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Understanding Research A Consumer's Guide, Enhanced Pearson eText with Loose-Leaf Version -- Access Card Package

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780133831627

ISBN10:
0133831620
Format:
Package
Pub. Date:
4/14/2014
Publisher(s):
Pearson

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This introductory text is written specifically for consumers of research — anyone who uses the results and implications of research studies to enhance their knowledge and improve their practice. The focus is on guiding students toward a basic understanding of the research process, allowing them to develop the skills, knowledge and strategies needed to read, interpret, and evaluate the quality of research reports. The text provides balanced coverage of quantitative, qualitative, and combined research approaches.

 

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From reviews of the book:

 

"The structure of the book is great.  [The authors use] language that helps the reader become engaged and invites them to start applying what they have learned to their situation immediately.  The examples of the journal articles with the notations are very helpful and we use these for discussion in the class quite a bit.  I also like the 'reviewing what we’ve learned' and 'practicing your skills' at the end of the chapter.  I much prefer the consumer approach of this text over others on the market."

    -- Candyce Reynolds, Portland State University

 

"Understanding Research is true to its name; it is much more user friendly, it explains WHAT research IS.  It does an EXCELLENT job of covering all of the material I currently cover. [The authors] (fortunately) force me to provide a balanced, comparative description of both [quantitative and qualitative] research. . . . I find the writing style to be clear, interesting and engaging. " 

    -- Carol A. Friesen, Ball State University

 

 

 

 

Author Biography

Vicki L. Plano Clark is an Assistant Professor in Educational Studies in the College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services at the University of Cincinnati. She teaches research methods courses, including foundations of research, qualitative research, and mixed methods research. Prior to joining the University of Cincinnati, she spent 19 years at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), where she first focused on physics education as Laboratory Manager in the Department of Physics and Astronomy and then switched to a focus on research methodology, utimately serving as the Director of the Office of Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research in the Department of Educational Psychology. Dr. Plano Clark has authored and co-authored over 40 articles, chapters, and books.

 

John W. Creswell  is a Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.  He held the Clifton Institute Endowed Professor Chair for five years, and for the last five years he has served as a co-director at the Office of Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research.  He has held positions as Senior Fulbright Scholar (South Africa, 2008, and Thailand, 2012), as a consultant in the health services research area for the Veterans Administration, as Visiting Professor at Harvard’s School of Public Health, and as Adjunct Professor of Family Medicine at the University of Michigan, among others.  In addition to his teaching, he has authored numerous articles and books on mixed methods research, qualitative methodology, and general research design, and was the founding Co-Editor for the Journal of Mixed Methods Research.  In 2014, Dr. Creswell will be awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Pretoria in South Africa.

Table of Contents

Part one


An Introduction to Understanding Research

 


CHAPTER 1


The Process of Research: Learning How Research Is Conducted and Reported


 

HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY REPORTS OF RESEARCH?

Recognize that Formal Research Includes the Collection and Analysis of Data

Distinguish Reports of Research from Other Types of Scholarly Writing

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

WHY DO YOU NEED TO READ RESEARCH REPORTS?

Read Research to Add to Your Professional Knowledge

Read Research to Inform Your Position in Policy Debates

Read Research to Improve Your Practice

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

WHERE DO YOU FIND REPORTS OF RESEARCH?

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

WHAT STEPS DO RESEARCHERS TAKE WHEN CONDUCTING THEIR STUDIES?

Step 1—Identifying a Research Problem

Step 2—Reviewing the Literature

Step 3—Specifying a Purpose

Step 4—Choosing a Research Design

Step 5—Selecting Participants and Collecting Data

Step 6—Analyzing the Data and Reporting Results

Step 7—Drawing Conclusions

Step 8—Disseminating and Evaluating the Research

 

HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY THE STEPS OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS WITHIN THE MAJOR SECTIONS OF A RESEARCH ARTICLE?

Front Matter

The Introduction Section

The Method Section

The Results Section

The Conclusion Section

Back Matter

 

LET’S APPLY THE RESEARCH PROCESS TO READING ACTUAL STUDIES

 

Reviewing What We’ve Learned To Do

 

Practicing Your Skills

 

AN EXAMPLE OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: THE PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY-IN–MIDDLE-SCHOOLS STUDY

 

AN EXAMPLE OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: THE PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY-AT-DAYCARE STUDY

 

 

CHAPTER 2


Quantitative and Qualitative Research: Understanding Different Types of Study Reports



HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH STUDIES?

