friendly style with the latest research.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
PART ONE: ASSESSMENT 1(210)
Reading and Its Assessment
2(49)
What Teachers Need to Know about Reading Assessment
4(5)
Assessment for Internal Audiences
5(2)
Assessment for External Audiences
7(2)
The Reading Process and Reading Problems
9(38)
Emergent Literacy
10(14)
Beginning Reading
24(12)
Building Fluency
36(2)
Reading to Learn and for Pleasure
38(6)
Mature Reading
44(3)
Changing Trends in Assessment
47(1)
Authentic Assessment
47(1)
Portfolio Assessment
48(1)
Summary
48(1)
References
48(3)
Assessment for Internal Audiences: Ongoing Assessments
51(32)
Running Records
54(3)
Running Records to Document Progress
55(1)
Running Records and Text Difficulty
55(2)
Observations of Reading Behaviors and Strategies
57(7)
Observing Readers
57(2)
Recording Observations
59(5)
Monitoring Types and Difficulty of Texts Read
64(2)
Cloze Procedures
66(4)
Using a Cloze for Placement
68(2)
Using the Cloze Diagnostically
70(1)
Monitoring Spelling Progress and Problems
70(8)
Developmental Spelling Stages
71(3)
Documenting Spelling Progress
74(1)
Developmental Spelling Inventory
74(4)
Monitoring Growth in Writing
78(2)
Writing Samples
78(1)
Writing Checklists
79(1)
Summary
80(1)
References
81(2)
Assessment for Internal Audiences: Periodic In-Depth Assessments
83(48)
Levels of Reading Ability
85(3)
The Independent Level
85(1)
The Instructional Level
85(1)
The Frustration Level
85(2)
The Listening Level
87(1)
The Usefulness of Grade-Equivalent Reading Levels
87(1)
Informal Reading Inventories
88(10)
Selecting a Commercial or Language Arts Series IRI
92(4)
Types of Text in Informal Reading Inventories
96(1)
The Role of Prior Knowledge in Comprehension
96(2)
Administering an Informal Reading Inventory
98(9)
Where to Start
98(2)
Where to Stop
100(1)
Step-by-Step Administration
100(1)
Reinspection and Comprehension
101(2)
Retelling and Comprehension
103(1)
Marking Oral Reading Miscues
104(1)
Assessing Listening Comprehension
104(1)
Assessing Recognition of Words in Isolation
105(2)
Scoring an Informal Reading Inventory
107(5)
Oral Reading Accuracy
109(2)
Reading and Listening Comprehension
111(1)
Scoring the Word Recognition Inventory
111(1)
Keeping Track of Scores
112(1)
Interpreting an Informal Reading Inventory
112(11)
Establishing Reading and Listening Levels
112(3)
Qualitative Analysis of Oral Reading Miscues
115(4)
Analyzing Reading Comprehension
119(1)
Comprehension Skill Patterns
120(1)
Patterns in Listening Comprehension
121(2)
Analyzing Word Recognition in Isolation
123(1)
Supplementing Informal Assessments
123(5)
Helping Students to Become Strategic Readers
123(3)
Word Recognition and Phonics Tests
126(2)
Summary
128(1)
References
129(2)
Assessment for Internal Audiences: Portfolio Assessment
131(48)
Perspectives on Authentic Assessment and Evaluation
132(1)
Why Keep Portfolios?
133(2)
Showcasing Achievement
134(1)
Documenting Progress
134(1)
Demonstrating Effort
134(1)
Fostering Students' Self-Evaluation and Reflection
134(1)
Beginning a Portfolio Program
135(9)
Primary Grades
136(2)
Middel and Upper Grades
138(2)
Gaining the Support of Administrators and Parents
140(4)
Keeping Portfolios
144(7)
Selecting Curricular Areas to Be Sampled
145(1)
What goes into a Portfolio?