Quantitative Research Studies Emphasize Numeric Data and Statistical Analyses to Explain Variables

Qualitative Research Studies Emphasize Text Data and Thematic Analyses to Explore a Phenomenon

Combined Research Studies Includes Both Quantitative and Qualitative Research to Examine a Topic

WHY SHOULD YOU READ BOTH QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH STUDIES?

WHAT ARE THE KEY DIFFERENCES IN THE STEPS OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS IN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE STUDIES?

Step 1—Researchers Identify a Research Problem

Step 2—Researchers Review the Literature

Step 3—Researchers Specify a Purpose

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

Step 4—Researchers Choose a Research Design

Step 5—Researchers Select Participants and Collect Data

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

Step 6—Researchers Analyze Data and Report Results

Step 7—Researchers Draw Conclusions

Step 8—Researchers Disseminate and Evaluate the Research

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

HOW DO YOU EVALUATE QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE STUDIES?

Reviewing What We’ve Learned To Do

 

Practicing Your Skills

 

Part TWO


Understanding the Introductions to Research Reports

 

CHAPTER 3


The Statement of the Problem: Identifying Why a Study Is Important


 

HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY THE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM IN A RESEARCH STUDY?

Locate the Statement of the Problem in the Introduction Section

Identify the Problem That Needs to Be Solved

Distinguish the Research Problem from the Study’s Topic and Purpose

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

WHY DO RESEARCHERS NEED TO STUDY RESEARCH PROBLEMS?

 

HOW DO YOU DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE TYPES OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS FOUND IN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE STUDIES?

Quantitative Research Is Used When the Research Problem Calls for Explanation

Qualitative Research Is Used When the Research Problem Calls for Exploration

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND THE ELEMENTS OF A STUDY’S STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM?

Find the Topic

Identify the Research Problem

Note the Justification for the Importance of the Problem

Identify the Knowledge About the Problem That Is Missing

Note the Audiences That Will Benefit from the Knowledge Generated by the Study

Consider the Five Elements to Understand a Study’s Statement of the Problem Passage

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU EVALUATE THE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM IN A RESEARCH STUDY?

 

Reviewing What You’ve Learned To Do

 

Practicing Your Skills

 

AN EXAMPLE OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: THE BULLYING-INTERVENTION STUDY

 

 

 

CHAPTER 4


The Literature Review: Examining the Background for a Study


 


HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY THE LITERATURE REVIEW IN A RESEARCH STUDY?

Look for the Literature Review in a Stand-Alone Section


Note Where Researchers Refer to Others’ Work from the Literature

HOW DO RESEARCHERS USE LITERATURE IN THEIR STUDIES?

Literature Provides a Justification for the Research Problem

Literature Documents What Is and Is Not Known About the Topic

Literature Identifies the Theory or Conceptual Framework Behind a Study

Literature Provides Models for the Methods and Procedures Used in a Study

Literature Helps Researchers Interpret Their Results

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

HOW DOES THE USE OF LITERATURE DIFFER IN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE STUDIES?

The Use of Literature Is More Prescriptive and Static in Quantitative Research

The Use of Literature Is More Informative and Dynamic in Qualitative Research

 

WHAT ARE THE STEPS THAT YOU CAN USE TO REVIEW THE LITERATURE?

Step 1—Identify Key Terms Related to the Topic of the Literature Review

Step 2—Search Databases Using the Key Terms to Locate Literature

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

Step 3—Select Literature That Is Relevant and of Good Quality

Step 4—Take Notes on the Key Aspects of Each Selected Document

HOW DO YOU SYNTHESIZE LITERATURE AND WRITE A LITERATURE REVIEW?

Step 1—Organize the Literature Into Themes

Step 2—Write a Summary of the Major Themes

Step 3—Document the Sources by Including Citations to the Literature

Step 4—Provide Your Conclusions About the Literature

HOW DO YOU EVALUATE A LITERATURE REVIEW IN A RESEARCH STUDY?

 

Reviewing What You’ve Learned To Do

 

Practicing Your Skills

AN EXAMPLE OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: THE ADOLESCENT-HOMELESSNESS STUDY

 

CHAPTER 5

Purpose Statements, Research Questions, and Hypotheses: Identifying the Intent of a Study



HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY THE PURPOSE IN A RESEARCH STUDY?

Identify the Study’s Purpose Statement First


Look for Research Questions that Narrow the Study’s Purpose


Look for Hypotheses that Narrow the Study’s Purpose to Predictions


 

HOW DOES THE RESEARCH PURPOSE DIFFER IN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE STUDIES?

Quantitative Researchers Specify Purposes That Are Narrow and Specific

Qualitative Researchers Specify Purposes That Are Broad and General

 

HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY VARIABLES IN QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH?

Variables are the Measurement of Constructs


Variables Are Connected to Other Variables Through Theories


Researchers Study Dependent, Independent, Control, and Confounding Variables


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND PURPOSE STATEMENTS, RESEARCH QUESTIONS, AND HYPOTHESES IN QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH?

Read Purpose Statements to Learn the Study’s Overall Quantitative Intent


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

Read Quantitative Research Questions to Learn the Researchers’ Specific Questions


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

Read Quantitative Hypotheses to Learn the Researchers’ Specific Predictions


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY A CENTRAL PHENOMENON IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

A Central Phenomenon is A Concept, Activity, or Process


Researchers Study a Central Phenomenon to Learn About Its Meaning and Complexity


 

HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND PURPOSE STATEMENTS AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

Read Purpose Statements to Learn the Study’s Overall Qualitative Intent


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

Read the Central Research Question and Subquestions to Learn the Researchers’ General Questions


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU EVALUATE THE PURPOSE IN A RESEARCH STUDY?

 

Reviewing What You’ve Learned To Do

 

Practicing Your Skills

 


 

Part THREE


Understanding the Method Sections and Results Sections of Quantitative Research Reports


 


CHAPTER 6


Quantitative Research Designs: Recognizing the Overall Plan for a Study


 

HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY THE RESEARCH DESIGN IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY?

 

WHAT CHARACTERISTICS DISTINGUISH THE DIFFERENT QUANTITATIVE

RESEARCH DESIGNS?

 

HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND FIVE COMMON QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS?

The True Experiment Research Design


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

The Quasi-Experiment Research Design


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

The Single-Subject Research Design


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

The Correlational Research Design


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

The Survey Research Design


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU RECOGNIZE THE RESEARCH DESIGN IN A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH REPORT?

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU EVALUATE THE RESEARCH DESIGN IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY?

 

Reviewing What You’ve Learned To Do

 

Practicing Your Skills

 

AN EXAMPLE OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: THE EARLY-INTERVENTION-OUTCOMES STUDY

 


 

CHAPTER 7

Participants and Data Collection: Identifying How Quantitative Information Is Gathered


 

HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY THE PARTICIPANTS AND DATA COLLECTION IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY?

Look for Information About the Sites and Participants

Note the General Procedures for Collecting Data

Identify the Instruments Used to Gather Quantitative Data

 

HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND THE SELECTION OF SITES AND PARTICIPANTS IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY?

Identify the Population and Sample

Determine the Sampling Strategy That Was Used

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

Determine Whether the Sample Included a Large Number of Participants

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND THE INSTRUMENTS USED TO GATHER QUANTITATIVE DATA IN A STUDY?

Identify How the Researcher Specified the Variables

Identify the Type of Instrument Used to Gather Information

Assess the Evidence that the Researcher Used a Good Instrument

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND THE PROCEDURES THAT RESEARCHERS USE WHEN COLLECTING QUANTITATIVE DATA?

Note Indicators that the Procedures Were Ethical

Expect the Data Collection Procedures to Be Standardized

Identify How the Researchers Reduced Threats to the Studies’ Conclusions

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU EVALUATE THE PARTICIPANTS AND DATA COLLECTION IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY?

 

Reviewing What You’ve Learned To Do

 

Practicing Your Skills

 


 

CHAPTER 8

Data Analysis and Results: Examining What Was Found in a Quantitative Study



HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY THE QUANTITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY?

Look to the Method Section for a General Description of the Data Analysis Process

Examine the Results Section to Find the Results for the Study’s Research Questions and Hypotheses

 

HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND A STUDY’S QUANTITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS?