146(3)
Helping Students to Select Work for Inclusion
149(2)
Evaluating Portfolios
151(6)
Teaching Self-Evaluation
151(2)
Teaching Goal Setting
153(1)
Teacher Evaluations
153(2)
Parent Evaluations
155(2)
Portfolio Conferences
157(7)
Conferring With Students
157(3)
Peer Conferences
160(3)
Conferring With Parents
163(1)
Summary
164(1)
References
164(2)
Reproducible Forms
166(13)
Assessement for External Audiences: Formal Measures
179(32)
Understanding Formal Tests
180(2)
Characteristics of Tests
182(4)
Reliability
183(1)
Validity
184(2)
Interpretign Test Results
186(5)
Measures of Dispersion: Range and Standard Deviation
189(1)
Form of Test Scores
189(2)
Norm-Referenced Tests
191(8)
Achievement Tests
193(3)
Diagnostic Tests
196(3)
Criterion-Referenced Tests
199(4)
Characteristics of Criterion-Referenced Tests
199(1)
Goals and Objectives
200(3)
Minimum Competency Testing
203(3)
Issues of Minimum Competency Programs
204(1)
Problems of Minimum Competency Programs
204(2)
Sources of Test Information
206(2)
Measurement Yearbooks and Indexes
206(1)
Bulletins
207(1)
Journals
208(1)
Summary
208(1)
References
209(2)
PART TWO: INSTRUCTION 211(273)
Emergent and Beginning Literacy
213(66)
Different Conceptions of Early Literacy
215(3)
The ``Magic Moment'' of Readiness to Read
215(1)
Teaching Isolated Skills: The Behaviorist Approach
215(1)
``Learning to Read by Discovery''
216(1)
Early Literacy: A Research-Based View
217(1)
The Transition from Emergent Literacy to Beginning Reading
218(1)
Understanding and Assessing emergent and Beginning Literacy
218(27)
Oral Language Fluency
219(5)
Storybook Reading
224(3)
Print Orientation concepts
227(2)
Letter Knowledge
229(1)
The Speech-to-Print Match
230(3)
Phonemic Awareness
233(4)
Phoneme-to-Grapheme Correspondences
237(1)
Sight-Word Recognition
238(4)
Comprehension
242(3)
Teaching for Emergent and Beginning Literacy
245(1)
Reading Storybooks
245(1)
Reading Many Book, Repeatedly
245(1)
Reading Expressively
246(1)
Little Books
246(2)
Series Books
248(1)
Teaching Print Orientation concepts
249(1)
Teaching the Alphabet
250(2)
Alphabet Books
251(1)
Letter-Matching Games
251(1)
Sounds and Letters
251(1)
Letter-Matching Games
251(1)
Sounds and Letters
251(1)
Teaching the Concept of Word
252(1)
The Voice-Pointing Procedure
253(1)
Cut-Apart words
253(1)
Dictated Experience Accounts
253(1)
Exercises to Develop Phonemic Awareness
253(4)
Invented Spelling
253(1)
Other Exercises to Develop Phonemic Awareness
254(3)
Exercises to Teach Word Recognition and Letter-to-Sound Correspondences
257(9)
Word Sorts
257(2)
Making and Breaking Worlds
259(2)
Connecting children's Literature with Phonics Instruction
261(3)
Enhanced Writing
264(1)
Early Writing workshops
264(2)
Teaching for comprehension
266(5)
Shared Reading
266(5)
Early Intervention Programs
271(3)
Reading Recovery
271(1)
Question about Early Intervention Programs
272(2)
Early Intervention Programs Using Tutors
274(1)
Summary
274(1)
References
275(4)
Assessign and Teaching Developing Readers
279(51)
Introduction
280(3)
Case Study
280(3)
Developing sight Vocabulary
283(1)
Dictated Stories and Language Experience
283(1)
Support Reading: Echo-Reading and Choral-Reading
284(2)
Developing Reading Fluency
286(8)
Rereading
287(1)
Repeated Readings for Fluency
288(1)
Predictable Books, ``Easy Readers,'' and Other Easy Reading Fare
289(5)
Developing word Analysis Strategies
294(7)
Teaching the ``P'' Word: Phonics
294(3)
Assessing Decoding Ability
297(2)
Using context
299(1)
Approaching Word Attack Strategically
300(1)
Developing Reading Comprehension
301(19)
For the First Phase: Exploration
302(1)
Developing Prior Knowledge
302(4)
For the phase of Inquiry
306(8)
For the Phase of Reflection
314(6)
Developing Listening comprehension
320(6)
The Interaction of Listening and Reading Comprehension
321(5)
Summary
326(1)
References
327(3)
Adolescent Students with Reading Problems
330(42)
Guiding Principles and Theories
331(4)
Establishing Trust
331(1)
Providing Literate Role Models
332(1)
Reducing the Feeling of Learned Helplessness or Passive Failure
332(1)
Legitimizing Personal Knowledge and Experiences
333(1)
Developing a Learning Environment
334(1)
Classifying the Adolescent Student with Reading Problems
335(34)
Peter: A Nonreader
336(9)