Step 1—Identify How the Researchers Scored the Data

Step 2—Note How the Researchers Prepared the Quantitative Data for Analysis

Step 3—Recognize How the Researchers Used Descriptive Statistics to Answer Descriptive Research Questions

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

Step 4—Identify How the Researchers Used Inferential Statistics to Answer Comparison and Relationship Research Questions

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND THE RESULTS IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY?

First—Examine Tables to Learn A Summary of Major Results

Second—Examine Figures to Learn How Variables Are Related

Third—Read the Detailed Explanations of the Results in the Text

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 


HOW DO YOU EVALUATE THE DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY?


 

Reviewing What You’ve Learned To Do

 

Practicing Your Skills

 


 

Part four


Understanding the Method Sections and Results Sections of Qualitative Research Reports

 


CHAPTER 9


Qualitative Research Designs: Recognizing the Overall Plan for a Study


 

HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY THE RESEARCH DESIGN IN A QUALITATIVE STUDY?

 

WHAT CHARACTERISTICS DISTINGUISH THE DIFFERENT QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS?

 


HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND FOUR COMMON QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS?


The Narrative Research Design


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

The Case Study Research Design


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

The Ethnographic Research Design


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

The Grounded Theory Research Design


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU RECOGNIZE THE RESEARCH DESIGN IN A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH REPORT?

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU EVALUATE THE RESEARCH DESIGN IN A QUALITATIVE STUDY?

 

Reviewing What You’ve Learned To Do

 

Practicing Your Skills

 

AN EXAMPLE OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: THE ADOPTION-OF-PEDAGOGICAL-TOOLS STUDY

 


 

CHAPTER 10


Participants and Data Collection: Identifying How Qualitative Information Is Gathered


 

HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY THE PARTICIPANTS AND DATA COLLECTION IN A QUALITATIVE STUDY?

Look for Information About the Sites and Participants

Identify the Types of Qualitative Data Gathered

Discern the Procedures Used to Gather the Data

Note the Issues Related to Collecting Data

 

HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND THE SELECTION OF SITES AND PARTICIPANTS IN A QUALITATIVE STUDY?

Sites and Participants Are Purposefully Selected

Specific Strategies Guide the Purposeful Sampling

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

A Small Number of Sites and Participants Are Selected

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

WHAT TYPES OF QUALITATIVE DATA DO RESEARCHERS COLLECT?

 

HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND THE COMMON QUALITATIVE DATA-COLLECTION PROCEDURES?

Procedures for Qualitative Interviews


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

Procedures for Qualitative Observations


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

Procedures for the Collection of Documents


Procedures for the Collection of Audiovisual Materials


´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 


HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND THE ISSUES THAT ARE REPORTED ABOUT QUALITATIVE DATA COLLECTION?


Pay Attention to How the Researchers Handled Ethical Issues


Learn About the Challenges that Occurred in Gaining Access and Gathering Data

 

HOW DO YOU EVALUATE THE PARTICIPANTS AND DATA COLLECTION IN A QUALITATIVE STUDY?

 

Reviewing What You’ve Learned To Do

 

Practicing Your Skills

 

 

CHAPTER 11


Data Analysis and Findings: Examining What Was Found in a Qualitative Study


 

HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY THE QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS IN A QUALITATIVE STUDY?

Look to the Method Section for an Overview of the Qualitative Analysis Process

Look to the Results Section for the Qualitative Findings Produced by the Analysis Process

 


HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND A STUDY’S QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS?


Step 1—Identify How the Researchers Prepared Their Data

Step 2—Note Whether the Researchers Explored Their Data

Step 3—Discern the Researchers’ Use of Coding

Step 4—Examine How the Researchers Refined Their Codes and Used Them to Build Their Results

Step 5—Identify the Strategies the Researchers Used to Validate Their Results

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND THE FINDINGS IN A QUALITATIVE STUDY?

Read Descriptive Findings to Learn the Context of the Study and the Central Phenomenon

Examine Themes to Learn the Larger Ideas Found about the Study’s Central Phenomenon

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

Use Tables and Figures to Learn More about the Details and Complexity of the Findings


Consider the Form of the Findings in Relation to the Research Design


 

HOW DO YOU EVALUATE THE DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS IN A QUALITATIVE STUDY?

 

Reviewing What You’ve Learned To Do

 

Practicing Your Skills

 


 

Part Five


Understanding Reports That Combine Quantitative and Qualitative Research

 


CHAPTER 12


Mixed Methods Research: Studies That Mix Quantitative and Qualitative Research

 

HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY THAT A STUDY USED MIXED METHODS RESEARCH?

Note Key Terms that Signal the Use of Mixed Methods

Note the Collection and Analysis of Both Quantitative and Qualitative Data

 

WHEN IS IT APPROPRIATE FOR RESEARCHERS TO HAVE USED MIXED METHODS RESEARCH IN THEIR STUDIES?

Mixed Methods Is Appropriate If the Researcher Needs to Combine the Strengths of Quantitative and Qualitative Data

Mixed Methods Is Appropriate If the Researcher Needs to Build from One Type of Data to the Other

Mixed Methods Is Appropriate If the Researcher Needs to Answer Two Questions

 

WHAT CHARACTERISTICS DISTINGUISH THE DIFFERENT MIXED METHODS DESIGNS?

Mixed Methods Designs Differ in Terms of their Timing

Mixed Methods Designs Differ in Terms of their Priority

Mixed Methods Designs Differ in Terms of their Mixing

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND THE COMMON MIXED METHODS RESEARCH DESIGNS?

The Convergent Parallel Mixed Methods Design

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

The Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Design

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

The Sequential Exploratory Mixed Methods Design

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

The Embedded Mixed Methods Design

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU EVALUATE A MIXED METHODS RESEARCH STUDY?

 

Reviewing What You’ve Learned To Do

 

Practicing Your Skills

 

AN EXAMPLE OF MIXED METHODS RESEARCH: THE MIXED METHODS STUDENT NOTE TAKING STUDY

 


 

CHAPTER 13


Action Research Designs: Research for Solving Practical Problems


 

HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY THAT A STUDY USED ACTION RESEARCH?

Recognize that Action Researchers Include Practitioners

Identify that the Focus is on a Real Problem in a Local Setting

Notice that the Action Researcher Used a Cyclical Process of Research

 

HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND ACTION RESEARCH DESIGNS?

The Practical Action Research Design

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

The Participatory Action Research (PAR) Design

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU PLAN YOUR OWN ACTION RESEARCH STUDY?

Step 1—Determine if Action Research Is Possible in Your Setting and with Your Colleagues

Step 2—Specify the Problem You Want to Study

Step 3—Locate Resources to Help You Address the Problem

Step 4—Identify Information You Need to Examine the Problem

Step 5—Implement the Data Collection

Step 6—Analyze the Data

Step 7—Develop a Plan for Action

Step 8—Implement the Plan and Reflect

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW DO YOU EVALUATE AN ACTION RESEARCH STUDY?

 

Reviewing What You’ve Learned To Do

 

Practicing Your Skills

 

AN EXAMPLE OF ACTION RESEARCH: THE LEARNING-BY-TALKING ACTION RESEARCH STUDY

 


 

Part SIX


Understanding the Final Sections of Research Reports

 


CHAPTER 14


Conclusions: Identifying the Interpretations and Implications of a Study

 

HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY THE CONCLUSIONS AND SUPPORTING INFORMATION IN A STUDY REPORT?

Look for the Conclusion Section to Learn How the Researcher Interpreted and Evaluated the Study


Read the Back Matter to Find Supporting Information for the Study Report


 

HOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND THE ELEMENTS DISCUSSED IN A STUDY’S CONCLUSION SECTION?

A Summary of the Major Results

Relating the Results to Other Literature

The Personal Interpretation of the Researcher

Implications for Practice

The Limitations of the Present Study

Future Research Needs

The Overall Significance of the Study

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

HOW ARE CONCLUSIONS SIMILAR AND DIFFERENT AMONG THE DIFFERENT RESEARCH APPROACHES?

´ What Do You Think?


þ Check Your Understanding

 

WHAT INFORMATION IS INCLUDED IN THE BACK MATTER OF A RESEARCH REPORT?

End Notes

References

Author Notes

Appendices


 

HOW DO YOU EVALUATE THE CONCLUSIONS AND BACK MATTER OF A RESEARCH REPORT?

 

Reviewing What You’ve Learned To Do

 

Practicing Your Skills

 

 

Appendix A-Suggested Answers to Short-Answer Questions from the Practicing Your Skills Activities

 

Appendix B-Example of a Paper Written in the APA Style

 

Glossary

 

References

 

Name Index

 

Subject Index

 



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