Jayne: A Disenchanted Learner
345(16)
Sherita: A Remedial Reader
361(8)
Summary
369(2)
Refereces
371(1)
Mature Readers and Writers
372(44)
From Learning-to-Read to Reading-to-Learn
373(1)
A Model of Instruction to Guide Reading-to-Learn
373(1)
Strategies for the Anticipation Phase
374(5)
Advance Organizers
374(1)
Group Brainstorming
374(1)
Paired Brainstorming
375(1)
Terms in Advance
375(1)
Scrambled Sentences
375(1)
Free Writing
375(1)
Semantic Mapping
376(1)
Know/Want to Know/Learn (K-W-L)
376(2)
Think/Pair/Share
378(1)
The Anticipation Guide
378(1)
Strategies for the Investigation Phase
379(7)
The I.N.S.E.R.T. Model
379(1)
ReQuest Procedure
380(1)
Reciprocal Teaching
380(2)
Study Guides
382(2)
Dual-Entry Diaries
384(1)
A Lesson in Cooperative Learning: Jigsaw II
384(2)
Strategies for the Reflection Phase
386(8)
Paired Brainstorming/Paired Summarizing
386(1)
Terms in Advance, Revisited
386(1)
Scrambled Sequences, Revisited
386(1)
Semantic Mapping, Revisited
386(1)
K-W-L, Revisited
387(1)
The I.N.S.E.R.T. Chart, Revisited
387(1)
Study Guides, Revisited
387(1)
Dial-Entry diaries, Revisited
387(1)
Think/Pair/Share, Revisited
388(1)
Ten-Minute Essays and Other Free writes
388(1)
The Five-Minute Essay
389(1)
The Concept Chart
389(1)
Three-Part Diaries
390(1)
Discussion Strategies
390(1)
The Discussion Web
391(1)
Academic controversy
392(2)
Trade a Problem
394(1)
Understanding Patterns of Text Organization
394(10)
Taxonomy
394(1)
Chronology
395(1)
Cause and Effect
396(2)
Written directions
398(2)
Comparision and Contrast
400(2)
Explanation or Exposition
402(2)
Vocabulary
404(8)
Vocabulary and Background concepts
405(2)
Semantic Webs
407(1)
Concept Maps
408(1)
Venn Diagrams
409(1)
Etymologies and Word Webs
409(1)
Vocabulary and Surrounding context
410(2)
Summary
412(1)
References
413(1)
Appendix: Marco Polo, Adventurer
414(2)
Strategies for Teaching Reading and Writing to English Learners
416(38)
The Context of Teaching English Learners to Read and Write
417(4)
English Learners: Who Are They?
417(1)
What Do We Know about the Context to Learning and of Learning in a Second Language?
418(1)
The Legal Status of Programs to Seven English Learners
418(1)
Bilingual Education: One solution
419(1)
Language Policy Decisions about the Language of Instruction: The Transition Process
419(2)
Second Language Acquisition
421(8)
Underlying Principles of Communicative-Based Approaches
422(2)
Basic Instructional Strategies for Second Language Acquisition
424(5)
Assessing English Language proficiency
429(1)
Teaching English Learners to Read and Write in English
429(9)
Early Literacy Experiences
429(1)
Adapting the Language Experience Approach for English Learners
430(3)
Text-Based Strategies
433(2)
Vocabulary Development
435(1)
Adapting Phonics and Decoding Strategies for English Learners
436(1)
Writing and Spelling
437(1)
Scaffolding Strategies for Improving Reading comprehension
438(9)
Prereading Strategies
439(5)
Guided Reading Strategies
444(2)
Postreading Strategies
446(1)
Some Issues in Assessing the Reading and Writing of English Learners
447(2)
Instruments and Procedures
447(1)
Grouping for Instruction
447(1)
Selection of Literature and Other Instructional Materials
448(1)
Summary
449(1)
References
449(5)
Assessing Factors Related to Reading Problems
454(30)
Philosophical and Legal Issues Related to Special-Needs Students
455(7)
Legislation Affecting Special-Needs Students
455(3)
Inclusion and the Regular Education Initiative
458(1)
Identifying Special-Needs Students
459(1)
Assessment of Special Education Needs
460(2)
Intellectual Factors
462(4)
Tests of Intelligence and Learning Aptitude
462(3)
The Role of Experience
465(1)
Issues of Bias in Assessment
466(1)
Physical Factors
466(6)
Vision and Visual Problems
467(2)
Hearing and Auditory Problems
469(3)
Language Difficulties and disorders
472(5)
Language Acquisition and Difficulties in Infancy and Early Childhood
472(2)
Language Development and Difficulties in Preschool and Primary Grades
474(2)
Language Development and Difficulties in Later Childhood
476(1)
The Special Challenges of Bilingualism
476(1)
Special Learning Problems
477(4)
Learning disabilities
477(2)
Dyslexia
479(2)
Summary
481(1)
References
482(2)
Index 484


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